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biographical source Here are some resources typically used by reference librarians and often found in on video essay, library reference rooms. If you don't find something in your libraryask. Sometimes these are kept behind the reference desk if the reference librarians tend to consult them frequently. Note that many of these resources are available as both books and CD-ROMs. Which version your library has will depend on budget, technology and convenience decisions by the library. This listing is a very small sample of many thousands of reference books.
Note: the links below take you further down on write detailed essay this page. Almanacs, yearbooks and essay, handbooks are often single volumes which summarize large amounts of facts about things like people and organizations, current and historical events, countries, statistics, and hero's journey, popular culture items like sports, entertainment, zip codes. They can frequently provide quick answers to factual questions, but aren't useful for extensive research. Yearbooks are issued by encyclopedia companies and provide a quick update to events occurring during that year. Handbooks usually are focused on censorship on video a particular subject, while almanacs are broader in scope. Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1938- . Annual. Issued every year, this update to Encyclopaedia Britannica has an overview of the year's important events. Your library may subscribe to E.B. online so that you can get the entire encyclopedia and its current events coverage on the Web from the library's computers.
Facts on File: World News Digest with Index. New York: Facts on management help File, 1940- . Games Essay. Weekly. Current events are indexed by person's name, place names and subjects. Because it's issued weekly, you can often find very up-to-date information, whereas yearbooks and dracula essay, almanacs are only issued annually at most. May also be online on NEXUS or on CD-ROM in your library. Information Please Almanac: Atlas and Yearbook. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1947- . Annual.
Facts, tables of censorship games essay, statistics, information about essays on add, popular culture and events, with detailed table of censorship on video essay, contents and index. Business. McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962- . Annual. Subject-based yearbook of current events in science and technology. The Oxford Companion to American Literature. James D. Hart. 5th ed.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. 896 p. This handbook serves as a comprehensive guide to censorship on video games, American literature, including historical aspects, writers' biographies, awards, societies and trends. The Statesman's Year Book. Edited by John Paxton. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1864- . Annual. A section on international organizations, then a listing for individual countries containing statistical information and facts about political and economic aspects of the country (like welfare and education systems, financial institutions, diplomatic missions and essay, so on). The World Almanac and Book of Facts.
New York: Funk Wagnalls, World Almanac, 1868-1976, 1886- . Annual. Similar to Information Please Almanac but presented in a more formal style - facts, tables of statistics, information about popular culture and events, with detailed table of contents and on video games, index. May also be on CD-ROM in your library. Reference sources with biographical information may provide a brief summary of data about dracula starter, a person, fairly detailed information about a person, or references (citations) to other short or full-length biographies written about the person. Brief summaries are usually found in biographical dictionaries, while other biographical sources and censorship on video essay, some encyclopedias may have more detailed information. Some cover living people and some dead people, a few cover both. Biography and essays on add, Genealogy Master Index. 2d ed. Detroit: Gale, 1980- . Annual. [Also on CD-ROM] There are no actual biographies here but citations telling where to on video games essay, find biographies, whether short summaries or full-length books.
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography. 12 vols. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. Specifically designed to meet the busines plan, needs of high school and college students by choosing to cover people who are frequently featured in the curriculum. Features people who are living as well as dead, and the biographical information is quite detailed. Study guides in the last volume identify important people who were associated with particular historical events or issues. Webster's New Biographical Dictionary.
Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1988. 1130 p. Summarized biographies of important people of the past, source for quick facts. Who's Who. Censorship On Video. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1894- . Annual. International version with brief biographical information for living people. Who's Who in America. Busines Plan. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1899/1900- . Annual. Censorship On Video Games. One of many Who's Who and Who Was Who sources offered by several different publishing houses. Some focus on ethnic groups, some on fedex business historical figures, some on groups such as artists or politicians.
Check your library to see which sources are available. Standard dictionaries give an alphabetical list of words and essay, their definitions, but there are several useful variations also classified as dictionaries. Thesauri contain synonyms and essay, antonyms (opposites) but usually don't define the on video games essay, words. Dialect and slang dictionaries present words and busines plan, definitions not necessarily found in standard dictionaries. There are also dictionaries of abbreviations and on video essay, acronyms and dictionaries of quotations. Fedex Business. We haven't listed specific examples here, because you'll probably just want to browse your library's collection. These general dictionaries are usually shelved near each other in censorship games, the reference room. There are also quite a few dictionaries available in CD-ROM and on the Web.
Encyclopedias traditionally provide comprehensive coverage of an entire area of knowledge. There are general encyclopedias and conclusion, subject encyclopedias, and on video essay, they differ as to the level of fedex business plan, detail provided and the complexity of the writing. Encyclopedias are good for fact-finding, getting general background information about a subject or starting a research project. Games Essay. The many CD-ROM encyclopedias contain much of the dracula starter, same information as the print volumes, as well as being searchable and giving you the ability to print out text and pictures. The CD-ROM versions and the many subject-based encyclopedias are not separately listed herecheck with your library's reference department to on video, see what they have available. Academic American Encyclopedia. 21 vols. Danbury, Conn.: Grolier, 1998.
Presents fairly brief articles on busines plan specific topics, with a clear, concise writing style. More factual information than broad overviews of censorship on video, large subject areas. Collier's Encyclopedia. 24 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1997. One of the big three adult encyclopedias typically found in public and academic libraries. Scholarly and comprehensive coverage.
Encyclopedia Americana. International ed. 30 vols. Danbury, Conn.: Grolier, 2002. Another of the big three mixes shorter articles with long articles broad in scope.
In length and scholarship, compares to Britannica . New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. 32 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2002. Considered by many to be the premier English-language general encyclopedia. The writing is scholarly and therefore sometimes difficult to understand in a subject area with which you're unfamiliar. Articles in the Micropaedia are short and fact-filled, while the Macropaedia has long articles surveying broad aspects of a topic. Very extensive list of bibliographic references at the end of each article so you can find additional information. World Book Encyclopedia.
22 vols. Chicago: World Book, 2002. Aimed at students, this is very widely used in both public and school libraries. Coverage is provided for management essay help, all subjects in the U.S. school curriculum, and censorship essay, articles have lots of cross-references to other articles within the encyclopedia and to write outline, outside sources. On Video Essay. Study guides help to organize research on various topics. This is an excellent place to start when you're totally unfamiliar with a subject area. Indexes and abstracts supplement the library catalog as described by Bopp and Smith (1995): Users may come into a library, consult the plan, main catalog, and falsely assume they have searched the entire contents of the library. The catalog may confirm the holdings of a periodical [magazine or journal] but not its contents; a poetry collection but not individual poems; the title of an author's collected works but not the individual work; newspapers but not individual news stories. Indexes and censorship, abstracts are created and become extremely useful tools to more fully reveal detailed resources not covered in the more general catalog.
For most research papers at the college level, you'll want to look for scholarly journal articles about your chosen topic. Indexes are the tools you'll use for essays on add, this purpose, and if you're lucky, your library will have some indexes either loaded in the online library catalog or available on CD-ROM. Searching indexes is different than searching the library catalog, however, because indexes don't use the same subject classifications as the library catalog. Some indexes provide books of descriptors to help you search for key words and key concepts by on video games essay which the items have been indexed. Be aware that indexes will contain items not held at your library, because they are prepared by commercial companies that index a particular group of essay conclusion, periodicals or works regardless of where they may be held. A periodical index is most useful if it contains abstractsbrief summaries of the articles.
Abstracts make it easier to tell if the censorship games essay, article is relevant to the subject of your research. Write Detailed Outline. Statistics and Government documents. Government documents are available free of copyright and certain publishers compile and index them for use by libraries and other researchers. The volume of documents produced every day by the U.S. government is essay almost beyond imagining, and fedex business, the system of numbering documents is unique and unlike the rest of the library's classification system. In addition to laws, regulations and agency documents, the government produces a lot of statistics for censorship games, public release. Hero's Essay Conclusion. Many academic and public libraries have a lot of government documents and statistics and censorship games essay, the various indexing tools you need to be able to locate and dracula, retrieve them. A lot of these are available on CD-ROM or in online databases within the library. Quite of bit of this information is being made available on games the Web as well. Finding both government documents and statistical information can be a real challenge.
A trip to the reference desk is probably the detailed essay, quickest way to zero in on what you need. Atlases and maps are the main sources of geographical information in essay, libraries, though many encyclopedias and dictionaries have maps which may be sufficient for your purpose. Essays On Add. There are different kinds of specialized atlases much as there are different kinds of dictionaries. Some atlases contain statistics such as population, economic factors, weather, and other facts. There are historical or thematic atlases which show the world at certain dates or during certain events, such as wars. Bibliographies are lists of censorship on video games essay, worksbooks or shorter workswhich help identify sources where information can be found. You might want to find additional works by business plan a certain author or works on a certain subject. There are hundreds of different kinds of bibliographies compiled for different purposes, and on video, your reference librarian can let you know which ones might be useful in the topic area of your research.
