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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for orwell bookshop, professionals. Food Essay? That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of bookshop, what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at writing, TheLadders. She created an orwell essay bookshop, example of an writing, excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile.
If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of bookshop, recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and twain riverboat, online professional profiles to orwell bookshop differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on essay, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Essay? 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the sociology, phone, she advises.
The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. Essay Bookshop? There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. Crisis? It's not helpful and distracting. Essay? Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary.
Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to essays about narcissism transition to essay another career altogether, but then again, in writing process essay, this situation, you'll probably be relying more on essay bookshop, networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. Essay? You should include the keywords mentioned in orwell essay bookshop, the job posting throughout your resume.
Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of process essay, your target role and orwell essay bookshop, incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the twain riverboat, size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and bookshop, rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is process helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in essay, tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry.
As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on discussing the various products your company sells. Crisis Essay? 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of orwell bookshop, text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job.
Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for food crisis, your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and bookshop, contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Narcissism? Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.
A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by essay employing a new procedure which streamlined the food essay, business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. Orwell? The key is to essay format the bookshop, information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors.
Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and riverboat essay, jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and orwell essay bookshop, charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine.
18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of writing process, your resume, says Augustine. Orwell Essay? Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon twain riverboat essay, request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to orwell essay bookshop include this line.
Again, remember that space on your resume is essay crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to orwell essay it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of gender inequality in the United States.
While we focus on crisis, gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to bookshop go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. Essay. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in orwell their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and essays narcissism much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary. Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled.
Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at bookshop the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to sociology thesis the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the orwell bookshop, relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of satire essay on welfare, gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and orwell bookshop part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. Essays About. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and essay papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of symbolism essay a rose, these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for essay, those who want to for emily dig deeper into a topic. Orwell. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of about narcissism, our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of essay, Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to essay buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the orwell essay, study of process, gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to bookshop think about gender inequality in writing process essay relationship to orwell them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for symbolism for emily, recommended readings , and one for bookshop, related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of mark twain riverboat, all these subsections are hidden (so that the bookshop, beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the process essay, viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only orwell essay, examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page. (To restore the writing, page to orwell bookshop the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction.
What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the satire on welfare, causes of gender inequality, we need to orwell bookshop know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to satire essay on welfare apply across the essay bookshop, range of satire, relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and orwell essay bookshop wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience. Writing Thesis. So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the orwell essay, Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld.
What Do We Learn about Difference from the narcissism, Scholarship on orwell, Gender? Social Forces , Vol. 81, No. Twain. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time.
We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of bookshop, consequences. Satire Essay. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and orwell essay bookshop self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Twain. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to bookshop explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about food crisis essay, causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in orwell essay a couple pages. Thesis. Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an orwell essay bookshop answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle? The underlying idea is simple but powerful. Essay. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the orwell essay, rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and sociology (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and essay bookshop look at writing sociology thesis it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the orwell essay, basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the about, reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and essay modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the symbolism essay a rose, world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern?
Here the bookshop, primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing. Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by writing essay, context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in orwell others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by food essay, looking at variations. Essay. If male and female clothing is just a little different in symbolism a rose for emily some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in orwell the expected clothing and about narcissism contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern.
The explanation for orwell, the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. Symbolism Essay For Emily. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups. If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of essay bookshop, sexuality.
That is, we can point to mark twain riverboat essay other presentational differences between women and essay bookshop men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181.
Ernest Nagel. 1960. Determinism in satire on welfare History. Orwell Bookshop. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12.
March 1997:11-35. III. How is process essay, gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the essay bookshop, causes of writing sociology, gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions.
Why and when do women and essay bookshop men act differently? Why and essay a rose when do people respond differently to women than men? How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of orwell essay, gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and symbolism a rose for emily men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and bookshop focus our argument on food, explaining gender interactions there. First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from essay, her argument and when they might not.
As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the narcissism, wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Orwell Essay Bookshop. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions.
Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters. We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is process essay, yes, then we consider how and orwell why. Analogously, we want to a rose for emily think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions. For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the orwell essay, ones that we find telling.
But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the satire, influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the orwell essay bookshop, interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the essays narcissism, exceptions. When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of orwell essay bookshop, social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Essays. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to bookshop fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of crisis essay, behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. Essay. We are not attempting a general evaluation of essay on welfare, Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in essay bookshop the setting we have selected to try them out.
Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Mark Twain Riverboat Essay. Gender and Society , Vol. Orwell. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway.
Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. Twain Essay. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies? And how does explaining the origins of orwell bookshop, gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in writing thesis most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in orwell bookshop the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the narcissism, causal arguments more or less persuasive.
The recommended and essay bookshop related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments. It can be helpful to crisis essay look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of orwell essay, criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by twain riverboat essay, trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an orwell essay example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life.
Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and crisis essay the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. Orwell Bookshop. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into process essay, a community, pairing off to orwell essay reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the writing essay, alternative possibilities for women's status? What might decide which alternative occurs?
Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. Orwell Essay Bookshop. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.
Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in food crisis essay general and orwell bookshop as applied to crisis gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess. Here are some starting points for essay bookshop, learning the basics. Crisis. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and essay critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and essay on welfare other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller. A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds.
Marco Nani and orwell Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by process, Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in orwell essay Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and symbolism John S. Grove. Orwell Essay Bookshop. The Compatibility of Hunting and writing sociology thesis Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. Essay. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no. 10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Essay. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Orwell Essay. Science Brief.
2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins. A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. Process. 19, No.
1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of bookshop, Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to food Hold Up Both Halves of the essay bookshop, Sky.aˆ?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and writing essay Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol.
36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. Essay. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and essay for emily Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol. 22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Orwell. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. Symbolism. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Bookshop. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. Thesis. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.
2 (Jun., 1978), pp. Orwell. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987.
Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on writing thesis, Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann. Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Bookshop. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and satire men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is orwell essay, influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.
We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an essays about narcissism integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Orwell Essay Bookshop. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). Thesis. The first organizes around what is to be explained, the orwell essay, second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by writing sociology thesis, the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and orwell essay bookshop assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in about narcissism a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and orwell essay which are competing versus complementary. For each of essays about narcissism, these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the orwell essay bookshop, framework is a rose, supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to orwell think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and about which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent.
Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is orwell, inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of essay on welfare, each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and bookshop thoroughly. At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott.
1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004. Twain. Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John.
The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Orwell Essay. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Writing. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of essay, Marriage and food crisis Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of essay, Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi. How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples?
Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of essays narcissism, Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. Orwell. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework.
Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120. Essay. Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of orwell essay bookshop, Women's Economic Role in the Family. Mark Twain. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol.
116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp. 1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in orwell Romantic Relationships', Journal of essay, Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. Orwell Essay Bookshop. S., Human Capital, Effort, and twain essay the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the role of sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality?
Attempts to explain gender inequality at orwell essay bookshop all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and writing attribute the social differences between women's and essay men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes. Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the crisis, possibility of orwell, consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of writing sociology, inequality on gender differences. Orwell. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for crisis essay, this task.
This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and bookshop enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and sociology explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is orwell, plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. Satire. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to orwell essay the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument.
Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. The five types of explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for process essay, the relevant facet of inequality from each of the essay bookshop, following perspectives. Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the about, sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by essay, making women and on welfare men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from orwell, evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into essay, those relying on real biological differences and essay bookshop those imputing fictional biological differences. Let us stress biological differences that are at essay for emily least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below.
Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the orwell essay, inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of sociology thesis, gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to bookshop husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for food essay, warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of orwell essay, explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and food essay social organization that lead to gender inequality. Essay Bookshop. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly.
Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is symbolism for emily, neither biological nor a direct result of essay, biological differences – initiates or preserves the essay, aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in orwell essay their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to twain riverboat their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for orwell, adult men's greater success in business. This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and essay on welfare men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is bookshop, a social construction. This type of symbolism essay a rose, explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by orwell bookshop, the various aspects.
Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and symbolism essay a rose for emily power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. Orwell. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Process. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered. Orwell. For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and essays about narcissism the other spouse/parent to orwell perform the practical and leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an satire essay indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in orwell essay their central causal argument. Satire. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is essay bookshop, a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on essay, sex differences commonly derive from essay bookshop, another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. Mark Essay. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Bookshop. Gender Differences in essays Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol. 77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol.
35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. Essay Bookshop. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. Essays Narcissism. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences.
Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Essay. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Essay. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No. 4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423.
Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias. Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Orwell. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from process, a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men.
Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987). Nancy Chodorow. Essay Bookshop. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. Mark Twain Riverboat Essay. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. Orwell Essay. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980. Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.
Signs: Journal of Women in essays about narcissism Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45. Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn.
Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. Orwell Bookshop. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. Food Essay. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin. Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality.
American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. Essay. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality. Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and symbolism essay for emily others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on orwell, how it matters. The general analytical problem . Symbolism Essay A Rose For Emily. Focusing on orwell essay bookshop, heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to a rose for emily have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives.
In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and orwell bookshop weaknesses. Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the food crisis essay, fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real.
This includes explaining why the fictional belief in orwell essay bookshop this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories? Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others?
Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the satire, mechanisms that link the orwell essay bookshop, causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore] The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. For Emily. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and orwell why. Writing. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to orwell solve them in this brief effort.
So, our aim is to propose a simple and essays narcissism reasonable account of orwell bookshop, some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the satire, existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the essay bookshop, proposed account fits (or does not fit). Sociology. Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting.
However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important. Orwell. Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of essays about, relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the orwell essay bookshop, specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to about narcissism which we can respond. Orwell. A basic approach to essays narcissism the task presentation might have the orwell essay, following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes?
And why is this important enough to writing process essay merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the essay, phenomenon is a rose for emily, important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. Orwell. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to essay show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the essay bookshop, common readings or any other relevant scholarship. When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from crisis essay, each of bookshop, these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . Satire Essay. In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to essay gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to essay the existing literature (as represented in bookshop our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of about, Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Essay Bookshop. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and process Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no.
1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Bookshop. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. Essay On Welfare. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs. Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and orwell the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp.
168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and crisis essay Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of orwell bookshop, Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. Symbolism Essay. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Essay. Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives.
Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Mark Riverboat Essay. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol.
27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Essay. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair. Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently.
The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. About. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of orwell essay, Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. Writing. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. 107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen.
Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006).
Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Orwell Essay. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and food crisis actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of bookshop, men.
Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to sociology thesis explain the orwell bookshop, (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into essays narcissism, account the pointers below and essay the ideas in the materials we have read up to essay this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Orwell Essay. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the for emily, severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. Essay. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. A Rose. These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to orwell essay heed men’s wishes. The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis).
We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and essay a rose for emily lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. Orwell Essay Bookshop. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Crisis Essay. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. Bookshop. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sociology thesis sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and orwell essay bookshop harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and process essay harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances. This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the essay, like cause women and essays about narcissism men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates.
This would lead us to ask how and why women and orwell essay men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to essays about narcissism approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. Orwell Essay Bookshop. For example, consider a list of twain, potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions. Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. Essay. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them. We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for writing process essay, developing a more general explanation.
Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the orwell bookshop, common readings from this week, but also past readings and food essay optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth. This may be abstract at the level of the causal model.
The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the orwell essay, causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of satire on welfare, society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort. Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in gender inequality by a fear of violence.
This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. Orwell Essay. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to symbolism a rose for emily their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of orwell essay bookshop, fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and crisis the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to bookshop return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on essay, the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of essay, aggression will occur with equal frequency and about effect between members of the two groups. Orwell. Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of sociology thesis, discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002).
Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Essay. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Writing Thesis. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review. Orwell Essay. 34:4 (2000):1091-1128. Essay. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to orwell bookshop the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime.
Crime and satire essay Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Essay Bookshop. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp. 719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no.
3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by sociology thesis, male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Orwell Bookshop. (2002). Writing Essay. A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the orwell essay bookshop, Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. On Welfare. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Essay Bookshop. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and food essay Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. Orwell Bookshop. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002. Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No.
3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power. American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 19, No.
1 (Feb., 1983), pp. Essay For Emily. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Orwell Bookshop. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the sociology thesis, Feminist Models of bookshop, Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and essay Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool.
Violence Against Women . Essay. 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Crisis. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. Essay Bookshop. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. 384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg.
Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on symbolism a rose, Crime and Punishment. Essay. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Essays. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Orwell Essay. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. Food Crisis. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Orwell Essay Bookshop. Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in writing process essay Intimate Relationships. Essay. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of mark riverboat, gender inequality involves unequal access to orwell essay economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an satire on welfare expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and orwell essay men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the symbolism, sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the essay bookshop, changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see). Use the food, tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. Bookshop. The numbers in crisis dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for orwell bookshop, two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category.
The second table shows the same kind of writing process, data as the first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of males. It is orwell essay bookshop, otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for writing process, occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over essay bookshop the 25 years up to process 2011. Preliminary to developing an analysis, the essay bookshop, first task is, of course, to interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on twain, the dark red numbers of all the tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one.
The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and essay bookshop how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on process, gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. One way to orwell bookshop think about this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables. Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the riverboat, earnings differentials by occupational categories? What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings?
How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Bookshop. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the writing essay, most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to essay bookshop understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem.
For example, women used to have no access to mark twain riverboat most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them. Essay. In either direction we might consider the writing essay, intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of orwell, gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by writing process, economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the orwell essay, economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the essays, three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and essay why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration. For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for symbolism essay for emily, the relationship or condition that is the focus of the essay bookshop, explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of about, high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem.
These may include the orwell essay bookshop, causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in food crisis another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. Orwell Bookshop. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the satire essay, explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in essay the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and essays narcissism economic organization, providing a careful description for orwell, each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for essays narcissism, one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is essay, better. Francine D. Blau. Trends in riverboat essay the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol.
36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in essay bookshop Declining Significance of narcissism, Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in orwell Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. Essay A Rose. 68, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp. Essay Bookshop. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Essay On Welfare. May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Orwell Essay Bookshop. Kmec. Symbolism Essay A Rose For Emily. Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Essay. Technology and Culture , Vol.
25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Essay A Rose. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp. 267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Orwell Essay Bookshop. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges.
Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Thesis. Journal of essay bookshop, Applied Psychology . Essays Narcissism. Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012. Claudia Goldin.
The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of bookshop, Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. Food Essay. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. Essay. 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. Mark Twain Riverboat. American Journal of orwell bookshop, Sociology , Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp.
946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in essays about the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No. Orwell Essay. 3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. Food Crisis Essay. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in bookshop Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko.
The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of writing, Economic Perspectives , Vol. 20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. Essay Bookshop. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.
22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Essays Narcissism. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and essay bookshop laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for writing, the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Orwell Essay Bookshop. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the sociology thesis, 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp.
725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky. The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Essay. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). Symbolism Essay For Emily. [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin.
The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and orwell Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . Symbolism A Rose. 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Bookshop. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. Symbolism Essay For Emily. The American Economic Review , Vol. 81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and bookshop George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the essays narcissism, relations between men and orwell women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities.
People's conceptions of masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the mark twain riverboat, fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of essay bookshop, women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of for emily, ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is orwell bookshop, itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to essays two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in orwell essay bookshop levels of food, social organization, including, among others, societal structures and bookshop culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors. While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and food essay asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in orwell domestic production induce different ideas about writing sociology thesis, women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important.
The general analytical problem . The aim of essay bookshop, this week's task is to explore the symbolism for emily, relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women. Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of bookshop, restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to process essay do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the bookshop, task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it.
Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is food essay, unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the orwell essay bookshop, differences between more or less of satire essay, it, and how it is currently distributed). Essay Bookshop. The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of satire essay, that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is orwell bookshop, obviously crucial, it can also be difficult. The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the food crisis, difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to orwell essay bookshop consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . Twain. They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about orwell essay bookshop, others. Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in satire opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances.
That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the orwell essay bookshop, beliefs connected to writing essay this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by essay bookshop, the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to crisis enter. Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. Bookshop. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the a rose, dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to orwell essay bookshop it.
The greater the symbolism for emily, disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of bookshop, other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance. Mark Riverboat Essay. For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and bookshop general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of twain, beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives.
Although beliefs exist only by being held by orwell, individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. Essay For Emily. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of orwell bookshop, idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the mark twain essay, individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the bookshop, social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes. What kind of sociology, effect and how much effect we attribute to bookshop a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the twain, alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in orwell more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the writing sociology thesis, presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs.
As usual, we want to give some thought to orwell both women and men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and narcissism so forth. Again, the orwell essay bookshop, point is not to include everything.
Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about whatever we happened to think about first. We are trying to food crisis figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality. Thus, for orwell essay, the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the riverboat, presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is essay bookshop, our central goal, and it is essay, difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of bookshop, gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment.
Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the thesis, related beliefs – then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into essay bookshop, existence. Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the symbolism essay a rose, response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to orwell bookshop mold the perception of reality and justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about essay, real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society).
Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is essay, high. Thesis. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of orwell, this facet of gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality. About Narcissism. The first possibility is orwell bookshop, critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of symbolism a rose, inequality per se, not dependent on the type of inequality. Bookshop. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to a rose imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender.
Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Bookshop. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in on welfare specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to bookshop the preservation and effectiveness of writing, beliefs. XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into orwell essay bookshop, account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality.
What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by the actions of women and men. The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by process essay, followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by orwell bookshop, altering laws, policies, or the essays narcissism, balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception).
The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to orwell compare the essays about, causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the orwell essay, tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period. The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men.
To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the writing process essay, stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by orwell bookshop, some people would decline or the persistence of satire essay on welfare, gender inequality would become more problematic. Orwell Essay Bookshop. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to writing sociology say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the orwell bookshop, amount of gender inequality or they erode the satire, stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in essay bookshop this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by writing process essay, women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Bookshop. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of riverboat, women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on). Try to orwell essay specify the reasons why this type of action occurred.
These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Essay. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney. Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of orwell bookshop, Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No.
5 (Oct., 1996), pp. Essay. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Orwell Essay. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for twain riverboat, Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger. Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and essay Feminist Magazines.
Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Essays Narcissism. Ann-Dorte Christensen and orwell essay JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in sociology Marriage, Work, and Parenthood.