Remember that a bibliography will tell you a work exists, but it may not be held by your library. If you find an interesting item in a bibliography, consult your library's catalog to see if it's available in the collection. A+ Research Writing for high school and college students was created by Kathryn L. Schwartz.
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Impact of Video Games on Society - UK Essays
La Modification, Michel Butor, incipit : commentaire. Voici un commentaire de l ’incipit du roman La Modification de Michel Butor. L’extrait etudie va du debut du roman vous avez mis le pied gauche jusqu’a c’etait vers Rome que vous vous echappiez pour ces quelques jours . La Modification , incipit : introduction. Il est souvent rattache au mouvement du Nouveau Roman pour son eloignement des formes classiques du roman afin de representer le monde contemporain sous une nouvelle perspective , a l’instar de Robbe-Grillet ou de Nathalie Sarraute, qui cherchent ainsi a parler du desarroi d’un monde post-Seconde Guerre mondiale . La Modification se resume aisement : a Paris, un homme monte dans un train qui l’emmene vers Rome , ou il compte retrouver sa maitresse. Censorship Essay! Il changera d’avis pendant le trajet et retournera vers sa femme et ses enfants. Si le propos n’a rien d’original, il n’en est pas de meme pour l’ecriture : le roman est redige presque entierement a la deuxieme personne du pluriel , ce qui ne manque pas de derouter le lecteur . Questions possibles a l’oral sur l’incipit de La Modification : ¦ En quoi cet incipit montre-t-il une volonte de s’ecarter du roman traditionnel ? ¦ Quel est l’effet cree par la situation d’enonciation ? ¦ En quoi le protagoniste de La Modification est-il un anti-heros ? ¦ Qu’est-ce qui fait l’ originalite de cet incipit ? Nous verrons tout d’abord que cet incipit de La Modification est surprenant (I), avant de nous interesser au personnage qui se cache sous le « vous » (II). Essays On Add! Nous nous interesserons pour terminer a la nouvelle vision du roman que propose Michel Butor (III). A – Une situation d’enonciation peu ordinaire.
La situation d’enonciation (qui parle ? a qui ? de quoi ? ou et quand ?) est d’emblee faussee . Alors qu’on s’attendrait, comme il est d’usage dans les romans, a une narration a la troisieme ou a la premiere personne, on on video, se heurte des le premier mot a la deuxieme personne du pluriel , manifestement un vouvoiement (premiere phrase : « Vous avez », « votre epaule », « vous essayez »). Immediatement, le lecteur est interpele , car ce vous pourrait tout aussi bien etre une adresse de l’auteur ou narrateur a son encontre. Outline! Ce type de mise en scene ne serait d’ailleurs pas nouveau (il suffit de relire l’incipit de Jacques le Fataliste de Diderot, 1796). On comprend cependant que ce « vous » est le protagoniste , decrit un peu plus loin comme un homme (« homme habitue aux longs voyages ») d’age moyen (« quarante-cinq ans »). Censorship On Video Essay! Ces informations sont trop precises pour que le lecteur s’identifie completement a cet homme. B – L’importance des sensations physiques.
Ce debut in busines plan medias res propulse directement le lecteur dans le corps du protagoniste en action . Etrangement, ce n’est pas vraiment aux pensees du personnage que nous avons acces, mais plutot a ses sensations , decortiquees dans leurs moindres details. Le champ lexical du corps est ainsi tres present, et evoque avec de nombreux adjectifs qui precisent encore la description : « pied gauche », « epaule droite », « doigts », « vos muscles et vos tendons », « votre epaule », « toute la moitie du dos », « vertebres », « depuis votre cou jusqu’aux reins », « paupieres sensibles et mal lubrifiees », « tempes crispees », etc. Le lecteur est ainsi mis dans la peau du personnage et ressent avec lui les penibles efforts physiques que represente l’entree dans le compartiment (« vous essayez en vain », « vous l’arrachez », « cette faiblesse inhabituelle »). Ces longues phrases (chacun des paragraphes est en fait une unique phrase parataxique , c’est-a-dire une juxtaposition de phrases ou de bouts de phrase sans mot de liaison ni lien logique) semblent analyser les actions du protagoniste presque image par image , selon un procede qui rappelle les films. Il convient par ailleurs de noter l’importance accordee a la vue , notamment dans le dernier paragraphe de cet extrait ou est decrit, en ce qui semble une serie de gros plans , l’autre homme qui a deja pris place dans le compartiment.
On voit d’abord son visage , ce qui donne un apercu general de sa personne (« un peu plus jeune que vous, quarante ans tout au plus »), puis le regard s’attarde sur les details du visage (« cheveux plus gris », « yeux clignotants ») avant de passer aux mains (« aux mains longues et agitees, aux ongles ronges et brunis… ») et a ses effets personnels (« cette serviette noire bourree de dossiers »). Tout au long de ces premiers paragraphes, les gros plans s’attardent egalement sur les objets , qui ont une place preponderante et sont souvent decrits avec precision. Censorship Essay! Citons ainsi « la rainure de cuivre » et le « panneau coulissant » du premier paragraphe, l’« ouverture » qui est « etroite », la « valise couverte de granuleux cuir sombre couleur d’epaisse bouteille », « assez petite », a la « poignee collante », mais aussi la « serviette noire » dont une « couture defaite » laisse entrevoir des « coins colores » de dossiers, etc. Transition : Les sensations et les objets sont si omnipresents qu’ils eclipsent presque notre heros – qu’on pourrait qualifier plus justement d’anti-heros . II – Un heros de Nouveau roman : un anti-heros. Les personnages du Nouveau Roman se detachent des heros traditionnels : ce ne sont plus des personnages complexes, avec une histoire et des ambitions, dont la conscience est accessible, mais de simples points de vue, anonymes (ici, « vous », mais dans d’autres romans, comme La Jalousie de Robbe-Grillet, les personnages sont reduits a des initiales, ou a des pronoms chez Nathalie Sarraute). Michel Butor nous laisse cependant entrevoir quelques aspects de ce « vous » : le lecteur dispose de bribes de description physique (l’age, les cheveux « qui se clairsement »), de quelques noms (« Henriette », « Cecile », « Marnal »), d’un apercu de sa situation familiale (« les enfants »), d’indices sur son metier (« valise assez petite d’homme habitue aux longs voyages ») et sur ce qui semble etre le nom de l’entreprise pour laquelle il travaille (« chez Scabelli »), et enfin de sa destination et du caractere secret de son echappee , au detour d’une phrase (« il ne fallait pas que quelqu’un sut chez Scabelli que c’etait vers Rome que vous vous echappiez »). B – Un portrait physique peu flatteur. On l’a dit, cet incipit accorde une importance primordiale aux sensations physiques, qui tendent a reduire le protagoniste a un simple « corps ». Elles contribuent a presenter le heros comme un homme prenant de l’age et a la forme physique peu enviable en detaillant son moindre geste, comme au ralenti, ce qui appuie ainsi la penibilite de ses actions . Ainsi, le simple fait de soulever sa valise lui fait sentir ses « muscles et [ses] tendons se dessiner » dans tout le haut de son corps.
Le troisieme paragraphe insiste sur cette faiblesse physique en en donnant la raison : « c’est deja l’age ». Le protagoniste apparait ainsi comme banal, mal reveille malgre l’heure « a peine matinale », gene dans ses vetements (« vos habits qui le genent, le serrent et lui pesent »), maladroit (il se cogne contre les objets qui lui font obstacle : « vous essayez en vain de pousser un peu plus le panneau coulissant », « en vous frottant contre ses bords ») Nous n’avons pas vraiment acces aux pensees du personnage, si ce n’est les allusions a son entourage (les cheveux grisonnent « insensiblement pour autrui, mais non pour vous, pour Henriette et pour Cecile, ni meme pour les enfants desormais ») et a son travail (dans le cinquieme paragraphe). Cependant, les details donnes sur son physique permet de dessiner en creux le portrait d’un homme fatigue (ses yeux sont « voiles de fumee legere »), nerveux (« tempes crispees », « peau tendue ») et mal a l’aise (les habits qui le genent, cheveux « un peu herisses », corps « comme baigne […] d’une eau agitee et gazeuse pleine d’animalcules en suspension »). Le seul autre personnage, l’autre homme du compartiment, apparait comme un adversaire , qui renvoie le protagoniste a sa petitesse (il est « plus jeune », « plus grand »). Busines Plan! Il semble sur de lui et ne percoit le « vous » que comme un opportun, ce qui accentue encore le sentiment de malaise (« cet homme vous devisage, agace par votre immobilite, debout, ses pieds genes par vos pieds »). Se detache ainsi le portrait d’un homme peu satisfait, angoisse . On Video! C’est ce qui ressort tout particulierement de ses vetements trop serres, a l’image d’une vie trop etriquee, etouffante , comme semble confirmer son desir de fuir (« c’etait vers Rome que vous vous echappiez ») sans que personne ne soit au courant.
Transition : Le theme du roman est certes classique , mais Butor l’aborde de maniere totalement nouvelle , et donne ainsi au lecteur de La Modification un role qu’il n’a pas dans le roman traditionnel. III – Une nouvelle vision du roman. A – Le refus des codes traditionnels. Par bien des egards, cet incipit montre une ferme opposition aux codes traditionnels du roman classique. Ainsi, la situation d’enonciation, posee des le premier mot du roman, bouscule totalement les conventions romanesques : qui est « vous » ? Et qui parle a ce vous ? Est-ce l’auteur, qui se regarde ecrire et s’adresse a son personnage ? Est-ce le personnage lui-meme, qui se cache derriere la deuxieme personne pour rester incognito ? Les temps utilises denotent eux aussi une certaine modernite de l’ecriture . Alors que le roman traditionnel est ecrit au passe (canoniquement, a l’imparfait et au passe simple), Butor choisit ici le present et le passe compose , dans presque tout l’extrait (« Vous avez mis », « vous essayez »). Ce choix donne l’impression que le protagoniste n’a pas de passe (on ne dispose d’ailleurs que de tres peu d’informations sur lui), qu’il n’y a d’autre realite pour lui que celle du moment present , qui s’etire et se decortique geste a geste au gre de longues phrases qui ne se terminent jamais. Le roman n’est pas le seul a pouvoir etre qualifie de « nouveau » : le lecteur, lui aussi, doit trouver ses marques et s’adapter a une ecriture plus exigeante , qui lui assigne un nouveau role . Il devient actif , par exemple en se voyant oblige de reconstruire lui-meme le portrait du personnage a partir des indices donnes par Butor. Le lecteur a donc une marge d’interpretation importante et deduit le portait moral du protagoniste de l’observation tres scientifique de son anatomie (« muscles », « tendons », « phalanges », « vertebres », « paupieres mal lubrifiees »). Par ailleurs, l’utilisation du pronom de la deuxieme personne du pluriel associee au present est elle aussi une sollicitation supplementaire du lecteur : il vit ce que vit le personnage (« vous sentez »), et le temps de la narration devient le temps de la lecture . C – Le motif du voyage comme metaphore. A la lumiere de ces elements, on dracula, peut reconstruire le motif du voyage en train comme une metaphore . C’est d’abord la metaphore de l’activite du lecteur : tout comme le protagoniste entre dans son compartiment, le lecteur entre dans l’?uvre (« vous vous introduisez par l’etroite ouverture ») et accompagnera le « vous » durant tout son trajet. Ce n’est pas forcement un voyage agreable qui attend le lecteur, comme en temoignent la penibilite des efforts du protagoniste et la lecture, pas toujours aisee, de ces longues phrases sans interruption.
Le monde decrit dans cet incipit est dur et froid , comme le montre les obstacles qui se dressent devant le protagoniste, et la description clinique de son corps. Le voyage est aussi une metaphore de l’ecriture : l’auteur se lance dans une aventure qui l’entraine presque malgre lui, semble-t-il, les phrases se deversant dans un flot continu durant toute la duree du voyage, et du roman. C’est donc une triple echappee : le protagoniste s’echappe de son quotidien , le lecteur de son mode de lecture traditionnel , et le romancier en-dehors des conventions narratives du genre romanesque . La Modification, incipit : conclusion. Ce qui deroute certainement le plus dans cet incipit, c’est la situation d’enonciation : ce vous persistant, presque martele, donne une toute nouvelle dimension au concept de personnage et de lecteur et pose plus de questions qu’il ne propose de reponses. Butor incite-t-il ainsi son lecteur a s’identifier a cet homme ? Ou au contraire, cette intimite forcee ne contribue-t-elle pas plutot a la distanciation entre le lecteur et ce protagoniste au portrait si peu flatteur ? Ce qui est certain, c’est que la marge interpretative laissee au lecteur n’a sans doute jamais ete aussi importante. On Video Essay! Le lecteur est interpelle, happe, actif face a un anti-heros passif , et bouscule dans ses habitudes de lecture . Le motif du voyage vient appuyer cette idee, car le trajet en train du protagoniste represente aussi l’aventure de la lecture . Tu etudies l’incipit de La Modification ? Regarde aussi : Tu passes le bac de francais cette annee ? Inscris-toi gratuitement a ma formation en 10 lecons-videos . Je t'y explique comment reussir le commentaire et la dissertation , comment adapter ton plan a la question posee le jour de l'oral et comment anticiper les questions de l'entretien . L'inscription est gratuite ! Remplis simplement le formulaire ci-dessous pour recevoir les videos : 18 commentaires a “La Modification, Michel Butor, incipit : commentaire” J’aurais aimer savoir si, dans une dissertation sur le roman, il nous est possible de parle en tant qu’exemple d’un autre genre litteraire comme la nouvelle? Je pense notamment a la lecon que nous instruit Petite digression de Voltaire pour le sujet Qu’est-ce qui definit le plaisir que nous apporte le roman? . J’aurais egalement voulu savoir si vous aviez, sur votre site, une dissertation sur les relations entre les personnages au theatre au un autre exemple de dissertation au sujet de theatre. Non pour moi si la dissertation porte sur le roman tu ne dois faire reference qu’a des romans sinon tu passe dans le hors-sujet. Fedex Business! Je pense neenmoins que tu peut ouvrir sur ta nouvelle dans ta conclusion , du style de : ce plaisir n’est pas seulement present dans le roman mais dans….
je voulais tout d’abord vous remercier pour votre travail qui m’aide beaucoup, car j’ai vraiment du mal avec le francais. On Video Essay! Mais le commentaire de cet incipit m’a interpelle, car vous evoquez un autre passager et j’ai beau relire et relire encore le texte, je ne vois pas ou cet homme figure. Detailed Outline! Est-il evoque plus loin, hors incipit? Effectivement Eva, la presence de l’autre homme est evoquee juste dans la phrase qui suit mon extrait. Je voulais savoir si le commentaire propose ci-dessus etait potentiellement utilisable afin de repondre aux eventuelles questions possibles sur le texte que vous avez propose au debut. Oui, j’ecris ces commentaires parce qu’ils permettent de repondre aux questions possibles ! Je ne vois pas comment adapter le plan a la problematique : quel est l’effet cree par la situation d’enonciation? je vous ecris ici car je vous remercie (encore une fois) pour votre travail.
J’ai passe mon oral de francais, et grace a vous et tout de meme un peu grace a mon serieux, j’ai obtenu la note de 16 avec cet incipit de La Modification alors que je n’ai jamais ete tres a l’aise a l’oral, d’autant plus que nous ne nous etions jamais entraines en classe au cours de l’annee. Je recommanderai sans hesiter votre site a ma soeur qui arrive au lycee. Merci beaucoup pour votre generosite. j’ai etudie en cours la Modification. Cependant, les conclusions restent succinctes et meme en cherchant moi meme de mon cote je ne trouve pas d’idees d’ouverture pertinente sur ce livre (etudie en oeuvre integrale)… Pourriez vous m’aider en me suggerant quelques pistes ? bonsoir , j’ai un expose sur la modification et le theme c’est le souvenir je peine enormement .je n’arrive pas a repondre a la problematique aidez moi s’il vous plait . Censorship Games! le prof nous a donne un extrait pour l’aide page 229,228″ de l’autre cote du corridor ………………………de rendre compte meme grossierement de ce foyer capital d’emerveillement et d’obscurite mon expose est pour le 7mai s’il vous plait aider moi. amelie, est ce qu’on peut considerer cet incipit comme ouverture pour l’incipit de Jacques le fataliste . Fedex Business! et si c’est oui en quoi? merci pour tout ce que vous faites.
Je n’arrive pas a le copier pour l’imprimer comment faire? Bonjour, qu’est ce qu’un anti-heros? Et en quoi, le protagoniste de cet extrait en est-il un ? bonjour j ai un expose a faire sur les personnages de ce livre et je n’est pas le temps de le lire je me demandais si vous pourriez me decrire les personnages et leurs roles dans ce livre ? merci a ceux qui pourront m’aider. Je suis en classe de premiere ES et j’etudie exactement le meme passage que celui sur lequel vous avez fait votre commentaire, cependant, je n’arrive pas a retrouver les elements yeux clignotants et aux ongles ronges et brunis que vous evoque dans votre troisieme partie sur l’incipit cinematographique dans le I. Censorship On Video! Pourriez-vous m’indiquer a quelles lignes du texte ces expressions correspondent-elles? bonjour! Vous dites que le passage se termine a : c’etait vers rome que vous vous echappiez pour ces quelques jours, mais vous analysez la description d’un personnage qui se fait apres cet fin d’incipit… Est ce normal ? avec quelle oeuvre peut-on faire un rapprochement, ou une belle ouverture sous forme de question? Laisser un commentaire Annuler le commentaire. Amelie Vioux, professeur particulier de francais, je vous aide a booster vos notes au bac de francais.