Journal of Marriage and bookshop the Family , Vol. 51, No. Essay On Welfare. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII. Orwell Essay. How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the essay, state has been unavoidably central to orwell ongoing practice of gender inequality, to food crisis essay its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the orwell, military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the law, regulations, and sociology thesis bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Essay. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and essay redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups.
By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities. Orwell Bookshop. States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of writing sociology thesis, state policies will reinforce the exercise and orwell bookshop persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for essay, all state theories is bookshop, who or what decides state policies and actions.
To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. For Emily. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful. In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of essay, all actors in the nation affected by symbolism essay for emily, those decisions.
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Press  for Greetings. Bookshop! Press  for Name Recording,  for Busy Greeting,  for Personal Greeting or  for Extended Absence Greeting. Q: How do I check if l have Voice Mail messages? A: Hearing an interrupted dial tone –indicates that you have a Voice Mail message(s). Also, many phones have a visual indicator for about narcissism new messages that will alert you when you have a new Voice Mail message waiting. Orwell Essay! Dial 1-888-2FIOSVM from narcissism, any phone and orwell enter your 4-8 digit voice mail passcode followed by essays about, the [#] key at the greeting. Essay Bookshop! From the main menu, follow the a rose for emily, voice prompts to listen to orwell essay your messages. You can also sign into your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and click New to twain riverboat essay the right of the Voice Mail indicator on the Home Page of the orwell, Account Manager or click on “Calls and Messages” to crisis see what messages have been left in your Voice Mailbox.
To listen to orwell the Voice Mail messages from crisis essay, your computer, click on the PLAY icon. A: All fax machines should work with Fios Digital Voice, but you should check your fax machine manual to ensure compatibility. To use, simply plug your fax machine into a working jack associated with your Fios Digital Voice service and orwell essay dial out as normal. You cannot talk and send a fax at the same time, unless you have a separate Fios Digital Voice line for fax purposes. However, you can use your Internet connection to search the on welfare, web while you are sending a fax or while you are talking. Essay Bookshop! Faxes sent within the domestic calling area will , not incur any extra charges if you have the Unlimited Plan.
Customers who have the Per Minute Plan will be charged at the per minute for domestic calls you will be charged for faxes sent to international destinations at process the same rates that apply to international phone calls. Your fax transmissions will appear in your call logs just like regular incoming and outgoing calls. Please troubleshoot using your fax machine’s user guide to ensure that the fax is set-up properly. Essay! If it is and you are still unable to fax, please call Verizon Fios Digital Voice Support at 1-888-553-1555. A: Fios Digital Voice caller id on Fios TV is currently being rolled out. Follow these steps to see if it is offered in your area: Using your Fios TV remote - push the Menu button and go to narcissism Settings. If Caller ID menu item comes up on the right side, then caller id on tv is available in your area. To enable caller id on TV (where available), follow these steps: Using your Fios TV remote - push the Menu button and orwell go to Settings.
Select Caller ID. Select Check Availability. Follow the remaining TV prompts. A: Sign into your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and click on Phone Book on the left hand side Menu Bar. Essay! Begin entering and saving information about orwell bookshop, your Contacts by clicking on the Add a Contact link at the top of the page. You can enter as many Contacts as you like and satire on welfare specify which categories of information (e.g., first name, last name, home phone, email address) you want displayed when you access your Phone Book.
To specify which fields you would like to orwell see, click on satire essay, the “Phone Book Fields” link at the top of your Phone Book page. A: To do this, you must have administrator access to your PC, whichwill allow you to download and install the required software on your PC. Follow these steps to synchronize. Go to your Phone Book in your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager. Essay Bookshop! Click Synchronize Phone Book link.
To download the software, click on Click here to download the symbolism essay for emily, Verizon Synchronization Software link. After installation, click on the link to launch the Fios Digital Voice Synchronization wizard. Select Settings to configure. From the Section drop-down menu, select Address (default). Check the orwell bookshop, box next to the program(s) you want to synchronize with. In the symbolism essay a rose for emily, Operation area, select Synchronize, Import or Export and click OK. Select Synchronize from the Fios Digital Voice Synchronization wizard. Essay! Synchronization will begin.
Select Accept to accept all changes. Select Exit to satire on welfare close the orwell bookshop, wizard. Q: What Phone Book Software can I synchronize with my Fios Digital Voice Phone Book? A: All of the following software applications can be used with the on welfare, Fios Digital Voice Phone Book. Microsoft Outlook 97, 98, 2000, 2002, 2003. Microsoft Outlook Express 4.0 – 6.0. Lotus Notes 5.0, 6.0, 6.5. A: Sign into your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager.
From the Home Page, click the Calls and essay bookshop Messages link to review calls. Mark Twain Riverboat! You can change and sort the calls by incoming calls, outgoing calls, missed calls and calls sent to Voice Mail. A: Go to the Calls and Messages section of orwell essay bookshop, your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and look under the Call Logs tab to find a list of all calls placed and mark twain riverboat received. You can sort the list by changing the View Status to essay bookshop either incoming or outgoing calls. Essay On Welfare! Once this is done, you can review the list to find the incoming or outgoing number. A: This feature gives you the ability to select a Voice Mail message from the Fios Digital Voice Account Manager Voice Mail page and forward it to an e-mail address as a .wav file. Essay Bookshop! To use this feature, go to the Calls and process Messages section of the Fios Digital Voice Account Manager.
Select the Voice Mails tab. Essay Bookshop! Select the voice mail you wish to forward and right click on that message. Select Forward from the drop down menu. You can forward the message to crisis essay up to 5 e-mail addresses at bookshop one time. A: The Simultaneous Ring feature will automatically forward calls simultaneously to a maximum of three different numbers where you can be reached.
Using your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager: Go to your Account Manager and select the Calling Features link on the left side of the sociology, page. Essay Bookshop! Select the Simultaneous Ring feature. Enter up to three telephone numbers that you would like to have ring simultaneously. Click on mark twain riverboat essay, the Activate Simultaneous Ring button to orwell essay activate the feature. Q: How can I stop receiving annoying calls? A: You have several options to twain essay block unwanted calls: Do Not Disturb, Incoming Call Block, and Anonymous Call Rejection. The Do Not Disturb feature sends all callers except callers on essay bookshop, your accepted list to writing sociology thesis a prerecorded Do Not Disturb greeting.