Pour en savoir plus, cliquez ici . Boîte à questions : Peut-on tomber sur un texte hors-liste à l'oral de français ? Comme on dracula essay starter, voit sur la branche, Ronsard : commentaire. Ubu Roi, Alfred Jarry : acte V scène 4 (dénouement) Portrait de La Princesse de Clèves : 5 problématiques possibles à l'oral. Commentaire compose 2017 - Amelie Vioux - Droits d'auteur reserves - Tous les articles sont deposes AVANT publication chez copyright France - Reproduction sur le WEB interdite -
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ptsd case study war PTSD symptoms in World War II veterans. The Australasian Journal of essay Disaster. and Trauma Studies. PTSD symptoms in World War II veterans. Little is known about the plan, psychological effects of on video games essay war service on Australian World War II veterans. Eighty-eight survivors of fedex business plan one of the war's most intense actions responded to a survey asking for their recollections of the battle, and for a description of its affect upon them. Games? Many said that they had yet to recover from the experience. Large numbers indicated continuing ill effects.
These included nightmares, sleeplessness, negative imagery, flashbacks, problems with concentration, weeping, generalized anxiety, and distress caused by situations recalling the battle. Many commented that they had never talked to anyone about their war experiences, or the effects of these experiences. Essays On Add? Only two veterans reported seeking or receiving any treatment for on video, their symptoms. PTSD symptoms in World War II veterans. World War II combat exposure has been shown to affect long-term mental and physical health.
For example Elder, Shanahan and Clipp (1997) reported combat exposure predicted physical decline and death in essays on add, the 15 years after the war. In addition, a longitudinal study of on video games Harvard University alumni found 56% of World War II veterans who experienced heavy combat were chronically ill or dead by age 65 (Lee, Vaillant, Torrey Elder, 1995). Research with World War II (Lee, Vaillant, Torrey Elder, 1995) and Vietnam (Pitman, Altman Macklin, 1989) veterans also suggests combat veterans are at risk of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and busines plan degree of combat exposure influences the severity of PTSD. According to DSM-IV (APA, 1994), PTSD has three clusters of symptoms: arousal, re-experiencing and avoidance. Arousal symptoms include irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, and sleep disturbance. Re-experiencing symptoms include flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, nightmares, and emotional distress or physiological arousal when reminded of the on video games, trauma. Avoidance symptoms include avoiding thinking of the event or reminders of the event, low interest in activities, detachment or distance from others, and emotional numbing. Combat veterans typically report symptoms in all these areas. In addition, the management essay help, effects of combat-related PTSD appear to be long lasting. On Video Games? For example, Hamilton and business Workman (1998) describe their persistence in games, a veteran 75 years after World War I. Moreover, World War II veterans seem reluctant to fedex plan, seek treatment.
A study of censorship Dutch veterans conducted 47 years after the plan, war found that 59% of those still suffering PTSD had not seen any health care professional in the last three years (Bramsen van der Ploeg, 1999). The health of veterans exposed to heavy combat is clearly an essay, issue, and the mental health of Vietnam veterans has been a topic of academic interest and humanitarian concern for many years (e.g., Creamer, Jackson Ball, 1996; Kulka et al., 1990). In contrast, there has been little follow-up of World War II combat veterans, particularly in busines plan, Australia. The aim of this study is therefore to describe the mental health of a sample of these veterans. As other evidence suggests they may be reluctant to seek help for symptoms of on video games essay mental ill health or PTSD, this research sought information from the veteran community rather than a treatment-seeking sample. The Isurava battle took place on the Kokoda Track in Papua in August 1942. Isurava lies high in the jungle several days walk and climb from Port Moresby. The terrain is essay help steep. The weather is extremely hot during the day, and censorship on video essay wet and cold at night. There, sections of two Australian infantry battalions, consisting of less than 700 men, fought a four-day battle with approximately 10,000 Japanese before being forced to withdraw toward Moresby. Essays On Add? The battle was strategically significant to games essay, Australia's defence.
However, the fighting was intense, and its cost in write detailed outline, human terms was enormous. Censorship Games? Five hundred and forty six men of one battalion started up the Track. Busines Plan? Five weeks later 87 came out. On Video Games? One hundred and sixteen had been killed, and many of their bodies have never been found. The rest were wounded or cut off trying to make their way out of the fedex business plan, jungle. In 2000 a group of seven veterans from the two battalions travelled with a support team to PNG to on video games, attempt to identify the battle site. The veterans' Battalion Associations supported the survey. Part sponsorship was provided by a national magazine, which asked for a report on essays on add the trip.
Using lists provided by the battalion associations, battalion members were written to individually. The cover letter explained the information provided might be used in a report to the magazine, and also in academic research. Veterans were asked to either write as much or as little as they wanted, or ring the researcher. In addition to questions relating to battle experiences, the veterans were asked open-ended questions such as #147;When did the action end for censorship on video games essay, you, and how?#148;; #147;Tell me about detailed essay outline, what happened when you came out. How long did it take you to recover (if you have)#148;; and #147;How did what happened in the Kokoda Track and Isurava areas affect you later?#148; Responses were received from 116 veterans aged from 75 to 91 years. Eighty eight had participated in the battles along the Kokoda Track. Most responses were written. Answers varied from a few lines to 76 single-spaced typewritten pages. On Video Games Essay? Some sent additional material.
Some potential respondents rang the researcher and asked if they could speak on the telephone. Some both wrote and rang. Some asked if they could tape record their memories and send them to outline, the researcher. Others asked if the censorship on video games, researcher would visit them and tape record an interview. In all cases the researcher agreed to the requests. The results that follow are a qualitative report of the veterans' descriptions of their mental health. Several consistent mental health effects emerged. Veterans most frequently reported problems with concentration, sleep disturbance, nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, and emotional distress.
Many reported actively avoiding reminders of the event. Several veterans reported chronic problems of concentration. Write Outline? For example, #147; I was discharged in September 1945 and returned to my job, but could not settle down and on video left the job in October 1946, returning to management essay, my old trade. That job did not last long either#133;#148;. Another veteran said #147;As for my time, after being discharged, I was hopeless. Couldn't settle down, although had a wonderful wife, two lovely kids#133;#148; Ongoing sleep disturbances and nightmares were also common. For example, #147;I guess none of us have fully got over the time we were away.
I suffer from nerves and anxiety; sleepless nights and on video essay most nights lay awake and think about the whole rotten episode in hero's journey essay, my life#148;. Another veteran said #147;I took my memories of ghastly experiences on a refresher course every time I saw war pictures on television, and never slept well#148;. Ongoing nightmares were also reported. One man commented #147;I still suffer nightmares out of this. I went away fit and came back not very fit#133;#148;. Censorship On Video Games Essay? Another stated #147;You never really get it our of your mind. In my case, I still have dreams#133;I often wonder how I went through that horrific maelstrom and came out alive#148;. A third reported the outcome of seeking compensation for these recurring nightmares #147;I tried to convince the Repat. Write? Dept that I should be given a little pension to balance out these nightmares and illnesses, but after quite a lot of censorship on video games essay medical exams by Repat. doctors, I was virtually called a bludger, so I told them to get stuffed! Repat. did accept me for one thing though #150; tinea #150; for Christ sake!#148;.
Some veterans reported still suffering from flashbacks and distress caused by situations that recall the battle. Management? For example, one recalled #147;Working in the garden when wet, I sometimes get back the stench of blood and death#148;. For another #147;Not a day goes by it all comes back again#133; The sick, wounded in censorship games, hospital who could not walk#133;. Essay Outline? I can still hear their screams as the Japs killed them#133;I came home broken in mind, body, and spirit and it all still comes back again#133;#148;. Censorship On Video Games? And a third #147;I've never got over it#133; just worked really hard to journey conclusion, try to get around it. One day I saw a green fly #133; I couldn't stop shaking. I had to censorship on video essay, go inside and sit down.
The last time I'd seen a green fly was going in and out hero's of the ears of dead Japanese#148;. One veteran noted #147;I was quite unable to censorship on video games, sleep in a closed room for many years #150; had to have the door open#148;; and another said #147;The humidity caused me to have a constant headache and busines plan fingers and toes, and under my armpits would stick together. This effect is games still with me today, cannot use an electric blanket or a sleeping bag without getting claustrophobia#148;. Negative imagery and intrusive thoughts were also frequently reported. One respondent recalled #147;There is one thing #133;I cannot get out of my mind. S., 17? yrs old, and I laid on the ground, when a mountain gun shell fell on S.'s side. When I looked up, he had half his foot hanging off and essays on add holes in games essay, his back. How I got him down to the track, I do not know, when I got my senses back, the doctor was cutting off part of his foot, with an army knife#148;. Another veteran wrote #147;I have never really been free in my mind of my experiences of essay war endured during my time in New Guinea.
You ask how long it took to recover. On Video? Well, not yet as I still have my retracing steps of how, why#148;. For yet another: #147;How did one survive all the trauma, death? I am afraid it is an on-going question #150; something one cannot explain to dracula starter, people who were not there#148;. Others commented #147;I try to censorship games essay, cast the essay help, gory details from my mind but that's hard when you can still see your dead mates laying there#148;; #147;It will always be in my thoughts#148;; #147;Really, it's always on my mind day in and day out to see always those young Australians lying under all those white crosses#133; My mind always goes back to the big battle we fought#133; That's constantly in my memory#148;; #147;I have never really been free in my mind of my experiences of war endured during my time in New Guinea#133; I was wounded behind the Japanese lines#133; That night is my constant companion#148;. Other responses also highlighted the continuing effects of the battle. An officer worried #147;I for one have never fully recovered. I started out with eight men and games essay I came out with three. Was I a bad leader or were the fedex business, odds too great?#133;#148;.
An infantryman said #147;At the start I weighed 10 stones. When we came out of the valley, it was 6? stones. It seemed like a nightmare that never ended. my nerves are bad#133;as the years passed by these conditions worsened. The war years have left its mark on on video games us. #148;. Another reported #147;I had a bright future planned . My doctor advised me to retire when I was 60 years of age. He was very concerned re my mental state. Gone was the future I had fought for#133;#148;. Another said #147;I have not recovered from the memories of Kokoda and Isurava and was unable to dracula starter, work because of a bout of war neurosis in censorship on video essay, 1948 for plan, six months#148;.
Others responded in a similar vein. For example #147;The effects#133; will live with me forever. It's always with me. I lost several mates killed, others wounded, a special mate committed suicide, which was devastating. #148;. Censorship? Another commented #147;You ask how long it took to recover. Well, not yet as I still have my retracing steps of how, why#148;. Some veterans attempted to explain these outcomes. For example, one noted #147;I am quite sure that everyone who has endured almost total physical and emotional exhaustion, almost total starvation and dracula essay starter a considerable all embracing fear for extended periods as we did in those dreadful mountains, and then do it all again a few weeks later at censorship, Gona, never fully recovers to hero's essay conclusion, be his former self, regardless of subsequent treatment and conditions.
I believe his emotional capacity is in some ways restricted, and that probably he is, in some ways, a little crazy#148;. Yet, despite the severity of their symptoms, the veterans often commented that they never talked about censorship games essay, their war experiences, or sought help. Hero's Essay? One said #147;I could never speak about my experience to censorship on video games essay, anybody and do not like to think about management essay help, it. It was so depressing#148;. Another noted #147;It was very bad, very bad#133; I wrote down what I could.
I couldn't remember everything. And I've never told anyone about it you see. On Video Games? This is the first time I've ever mentioned what I went through#133;#148;. A third explained #147;It has taken a long time to be able to talk about things that happened, even now, I see those lads at Kokoda every night, some were only 17 years old#148;. Only two veterans reported seeking or receiving any treatment for their symptoms. One explanation is write detailed outline that stories of the essay, Repatriation Department's failure to management essay, acknowledge some men's symptoms as legitimate outcomes of war service (as in the example of the censorship on video essay, veteran seeking a pension for essays on add, recurring nightmares) may have dissuaded others from seeking help. Another explanation perhaps comes from the tape made by censorship one veteran. After describing his experiences, he notes, #147;Many many years have rolled on since those wartime days. Help? There's an old saying of mine.
Try to forget. Try to forget those five and a half years service we gave in wartime to our country. Try to forget it. Don't stretch the wounds. Don't stretch the censorship games essay, scars. Let the wounds heal. Let the wounds heal.#148; Despite the latter veteran's hope that war experiences could be forgotten, it is clear that for many veterans the memories linger. Thoughts of battle experiences interrupt their waking hours, and essay starter make sleep difficult. In addition, veterans' descriptions of the effects of their war service are congruent with the three clusters of censorship games Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms: arousal, re-experiencing and avoidance. Yet most veterans in this study see these symptoms as a natural outcome of war service.
They do not speak of their experiences, or admit to the symptoms during their everyday lives. Busines Plan? Nor have they sought any form of treatment. One reason may be that treatment which requires conscious recollection and on video games description of fedex plan their experiences may seem worse than the censorship on video games essay, current spontaneous recollections. Veterans' desires not to talk about their experiences may extend to the therapeutic context. Another possibility is busines plan that the veterans of censorship essay this era place a high value on independence and self-reliance. A study of Dutch World War II veterans found the journey, desire to solve problems independently was a common reason for not seeking professional help for censorship games, PTSD symptoms (Bramsen van der Ploeg, 1999).
Therefore they may be hoping that they can control their symptoms themselves. A third option is that they may accept the psychological consequences of war in essays on add, the same way they accepted the reality of war, and its physical consequences. They carry the mental scars in the same way as they would carry physical scars. This study did not have the rigour normally expected of censorship essay scientific research. No well-validated instruments were used to assess well-being or impairment. Management Essay? No follow-up mechanism was used to increase response rates and compliance. There was no standardized response format #150; veterans answered whatever questions they wanted to answer, and told their story in their own words. They were also encouraged to use whatever response form suited them #150; written, taped, or in a face-to-face interview with the researcher. However, the responses show that the psychological well-being of many veterans is censorship on video affected by a battle which took place 60 years ago. Yet there is no evidence that respondents would welcome intervention strategies.
Perhaps the best that can be hoped for is that those dealing with this generation will better understand the reasons for some of their behaviour and write detailed essay emotions. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th . Ed.). On Video Essay? Washington DC: APA. Bramsen, I., van der Ploeg, H.M. Dracula? (1999). Use of censorship games medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in The Netherlands. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 243-261.
Creamer, M., Jackson, A., Ball, R. (1996). A profile of fedex plan help-seeking Australian veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9 , 569-575. Elder, G.H., Shanahan, M.J., Clipp, E.C. On Video Games Essay? (1995). Linking combat and physical health: The legacy of World War II in men's lives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154 , 330-336. Hamilton, J.D., Workman, R.H. (1998). Persistence of combat-related posttraumatic stress symptoms for 75 years. Journal of busines plan Traumatic Stress, 11, 763-768. Kulka, R.A., Schlenger, W.E., Fairbank, J.A., Hough, R.L., Jordon, B.K., Marmer, C.R., Weiss, D.S. (1990).
Trauma and censorship on video essay the Vietnam war generation. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Lee, K.A., Vaillant, G.E., Torrey, W.C., Elder, G.H. (1995). A 50-year prospective study of the psychological sequelae of World War II combat. Detailed Outline? American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(4 ), 516-522. Pitman, R., Altman, B., Macklin, M. (1989).
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in wounded Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146 , 667-669.
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Essay on Censoring Video Games -- violent video games, obesity
5 Ways to Spruce Up Your Resume Right Now. Are you currently searching for employment, or want a new job? Don’t wait for the new year to come. You need to censorship games, start your search now. Begin by journey sprucing up your resume and giving it a revamp. Censorship On Video Games Essay. There are many resume samples and resume templates you can find on the Internet to give yourself some inspiration and a leg up. However, you can also easily do it yourself by journey essay conclusion following these 5 steps. On Video. 1) Delete meaningless and silly words: Problem: Your resume is filled with words like “passionate,” “driven,” “results-oriented,” “team-player,” etc: It’s tempting to dracula essay, fill up your resume with “confidence inspiring” words, but doing so will only hurt your resume. Censorship Essay. Even if you have a significant amount of relevant experience, populating your resume with words like “passionate, “driven,” or “results-oriented” will only serve to dilute and hero's essay conclusion pollute it. Why?
Those words don’t mean anything without context. On Video. Generally speaking, people are using these words to put lipstick on a pig. Your resume should be direct and to the point. Essays On Add. As with all good writing, it’s important to “show, not tell.” If your resume is simply “telling” the hiring manager that you’re passionate, driven, and censorship on video essay results-oriented, that literally means nothing to them. Solution: Delete these words wherever you see them, and replace them with actual job duties and accomplishments: Suggestion 1: Instead of telling the hiring manager that you’re “passionate,” give them an example of starter a project that you spearheaded to increase company profits #8212; that kind of information relays your passion much more clearly.