With this feature set, your phone will not ring unless a caller from your accepted list calls you. Orwell Bookshop! You can activate this feature through your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager by clicking on the Do Not Disturb button under calling features. When incoming calls arrive you have 2 options: Send all callers to mark twain riverboat essay voicemail (if you chose to have Voice Mail on your Fios Digital Voice phone line). Send all callers, EXCEPT callers on your accepted list, to essay bookshop a prerecorded Do Not Disturb greeting . If you select to on welfare play the system Do Not Disturb greeting you have the option to add phone numbers (manually or by searching the essay, Phone Book) to essay a list of incoming callers that will ring your phone even when the orwell bookshop, Do Not Disturb feature is activated. At any time you may delete a caller from the Accepted Callers List by clicking on food crisis essay, the Delete link next to essay the number. The Incoming Call block lets you block up to 10 numbers. Access your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager to turn this feature ON or OFF from the Calling Features link. When turned ON, calls from the numbers on your list will not ring on your line and will not be able to leave a Voice Mail messages. Anonymous Call Rejection blocks calls from parties who have blocked their Caller ID information. Access your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager to satire turn this feature ON or OFF. While the Anonymous Call Rejection feature is ON, incoming calls from all parties who have blocked their Caller ID information will be rejected.
A:Go to orwell bookshop the Fios Digital Voice Account Manager at www.verizon.com/Fiosvoice and choose the Forgot your Verizon Online Password? link on writing sociology, the sign-in page to retrieve your password. A: A Fios Digital Voice Virtual Telephone Number is orwell bookshop a telephone number that acts as a second phone number for symbolism essay a rose incoming calls only. You can choose up to orwell bookshop five Virtual Telephone Numbers from any of the available Fios Digital Voice Area Codes, including our Pick Your Own Area Code feature which allows you to select a phone number that is writing associated with a location different from the address where you have Fios Digital Voice service (not all Area Codes are available). Virtual Telephone Numbers can only be used for incoming calls to your Fios Digital Voice phone line. This feature enables someone located in the same local calling area as your Virtual Number to essay pay only for a local call when calling your Virtual Telephone Number. After activation of essay, your Virtual Number completes, you can access and your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager to choose a “Distinctive Ring” from 4 available patterns, which will allow you to know when a call is coming in on your Virtual Number(s).
A: Yes, when you order Fios Digital Voice service, you can select an area code from the list of available area codes regardless of your location. Not all area codes are available. There is an additional charge for selecting an area code that does not match your service address location. ** Please note that people making calls to orwell you from an area code different from the number you selected could be charged regional or long distance rates by their provider. Essay! Please have them check with their provider for calling area and rates. A: Fios Digital Voice Unlimited Plan includes all of your direct-dialed domestic calls, calls to U.S. Essay! territories, and calls to Canada. in your monthly fee. Customers subscribed to essays about narcissism the Per Minute Plan incur per minute charges for bookshop all domestic outbound calls not considered to be In Network calls.
In Network Calls incude calls made to Verizon residential wireline local phone service customers and other Fios Digital Voice customers. A: You can select from 2 block-of-time options for a low monthly fee: either 300 minutes of use per month or 500 minutes of use per month. Verizon World Plans include direct -dialed calling to food crisis essay 119 countries/international destinations Calls to essay cell phones registered in 98 countries/international destinations within the Verizon World Plan allotment of minutes (the first 300 or 500) will not be charged premium fees. Other call types, calls in excess of essays, Verizon World Plan minutes, or calls to remaining 16 countries/international destinations even within the Verizon World Plan minutes, may still be charged premium fees. Premium termination charges will always apply to the following countries/international destinations for premium calls : Albania, Aruba, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of orwell, Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Latvia, Lebanon, Macedonia, Montenegro, Pakistan, the Philippines, Slovakia, St. Satire Essay On Welfare! Vincent Grenadines, Trinidad Tobago, Turks Caicos and Zimbabwe. Essay Bookshop! Call details for all of essay, your calls will be recorded on your bill. For each minute used over essay bookshop the 300 or 500 minutes in a month, or for calls to countries not included in the 119 countries contained in this plan, you’ll enjoy Verizon’s lowest rates offered to symbolism essay a rose for emily over 240 countries Rates apply 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and essay bookshop vary by country. A: “In-Network” Calling allows you to call the Verizon customers who subscribe to Fios Digital Voice or Verizon residential wireline local phone service without being charged a per minute rate if you are on the Per Minute Plan. A: For the Fios Digital Voice Unlimited Plan, a flat monthly recurring plan fee will appear on your Verizon bill as well as any additional charges (e.g., international calls, operator services, directory assistance) that you incurred.
For the Fios Digital Voice Per Minute Plan, a flat monthly recurring plan fee will appear on your Verizon bill as well as charges for mark riverboat domestic calls you made (at the per minute rate), except for calls that are considered In-Network calls. Orwell Bookshop! : In-Network Calling allows you to call the on welfare, Verizon customers who subscribe to Fios Digital Voice or Verizon residential wireline local phone service without being charged a per orwell bookshop minute rate if you are on the Per Minute Plan You will also be billed for any additional charges that you incurred (e.g., international calls, operator services, directory assistance). Every Fios Digital Voice customer will be charged applicable federal, state and local taxes, fees, surcharges or other charges associated with using Fios Digital Voice. Symbolism Essay A Rose! These charges include 911 surcharges and federal universal service fees. You can view the charges for taxes and fees by accessing your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and clicking the My Bill button on the left hand menu bar. A: Sign into essay, your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and click the My Bill button on the left hand menu bar. You will be redirected to Verizon.com where you will be asked to essays about re-authenticate by orwell, entering your Verizon.com username and food crisis password to essay bookshop view your bill.
You can also go directly to www.verizon.com to enter your username and password to view your bill. A:If you fail to pay your Fios Digital Voice bill, your service will be suspended, you may lose any bundle service discounts, and your account will be sent to satire a collections agency. To restore service, you must contact your Verizon Business Office at 1-888-553- 1555. Orwell! A service restoral fee may apply. A: Contact your Verizon Business Office to determine if you are eligible.
You will be asked to provide a copy of your tax-exempt certificate. A: Fios Digital Voice allows only one main telephone number for essay every Fios Digital Voice account. If you subscribe to orwell essay our Fios Digital Voice Unlimited plan, you have the essays narcissism, option of purchasing up to 5 additional Primary Numbers (numbers that are capable of bookshop, making and receiving calls) at an additional monthly charge per narcissism line. You can also order a Virtual Number for inbound-only calling. You may have up to five Virtual Numbers per primary number. It is not possible to order a Virtual Number without having first purchased a Primary Number. Essay! You can contact your Verizon Business Office to order additional Primary or Virtual Numbers. A: Go to the Fios Digital Voice Account Manager, www.verizon.com/Fiosvoice and choose the writing sociology, “Forgot your Verizon Online Password?” link on the sign-in page to bookshop retrieve your password. A: If you want to cancel Fios Digital Voice, please contact your Verizon Business Office at symbolism a rose 1-888-553-1555.
Go to your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and check to see if any of the following features have been enabled, which prevents your phone from ringing: Call Forwarding turned on . Bookshop! Scheduled Call Forwarding turned on Do Not Disturb is turned on. You may also dial the following start codes to disable each of those features. Disable Call Forwarding [ * ] [ 7 ] [ 3 ] Disable Do Not Disturb [ * ] [ 7 ] [ 9 ] If you are still experiencing problems, please contact Fios Digital Voice support at 1-888-553-1555. Go to your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager and check to see if any of the following features have been enabled, which could forward calls directly to your Voice Mail: You may also dial the following start codes to disable each of food essay, those features. Disable Call Forwarding [ * ] [ 7 ] [ 3 ] Disable Do Not Disturb [ * ] [ 7 ] [ 9 ] If you are still experiencing problems, please contact Fios Digital Voice support at 1-888-553-1555. A: Dial the 3 digit area code plus the 7 digit phone number on all calls(even within your neighborhood).
A:Work with your security company to essay do a test. If you previously did not include an area code when dialing local numbers, you will need to essays make the orwell, proper changes to include the area code in the outbound number your security system dials. A:Fios Digital Voice has its own voice mail. You will need to initialize your mail box before you can start receiving voice mails by writing essay, doing the following steps: Dial 1-888-2FIOSVM (1-888-234-6786) or you can dial your phone number from your home phone. Orwell Bookshop! Enter your default passcode followed by satire, the pound [#] key. Your default passcode is the last 4 digits of your Fios Digital Voice telephone number. Follow the voice prompts to select the bookshop, default language, create a new passcode, record your personal greeting, busy greeting (heard when you’re on the phone) and name announcement, and select the greeting callers will hear. Once you have followed the about, voice prompts, your Voice Mail account will be activated. Note: If you exit the orwell essay, initialization process before completing all the crisis essay, steps, the next time you call your Voice Mail, you will be required to orwell bookshop start the initialization process from the crisis, beginning.
However, anything you have previously changed will be stored. Once you have activated your mail box, you can check your voice mails via the internet at orwell bookshop www.verizon.com/Fiosvoice or by dialing into your voice mail system at 1-888-2FIOSVM (1-888-234-6786) or you can dial your phone number from your home phone. A:Disable Outgoing Caller ID block by either entering *32 from the phone, or turning it off in your Fios Digital Voice Account Manager at www.verizon.com/Fiosvoice. A: If you're experiencing a fast busy on process, your phone, please ensure there is no phone off the hook in bookshop, another room. If the problem persists, contact Fios Digital Voice Customer Service at 1-888-553-1555. A: Follow these steps: Verify that your telephone is plugged into the wall jack. If your phone requires electricity (e.g., cordless phone),ensure the sociology, phone is plugged into a working power outlet. If your phone runs off battery power, please ensure the battery is charged. If troubles persist, contact Fios Digital Voice Customer Service at 1-888-553-1555. Q: Why can people not leave me a voice mail?
A:To set-up your Voice Mail account from essay bookshop, your home telephone number: Lift your handset and dial your toll free Fios Digital Voice Voice Mail number: 1-888-2FIOSVM (1-888-234-6786). Writing Process Essay! CA, TX and bookshop FL customers should use 1-844-387-5200. Enter your default passcode followed by the pound [#] key. Your default passcode is the last 4 digits of essays about, your Fios Digital Voice telephone number. Follow the voice prompts to select the default language, create a new passcode, record your personal greeting, busy greeting (heard when you’re on the phone) and name announcement, and orwell essay bookshop select the greeting callers will hear.
Once you have followed the voice prompts, your Voice Mail account will be activated. Note: If you exit the initialization process before completing all the steps, the food essay, next time you call your Voice Mail, you will be required to start the initialization process from the beginning. However, anything you have previously changed will be stored. A:To set your time zone to your voice mail box, follow the following steps: Dial the VM Access number – 1-888-2FIOSVM.
CA, TX and orwell essay FL customers should use 1-844-387-5200. Enter your passcode when prompted. Select option 4 then option 1 then option 5 then option 2 Enter your time zone Q: Are there any tools that I can use to help me fix an issue?
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Engineering Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] You're an engineer. You create the future. But first you've got to get in through the door. Between you and that bright, shining future sits a stack of essay engineering resumes 300 deep. You're a needle in a haystack. First you'll need a creative engineering resume that stands out from the pack. Of course you'll never land that dream job if you can't discern between mechanics and dynamics. That said, the riverboat essay best engineering resume comes down to what you choose to orwell essay bookshop show. A sample engineering resume that gets you noticed.
The best engineer resume format. How to highlight relevant work experience on essay a resume for engineers. Why other sections can get you hired. Here's a sample resume for an engineer made with our online resume builder. Want to essay save time and have your resume ready in twain riverboat, 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. Orwell Essay? See +20 resume templates and about narcissism create your resume here . What's the Best Engineer Resume Format? Attention to detail. That's one of the top engineering skills.
In other words, format matters for essay, a professional engineering. That's true even if you built the warp drive on essay the Enterprise . Use a respected layout like the essay bookshop reverse-chronological format. It shows all your best achievements first. Choose clear, legible fonts and headings. Use white space to twain create pit stops.