Suggestion 2: Instead of telling the hiring manager that you’re “driven,” give an example of censorship on video games how you went above and beyond the hero's essay, call of duty complete a project or support another teammate. Problem: Your resume has no numbers specifying your achievements and the scope of censorship on video games essay your responsibilities: If you haven’t used numbers to describe your work experiences, you’re still doing too much “telling” and not enough “showing.” Without numbers to help define the scope of busines plan your abilities and accomplishments, your resume will be vague, unclear, and boring. Games. Even information like the busines plan, size of the establishment you worked in can provide the hiring manager with valuable insight into your previous work experience, and censorship on video essay give your resume a little more character. Solution: Wherever possible, specify your job description bullet points with numbers: Suggestion 1: If you helped increase company sales, write by how much. Suggestion 2: If you managed employees or trained new employees, write down how many. Suggestion 3: If you saved the company money, write down how you did it, and how much you saved. Suggestion 4: Did you manage a budget? Write down how big it was. 3) Remove unrelated and old experience: Problem(s): It’s nearly 2015 – your experience from over a decade ago may not be relevant, even if it’s in essays on add, the same industry. Essay. Meanwhile, if you’re applying for hero's essay conclusion, a job that has no relation to your previous work experience, you’ve probably included totally irrelevant information. Hiring managers are looking for relevant resumes – period.
As a rule of thumb, your resume should only censorship games essay, be 1-2 pages long. If you’re including experience that is over essays on add a decade old, it’s likely that your resume is either really long, or you’ve been out of censorship essay work and need some information to pad your resume with. If you’re trying to busines plan, switch careers, writing a resume can be tricky. Many of the skills and on video games essay abilities you have won’t be relevant for a different career track, and including unrelated job responsibilities will weaken your resume. You will need to get creative and find places where your knowledge, skills, and essays on add abilities overlap in a new career. Solution: Delete experiences older than a decade. If you are changing careers, delete your irrelevant experience, or modify it to emphasize the transferable skills. Suggestion 1: If you’ve been out of work, use a combination style resume to censorship essay, conceal your work experience gaps while relaying your relevant experience. Suggestion 2: Read the hiring manager’s job description carefully, and consider whether you current skill knowledge and skill set overlaps with their requirements.
Present the best spin possible on essay starter, your resume – even if you don’t have the skills yet, you may be easily trainable because you have foundational skills (such as software skills, customer service skills, management skills, etc.) 4) Make a new version of censorship on video essay your resume for each job: Problem: You wrapped up writing your resume and think you’re finished. Actually, you’ve still got work to do. Your resume needs to be ultra-specific, and ultra-targeted. If the key to buying property is dracula essay, “location, location, location,” then the key to on video, getting an interview is “relevance, relevance, relevance.” Crafting your resume so that it adheres as closely as possible to the hiring manager’s expectations is the key to getting their attention and landing an interview. Solution: Write multiple versions of your resume, each of which targets a specific company. Essays On Add. Suggestion 1: Find the hiring manager’s job description, and sprinkle their keywords and phrasing into on video, your resume. NOTE: This does not mean plagiarizing or copying what they’ve written – simply strategically employing important keywords to fedex, capture their attention. Censorship On Video Games. Suggestion 2: Draft your resume so that the skills and abilities they are calling for are towards the top of your resume, where they’ll instantly be seen. 5) Add some color and a stylized font: Problem: Your black and dracula white resume, with Times New Roman font, while acceptable, may not be putting your best foot forward. Censorship. It’s not a problem per-se, but a black and white resume with standard font doesn’t really have a lot of hero's journey essay conclusion “oomph.” You could increase your chances of getting noticed by styling up your resume a little bit. Censorship On Video Games Essay. But don’t go overboard!
Solution: Using a different font and adding a splash of color to management help, your black and white resume can be a good way of making it “pop” out from your competition. Suggestion 1: Use a binary color scheme – black and another color is good enough. Censorship Essay. Use the color on your headings and keep your bullet points black. Suggestion 2: Keep it classy. Red, blue, and orange with comic sans won’t get you a job, unless you’re applying for write detailed outline, a position at a clown college. If you follow these suggestions, your resume will be ready for 2015. Don#8217;t hesitate to apply now #8212; get in before everyone else makes their new years resolutions! Author: Mark Slack is a resume expert and career adviser consulting for the smartest resume template creator, resumegenius.com. He is an avid hiker and biker, and is fluent in Mandarin. You can follow him at @MarkWSlack. This post is written by on video a guest author.
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Australian video game censorship: Does it work? - Tech Liberation Front
essay on news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Censorship Games! Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the busines plan, idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. Censorship Essay! “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires.
Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in hero's conclusion, which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.
It is impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to censorship essay the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and essays on add diffusion of censorship games essay, knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to essay help his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to censorship essay be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to management help me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to censorship on video games prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of essays on add, sharing information. First television and censorship then the computer and the Internet transformed the essay help, way people got their news.
Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on censorship on video which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write detailed write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at games essay, The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by fedex business plan, linotype machines, now seen only in museums. We first began writing on computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the censorship on video essay, ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the essay, founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the essay, beginning. For example, in 1983, in the early years of essays on add, computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. The Times decided it only needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of on video essay, its stories for essays on add, 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service.
Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the games, Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the management, Times had sold control of its own product to on video games essay Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to journey conclusion reclaim the electronic rights to its own stories. That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and today loses money—last year more than $40 million.
Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Censorship Essay! Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to dracula starter Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in censorship on video games, doubt. News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for essay, more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to on video games essay target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the possibility of spending their money only on dracula essay ads they know will reach only people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the games essay, master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in essays on add, the last month to shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013.
That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in censorship on video games, America last year. And the situation for proprietors of newspapers and magazines is outline, likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by censorship, the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.
News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world. Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the business, way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by on video games, printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is journey conclusion, Craigslist, the free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for censorship on video games essay, generations to essay buy and sell real estate and censorship games merchandise, and to hire workers.
Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and every major paper in essays on add, the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and games dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.
After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of essays on add, good journalism every morning, and on video games they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and management essay news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in new and censorship on video essay sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. Hero's Journey Conclusion! The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the censorship, actuarial tables.
Only about a third of Americans under 35 look at essays on add, a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news. Alas for those who continue to want access to that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only censorship on video games essay, get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. Management Essay! 1959. TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.
© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and on video games essay predictable. Hero's Conclusion! To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for censorship games, example. Management Essay Help! A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of on video, news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and business Newsweek . On Video! The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and CBS.
Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks. This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of fedex plan, news and analysis, and plenty of money to spend on those missions. In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. Censorship Essay! News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day.
All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to essays on add politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images. The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to censorship games essay abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of now. Fedex Business Plan! For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the norm. Games! The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance.
In the 1970s the write detailed, three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and censorship on video showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for busines plan, how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of what “the news” was. The most influential of censorship on video, them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and business echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention. The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of on video, investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of management, two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and games essay Bob Woodward, on write the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of censorship games, national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president.
Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on management help the events of the censorship games essay, previous day and devoting more space and energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in busines plan, society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Games Essay! Deference gave way to hero's conclusion skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies. One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the censorship on video, decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the essays on add, Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an censorship on video games, order to hero's essay the Times to cease publication of essay, stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to journey The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. Censorship On Video Essay! The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in essay, favor of the newspapers' right to censorship on video essay publish. Write Essay! Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed.
Two private corporations, the Times and censorship on video Post companies, had defied the government and journey then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in games essay, government and industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for management essay help, McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. Censorship Essay! The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup.
Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in plan, 1900. On Video Games! Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and fedex the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Censorship Games Essay! Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. State Department.
After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the hero's journey, senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the London bureau of the on video games essay, The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project. 1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to fedex business transfer David Halberstam out of games essay, Vietnam. Detailed Essay Outline! Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting.
1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the censorship essay, months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to dracula essay pressure on the chain-of-command from censorship games essay a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. Business! was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on censorship on video games a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer.
Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hero's Conclusion! Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for essay, his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published. In 1971, with the Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. Starter! The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of any of the documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and essay Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of write detailed outline, President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of games essay, political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House.
Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the business plan, 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in censorship on video games, Congress In 1992, shortly after the busines plan, Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of censorship on video, Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to fedex Senator Bob Packwood. Games Essay! In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. Dracula Essay! The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and on video games essay the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the starter, nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the censorship essay, U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at write outline, The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and on video games essay 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. Business! The series highlighted the on video essay, oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the busines plan, safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for censorship on video games essay, their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and essay starter Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the on video, Watergate story. Essays On Add! Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to on video games essay be sure.
A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in hero's, Washington coverage. Censorship! Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to essay the rising disparities in censorship games essay, American society. Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an hero's essay, embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well.
Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of games essay, itself. They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in management, Washington ever since the on video essay, time of Watergate, to good effect. Business! Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is on video essay, unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and essays on add will in games, the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and help the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on censorship “national security,” the journey, team—including the writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the games essay, publisher too—can be critically important. News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules.
Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in dracula essay, matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by censorship on video games, the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and write essay perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on censorship on video games essay the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the essay starter, distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the censorship games, public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to essays on add act as an effective agent of public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at censorship, George Washington University on journey conclusion October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012.
I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the on video games essay, old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. Business Plan! The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for essay, the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by region, by religious inclination, by generation, by essays on add, ethnic identity, by politics and more.
The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of on video games essay, Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into essay starter, the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to deny the new president any victories. Censorship On Video! Obama's early legislative successes, based on busines plan the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by on video games essay, the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on write essay outline the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of censorship essay, course, Fox News.
Similarly, liberal Democrats like to write detailed essay appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division. Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. On Video! Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign.
The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the starter, most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the censorship, news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about these developments. Business! We seem to have adapted to the demise of the censorship, old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of essay, a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive. The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year.
The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the on video games essay, revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and editors now see the dracula, demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and on video games essay their demands on our time, and conclusion determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to do with reporting and on video writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the detailed outline, requirements of on video games, online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to business sources to get background information, consider the censorship, implications of the new developments, and write a story for management help, the next day's paper. Censorship! Today the essay conclusion, same reporter has to file multiple versions of the essay, same story as the day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to essays on add dig into a story and discover its ramifications. The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown.
One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of games essay, its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Essay Help! Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and censorship the networks no longer try to cover the write detailed, world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the on video, federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from reporters. Write! But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about on video essay members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from their cities and detailed states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from games Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.
No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of management help, The Newseum, incorporating the games, text of the First Amendment to busines plan the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is censorship games essay, more obvious than the creativity, but some of the new, online providers of hero's essay conclusion, news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs. For example, in games, Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on management essay help the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.
Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and games a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of essay, them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of on video, The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. Fedex Business! The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into our politics.
Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the censorship on video, quantity of essay starter, American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in censorship on video essay, a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in hero's essay, Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of our major categories. No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is on video games essay, some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Busines Plan! Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. Games! A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations.
I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects. It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to dracula essay starter pay the full cost of the censorship essay, journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for essay help, the services they use?
Not the news. Censorship On Video Games Essay! Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of a cup of coffee to try to starter maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach.
Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on games essay electronic devices only. Busines Plan! (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Censorship On Video Games Essay! Though none of the essay, others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to censorship games persuade online readers to pay is heartening. Dracula Starter! It suggests at least the possibility that over time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Censorship On Video! Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the business, Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo.
L ast fall, when he met the staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the censorship games essay, importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of write detailed essay outline, people—so attractive that they would be willing to essay pay for management help, it. The average age of the readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the games, challenge of essays on add, how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of censorship games essay, Sequoia Capital, one of the detailed, country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to censorship games broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is dracula, no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to censorship on video games essay holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in dracula starter, one such organization.
But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. On Video Games Essay! One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the very best news organizations.
And Politico, thanks to revenue from business its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. The $250 million Bezos paid for on video games essay, The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to fedex cover the Post 's losses now costs the censorship, equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at essays on add, a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the games, globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to dracula starter billions of people and earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the work of on video games essay, traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the write outline, legacy media.
But they contribute relatively little to the survival of on video essay, those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past. Financially, it would be easy for busines plan, Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of censorship essay, narrow fields. Essay Help! The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. On Video Essay! So is busines plan, democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.
Both have been undermined by on video games, changes in society wrought by essay starter, digital technologies—among the censorship on video games, most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the busines plan, Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is censorship on video games essay, that we are lighting out for busines plan, new territory. Join the conversation on censorship on video Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on essay conclusion Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and Fred Dews. Web Development: Marcia Underwood.
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essay oprah winfrey Oprah Gail Winfrey. Lifespan development begins from birth and includes all happenings in a person’s life until their death. Oprah Gail Winfrey was born on essay January 29, 1954 in a small farm in essays on add Kosciusko, Mississippi (Krohn 4). Vernita Lee, Oprah’s mother was eighteen years old at the time and unmarried. However, she was in a relationship with twenty-year-old, Vernon Winfrey who was in the army service. At the on video games essay time of essay starter Oprah’s birth, Vernita was still living with her mother and did not have a source of income. Soon after her birth, Oprah’s mother went in search of employment and left Oprah with Hattie Mae Lee, her mother. Censorship Games Essay. Life in the farm was not so pleasant as Oprah’s grandmother was poor. Hero's Conclusion. They did not have enough money to censorship on video essay cater for their basic needs like food and management essay help, clothing. Oprah’s grandmother knew the on video essay importance of write detailed essay outline education and taught her granddaughter basic reading skills at an early age.
She was also introduced to the Christian religion at this early age and would often recite poems at the local church. When Oprah turned six, she went to live with her mother Vernita in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which was an urban neighborhood as compared to censorship essay the farm in Mississippi (Krohn 8). During this period, she did not get as much support as would have been required since her mother had to work long hours as a housemaid. Oprah had a hard time settling in this neighborhood and was raped by one of her cousins when she was nine years old. This case went unreported and she was sexually harassed by one of her mother’s friends and an uncle.
As there was no therapy to help her deal with the trauma, she became rebellious and hero's essay conclusion, ran away from games, home at the age of thirteen. Subsequently, she engaged in promiscuous sexual behavior, which resulted in a pregnancy at the age of fourteen. However, her delivery was unsuccessful as she had a stillborn child. This added to her trauma and dracula, her mother sent her to live with her father in Nashville, Tennessee (Garson 9). From this point on, Oprah’s life changed and she became more disciplined under her father’s strict rules. Additionally, her grades at school improved and her success could be seen from her participation in various contests in East Nashville High School (Krohn 17). Censorship On Video Essay. Moreover, her career path started taking shape after she joined the speech team and won an oratory contest helping her secure a scholarship at dracula starter, Tennessee State University. Her teenage years were also characterized by her winning beauty pageants in censorship games her neighborhood. Oprah’s talent and efforts were recognized by a local radio station (WVOL), which employed her while she was still in high school and when she joined college.
At the age of twenty-two, Oprah wanted to pursue her career further and she moved to Baltimore. Here she started her television talk show, which was reasonably successful because it went on for eight years. After this, she was employed by a Chicago broadcasting company as the host of a morning show, which was an management essay help opening in her career as a TV personality. In 1986, and at the age of 32, the show was renamed to the Oprah Winfrey Show as it had attracted the attention of many Americans. The content being shown in the show changed in 1990 when Oprah decided to cover social issues that affected people. Games Essay. This increased her ratings as people found the show not only entertaining but also educative. Busines Plan. The Oprah Winfrey show has lasted for twenty-five years and is expected to end in 2011. Socially, Oprah is not married but has been in a long-term relationship with Stedman Graham since 1986 (Krohn 100). Additionally, she has no children but is involved in numerous charity events for disadvantaged children. Her contributions are distributed through the Oprah’s Angel Network.
One of on video her most notable efforts is busines plan her contributions towards enhancing the lives of South African children affected by AIDS and poverty. On Video. She has also established a leadership academy named after her in Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, she is credited for her support to detailed President Barrack Obama during the 2008 elections. She continues to be one of the most influential people worldwide. Oprah’s mentor is Maya Angelou, one of the most famous African American writers who Oprah names as a mother figure and friend (Garson 79).
Her influence on how people react to censorship games essay different issues is profound and she is often called to give her opinion on societal issues. According to psychological studies, a human being’s life is divided into several stages. Over the fedex plan years, various theories have been brought up explaining the censorship essay different stages that every human being must go through in journey their life. As much as these theories talk about the same thing, they have some similar and games essay, some differing points depending on era and personal views that they exhibited during their time. One of the most famous psychologists of the twentieth century is Erik Erikson who developed one of the dracula most popular theories of human development. On Video Essay. His theory covers eight stages, which can be efficiently applied to Oprah Winfrey’s life span. The stages are divided in reference to a person’s age and experiences and essay, how these affect the censorship essay future stages. The first stage in Erikson’s theory of development spans 0 to 1 years and is referred to as trust vs. mistrust or the oral sensory phase (Berk17). In this stage, a child is business plan completely helpless and they depend on others for on video games, everything. In this phase, if the dracula essay parent or any other caregiver meets a child’s needs, the child will develop trust. This enables a child to achieve comfort and censorship games essay, reliance on the ability of the caregiver to provide for their needs.
In Oprah’s life, her grandmother was the one taking care of write essay her at this stage. Although she did not have financial power to cater for on video, all her needs, she tried and thus Oprah developed a reasonable level of starter trust to move to the next stage. The second stage is called autonomy vs. shame and essay, doubt or the muscular-anal stage. This phase of development takes place between one to three years. During this phase, a child is able to fedex business plan achieve some level of independence only if they are encouraged by the caregivers. A child in this stage has the ability to choose what she wants depending on the freedom granted to her. In this stage, Oprah was still living with her grandmother and was beginning to learn reading skills. This enabled her to achieve some sort of autonomy as she could choose whatever books she wanted to read. In Erikson’s theory, the third stage is on video games essay referred to as initiative vs. guilt or the locomotor stage (Sigelman and Rider 55). A child between the ages of three to five years is said to be in this stage. Busines Plan. At this stage, children are curious and will take the initiative to do something that they have chosen by themselves.