Finally, save your professional-looking engineering resume in orwell bookshop, PDF format. Why? Other layouts like .doc can scramble across different platforms. Just make sure the job offer accepts them. Pro Tip: Keep entry level engineering resumes to one page only. For those with more experience, 2-3 pages is crisis essay best. How to Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Meet the recruiter. Her name's Sharon. Orwell Bookshop? She's at her desk. Nice Rudolf Diesel portrait.
She's pulling out writing her hair, because she's got 400+ resumes for engineers in her computer, all the same. Like most recruiters, she spends six seconds looking at each one. Then she gets to yours. She slows. She actually reads it. Because your creative engineering resume summary grabbed her like the margin note for Fermat's Last Theorem. Use a resume summary if you've got enough experience to fill the Albert Hall. Bookshop? Use a resume objective if your work history is food essay full of holes. Or if you're writing an engineering student resume.
Either way, use lots of measurable wins. Like in these samples from orwell essay bookshop engineering resumes: Engineering Resume Examples: Two Summaries. Look at these very different mechanical engineer resume examples: Mechanical engineer with nine years experience.
Skilled in leadership, collaboration, lean manufacturing, and manufacturing design layout. So what's wrong with that? Nothing, if you want your engineering resume to look like all the rest. You want to wake up the recruiter like she just found out you built the London Underground. Do it like in the next of our mechanical engineering resume samples: Energetic mechanical engineer with 9+ years experience. Seeking to food crisis use proven process and essay bookshop production design skills to advance manufacturing excellence at Boeing.
Increased production efficiency by 35% at Raytheon IADC. Decreased costs 28% and cut lead times by essay, 22%. Lowered defects 32% department-wide. Spearheaded the team that received the Shingo Prize in 2017. Wow, right? Who wrote that engineering resume? Steve Wozniak? Don't have that kind of bookshop experience? No worries. I'll show you how to make your own resume summary just like it in a bit.
How to Write an Entry Level Engineering Resume Objective. Afraid your engineering resume will look like a Klingon warship with the cloaking device left on? Take heart. Start with an thesis engineering resume objective statement. They're for entry level engineers, or people seeking a new niche. They also work for engineering student resumes. Two Entry Level Engineer Resume Examples.
Engineer with BS in orwell essay bookshop, mechanical engineering. Mark Twain Essay? I don't have any work experience to date, but I'm a fast learner with a vigorous work ethic. Not awful, right? Neither is the Channel Tunnel, but that missed, too. Let's try the next of our mechanical engineering resume samples: Enthusiastic engineering college graduate with freelance experience. Completed several client projects, including small consulting and research jobs. Made a watch movement in orwell essay, CAD with precise dimensions. Designed a process to thread fiber bundles along different sections of a working coil. Delivered each job under budget and before deadline.
That's not just any college student engineering resume summary. That could be the next Elon Musk. Yet even a beginner can get that kind of experience for engineering resumes fast. How? Google freelance mechanical engineering jobs. Satire? Writing a civil engineering resume for essay, freshers? Search freelance civil engineering jobs instead.
Pro Tip: Lots of mark twain essay engineers on Reddit say they sent in 200+ resumes before they got a job. To save time, make your own engineering resume templates. Then customize them for each job description. How to Describe Your Engineer Experience. Remember our recruiter, Sharon? What matters most to orwell essay her is mark riverboat competence. You need to orwell essay bookshop prove you have it. Do it with the experience section of your engineering resume.
The main point here is relevant experience. Let's look at what that means. If I'm applying for symbolism a rose for emily, a job as a mechanical engineer on orwell bookshop the Death Star, relevant experience is things like beam weapon development, superstructure design, or past work building fatal flaws into gigantic systems. But if I want Scotty's job from Star Trek, I'll need to show a knack for recrystallizing dilithium, calibrating transporters, and sociology thesis performing engineering miracles in half the expected time. That means each resume for engineers is fine-tuned for each specific job offer. So, start with the engineering job description. Bookshop? Jot down all the qualities the company is looking for.
Then, show your last job first. Add 4-6 bullet points that prove you have those qualities. Cram them full of measurable achievements. Check out the next of our engineering resume examples. Engineer Resume Examples: Experience. Take a look at essays narcissism, an engineer resume sample that outperforms the rest.
Designed manufacturing procedures, processes, and production layouts for equipment installation, assembly, machining, and orwell bookshop materials handling. Redesigned machine arrangements department-wide for improved efficiency. Increased production efficiency by 35% over previous arrangement. Spearheaded the twain essay Quality, Cost, and Time Lean Manufacturing initiative. Decreased costs 28% and cut lead times by essay, 22% across the department. Increased production quality, measured by 32% less defects, 25% less customer complaints/returns, and 30% less rework on all projects. Wow, right?
The recruiter just stopped playing with her desk catapult. Look at those metrics. Check out essay those details. It disintegrates the next of our engineering resume examples. Designed manufacturing processes, procedures, and production layouts. Essay Bookshop? Oversaw equipment installation, assembly, and machining. Oversaw materials handling layout. Redesigned machine arrangements for improved efficiency. Increased production quality for manufacturing. That is just so Skylab , right?
But all it needs to put it in sustained orbit is a few details and numbers. What if you don't have details? Take heart. You can still write an essay effective resume for engineers. How to Write an Engineering Resume for an Internship with no Experience. Want to know how to orwell bookshop write an engineering resume for an internship? It's just like writing a regular engineer resume, but with one important difference. You'll improve your chances of getting the symbolism essay a rose internship if you scrape up a tiny bit of experience first. Do a few one-off jobs. Paid research is orwell bookshop enough.
Work cheap or free on a couple of short projects. Volunteer a day or two. To land these opportunities, search online for freelance engineering jobs. You might spend a few days working for peanuts, but you'll come out the symbolism essay other end with a NASA-level engineering resume. Look at these next two engineering resume examples: Two Entry Level Engineer Resume Samples. Engineer Experience : No real world experience yet, since I just graduated from essay bookshop college. Yuck. Remember when those engineers conflated metric vs English and crashed that Mars probe? Yeah. Same thing.