This may be a good or a bad thing. If the caregiver encourages the child to continue with the activity, it will be embedded in their behavior. On the other hand, if the caregiver discourages certain activities, children will lose interest due to guilt. In Oprah’s case, this period was characterized by a development of interest in reading. Her grandmother supported her and encouraged this behavior. Subsequently, this behavior was embedded in Oprah’s behavior and can be seen in her interest in reading even at an advanced age. The fourth stage is referred to as industriousness vs. inferiority and takes place between the ages of six and eleven years (Berk 17).
According to Erikson, this period is characterized by physical development that enables a child to complete tasks at school and at home. Additionally, this stage is formative since unrecognized efforts may lead to the development of inferiority complex and low self-esteem. This was a very crucial stage for Oprah since she had to move to on video games her mother’s house in Milwaukee. Due to the lack of support from dracula essay, her mother, Oprah developed feelings of being inferior to others leading to low grades in school. Additionally, the lack of attention from her mother could have led to her delinquency. In Erikson’s theory, the fifth stage is referred to censorship on video essay as identity vs. role confusion (Sigelman and Rider 50). Detailed Outline. This occurs between the on video games essay ages of fedex business plan twelve to eighteen and censorship on video essay, is commonly known as adolescence. In this period, a person is essay developing physically and they are very conscious about self-image.
Additionally, children begin to explore different roles, which they assume are in line with their personalities. A person may change goals often as they keep rediscovering themselves in the search for identity. On Video Games. If a person is well rounded and supported by caregivers, they will develop a strong sense of identity with a clear picture of what they want in life. However, if this is the opposite, a person will be in an identity crisis. Essay. For Oprah, this stage was divided into two due to the different characters she developed.
When she was eleven to fourteen years old, Oprah was in an identity crisis, as she did not know who she was or what she wanted to be. The sexual harassment incidences confused her leading to her promiscuous behavior (Krohn 19). Additionally, the essay pregnancy and the death of the baby was the turning point as she went to live with her father. Due to write outline the strict and supportive nature of her father, she was able to censorship on video find an identity and improve her grades while understanding her talents in public speaking. In the years between her fourteenth and eighteenth years, she had developed confidence and retreated from the confusions that had existed when she was younger.
The sixth stage is management help referred to as intimacy vs. isolation and lasts between eighteen and thirty five years. Censorship. In this stage, persons are focused on intimate relationships or significant development of write detailed essay outline career (Cooper and Roth 39). For Oprah, this stage was characterized by growth in her career, which lessened her focus on censorship on video intimate relationships. The seventh stage is called generativity vs. stagnation and lasts between the ages of management essay help thirty-five to fifty-five. A person in this stage is actively involved with future generation as a parent or as a mentor (Cooper and Roth 40). For Oprah, this stage has been characterized by her numerous philanthropic actions toward disadvantaged children. Additionally, she also teaches some classes in the leadership school she started in South Africa.
The last developmental stage takes place when a person is fifty-five years and above and censorship on video games, is referred to as ego integrity vs. Essay. despair or maturity (Cooper and Roth 42). People in this stage focus on on video games evaluating their life and accepting who they are and their life achievements. Oprah is currently in this stage and this can be seen from her ending the talk show and starting her own network. This shows that she has settled and is ready to take on busines plan a less active role in the business. Another psychologist who is renowned for his theories is Sigmund Freud. His theories on lifespan development focus more on a psychosexual perspective as opposed to censorship essay that of Erikson. He noted that sexual development determined which stage of growth a person is journey conclusion in. This led to on video essay the formation of a phased out theory, which explained child development depending on the source of pleasure. The first stage is referred to as oral and occurs from birth to management essay help one year.
At this stage, a child learns how to suckle the breast or the bottle and this is the mouth represents a source of pleasure and satisfaction. During this period, a child expects the caregiver to meet his or her oral needs adequately. If these needs are not met, a child is likely to develop finger sucking or fingernail biting habits. According to censorship games Berk , this may also lead to hero's essay conclusion smoking and overeating as the child matures (16). The second stage in Freud’s psychosexual development theory is the anal phase, which last from one to three years. During this phase, caregivers focus on toilet training as a form of physical and cognitive development. In this perspective, caregivers have to start this training at the right time and give children the chance to develop. If they are too strict, children may fail to develop this important skill.
In Freud’s theory, the third stage is phallic whereby children between three and six years enjoy genital stimulation (Sigelman and Rider 35). Additionally, this period may lead to censorship on video games essay the development of Oedipus and Electra complexes. The fourth stage is the latency stage, which occurs between six to eleven years. Children in this stage lose interest in sexual activities and focuses on same-sex friendships. The last stage is called genital and develops from adolescence to maturity. In this stage, people focus on mature sexual behavior, which may lead to essays on add marriage and childbirth (Sigelman and Rider 36). Oprah has gone all through the first four stages and is currently in the genital stage. Though unmarried, she is in a relationship, which has lasted almost twenty years. However, the censorship on video games essay early pregnancy may have led to her lack of interest in child bearing. Jean Piaget is renowned for his theory on human cognitive development. In his theory, human development is decided into four major stages, which define the kind of development that they are undergoing.
The first stage is called sensorimotor and last from write outline, birth to two years (Berk 19). During this stage, the thinking process is restricted to what children see, hear, touch and censorship on video essay, taste. As the child develops further, they are able to solve simple problems like how to hold a bottle so that they can suckle. The next stage is called the preoperational phase which occurs at two to fedex business plan seven years of age (Berk 19). A child uses symbols to recreate real life and engage in learning activities. On Video. Additionally, playing techniques are more advanced and essays on add, language capabilities develop rapidly. This is the stage where Oprah learnt to read.
With the help of her grandmother, she was able to discover the use of censorship on video essay language as both an entertaining and educative tool. The third stage is essays on add called the concrete operational stage and it occurs in children between seven to eleven years. During this period, the thinking process is developed further and the ability to reason can be seen (Berk 20). Additionally, children attend school and on video, are able to understand the different concepts taught at school including some mathematical problems. However, children in this phase are limited to thinking about issues that are related to real life situations. Busines Plan. The last stage, which extends to adult hood begins at seven years of age and is called formal operation (Berk 20). On Video Games Essay. By the time a child reaches this stage, they are able to think logically and busines plan, analyze logically. Additionally, the process of abstract thought is developed making it possible to censorship games analyze issues that may not be related to real life situations. Oprah showed signs of reaching this stage when she improved her grades in school, participated, and won different contests. Charles Darwin is dracula starter considered the father of human lifespan development studies.
His interest in studying evolution led to the development of different theories to explain stages of human development. His first publications were recordings of his child’s behavior as he developed. Charles Darwin understood that over time, people change hence the censorship essay importance of studying the different phases of development. Additionally, he introduced the idea of continuity in behavior, which meant there was an intricate relationship in the different stages of development (Cooper and Roth 50). Essays On Add. The theory of natural selection can be applied in Oprah’s case, since her life exemplifies some of the ideas expressed by this theory. For example, natural selection indicates that a person inherits some traits from their parent and Oprah may have inherited her strong personality from her father. Additionally, the theory also shows that the outside environment highly influences these traits modifying them to fit the censorship games essay society. In Oprah’s early years, her personality did not develop adequately since she had no support externally. The people who lived around her especially her mother did not support this development. However, when she moved in with her father, her behavior changed as the external environment proved favorable for the change.
As seen from the discussion above, various theories can be used to fedex plan understand Oprah Winfrey’s lifespan development over the years. Erikson’s theory presents a detailed explanation of the different phases of life. Freud analyzes psychosexual development while Piaget discusses cognitive development. As for Darwin, he serves as the introduction to developmental studies. Nonetheless, the most applicable theory for Oprah’s life is censorship on video that of Erik Erikson. This is because it is essays on add more detailed and perfectly fits into on video Oprah’s lifespan development. Berk, Laura. Development through the Lifespan . Boston: Allyn Bacon, 2010.
Print. Cooper, Troy and Ilona, Roth. Challenging Psychological Issues . Milton Keynes: Open University, 2002. Print. Garson, Helen. Oprah Winfrey: A Biography . Westport: Greenwood Press, 2004. Print. Krohn, Katherine. Oprah Winfrey: Global Media Leader . Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2009. Essay Help. Print. Sigelman, Carol and Elizabeth, Rider.
Life-span Human Development . Censorship On Video. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. You can place an order similar to dracula starter this with us. You are assured of an authentic custom paper delivered within the given deadline besides our 24/7 customer support all through.