But look at crisis essay, the next of our engineering resume examples. Sourced a small motor gear box for orwell bookshop, a customer's specifications. Satire Essay? Assisted with design of a small custom microscope optics system. Performed CAD design for orwell essay, a new sports visor idea. Consistently delivered to customer needs at mark riverboat, 20%+ under budget. That's more like a proto Nikola Tesla than an engineering fresher. Yet it only took a week or so to build that kind of essay experience for an engineering resume. Don't discount internship experience either. Show it just like a regular job. If you want specifics for how to write a mechanical engineering resume, check out our guide on that here.
Otherwise, search online for civil engineering resume examples or electrical engineering resume examples. Pro Tip: Don't have enough experience to fit the offer? Rejoice. Jobs that say 5 years will often take the right candidate with 1 or 2. And 1-2 can often mean an internship. Don't bore recruiters with staid language. Excite your engineering resume to a higher state with action words. See our guide: +80 Examples of Resume Action Words for Every Profession Is Your Education Section Flunking Out? It Might Be. Let's get back to Sharon. Our recruiter.
For education, she just wants to writing essay see BS. Right? It's like saying a car needs four wheels and orwell bookshop an engine, then expecting people to process essay ignore Ferraris. But add details that match the job description. Here are a couple more mechanical engineering resume samples. Two Engineering Resume Examples (Experience) That's bare bones. Like, Hubble-Telescope-Original-Lens material. But let's add some relevant details. Followed my passion in Product Design and Manufacturing coursework. Excelled in Mechanics and Materials.
Pursued an independent study program in Machine Layout Design. Orwell Bookshop? Wrote a weekly colum n on Lean Manufacturing concepts in The Tech. That's as engaging as a set of lightsaber specs. But anyone can make a resume for engineers like that. All it takes is narcissism brainstorming, then fitting past achievements to orwell the engineering job description like a laser-measured U-joint. Pro Tip: For engineering students, networking is king. Go to job fairs, talk to advisors, professors, friends, and acquaintances. You never know where that great career is hiding. How to Put Skills on a Resume for an Engineer. So far your engineering resume is firing on all cylinders. But you can coax more out of it.
It needs to latch onto the job description like a facehugger from Alien. So, we'll slave each of your bullet points to a skill shown in the posting. Create a master list of writing thesis all your skills. Even if it's lubricating the essay bookshop chain drive in a CNC machine, toss it in the list. About Narcissism? It'll be too long to put on a resume, but we'll deal with that. Next, list all the skills shown in the job description. Then, cross-wire the lists.
Last, prove the skills in your engineering resume's experience and education sections. Let's say the job description values leadership , collaboration , production design , and lean manufacturing . Put those on your resume for engineers. Orwell Bookshop? Then add a couple more like communication and process layout. Why? Because if you're too exact, you're pandering. Then, retool your experience section to prove you have those skills, like so: Executed daily manufacturing engineering activities, including working with teams to sociology design and implement manufacturing processes and layouts. Increased employee engagement in the Lean program by 42% . Administered the manufacturing department's customer communication initiative. Increased fidelity of essay communications with customers by 22%.
R edesigned Kanban system. Decreased inventory by 53% . There. You may as well have built the Three Gorges Dam. List of Skills to essay on welfare Put on bookshop an Engineering Resume. Need some sample skills to launch your engineering resume? Start by twain riverboat essay, looking at the hard and orwell soft skills below. Writing Process? Then troll job offers online to find more. If you do the above, your engineering resume will look like you could handle anything. That includes changing the solenoid on orwell bookshop the Space Shuttle or redesigning Dubai's Palm Islands. Pro Tip: If you've got most of the skills in the job posting, you're already qualified.
It's better to essays about narcissism be slightly under qualified than over. Companies love to orwell essay bookshop know you'll grow with them. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. You've got the summary. The experience section. Riverboat? The education section.
They're all plugged straight into orwell essay bookshop, the job description. Your resume for engineers is crisis essay defect free. Proof you're a well-rounded person. I know. Ick, right? Remember, if it ain't broke, it just doesn't have enough features yet. PE License Conferences you've been to Articles you've written Courses Software Interests Hobbies Additional activities Volunteer work Professional associations. Everything in extra sections should make the case that you can walk the talk . Bookshop? A resume from engineers should allow for zero waste. Check out the twain riverboat sample engineering resume section below. The first part shows how to show your license on a resume for engineers.
Engineer Resume Sample Other Sections. Licensed Massachusetts Professional Engineer. 2015 - Spearheaded the team that received the Shingo Prize for Excellence in Manufacturing. Active member, American Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Delivered a presentation on Lean Manufacturing at the Mechanical Aerospace Engineering Conference in 2017. My article 10 Mechanical Engineering Best Practices was published in orwell essay, iCrank. That's a pretty next-level list of engineering resume achievements. Writing? Don't panic if it doesn't sound like you. Almost anyone can make an engineering resume hum like the Large Hadron Collider. You just need to dig a little. Pro Tip: Even physical activity like rock climbing or trail running can save a sagging engineering resume.
As a bonus, you can make networking connections while doing them. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Nobody likes cover letters. 60% of the time, that's true 100% of the essay bookshop time. The other 40% you need a cover letter.
Unless you know which is which, write one. Here's how to do a resume cover letter: Make your engineering cover letter personal. Start with the recruiter's name. Make it relevant. If you like that Boeing is more concerned with right than fast, then say so in your cover letter. Then link your cover letter to their needs. Mention a couple high points from essay a rose your resume that match the essay bookshop job. End your cover letter with a call to action.
Say something simple like, I'd welcome the chance to a rose for emily talk with you about your needs. So, how important are cover letters? Very, to almost half of orwell all recruiters. This is all the more relevant to entry level engineers. Cover letters matter. Food Crisis? Don’t take any chances, write one for each and every application. Pro Tip: After you hit send on your professional engineering resume, follow up!
A thank you email can be just the essay bookshop thing that puts you top-of-mind. How to Add Contact Info to essay Your Resume. Putting contact info in a resume for orwell bookshop, engineers isn't what you think. It's more than just: Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Victor Durand, VictorJDurand@gmail.com - 978-289-2658. You'll also want to give the recruiter some way to see you as more than just a sheet of paper. Something beyond a resume for engineers. Do that by adding social media handles. Include your LinkedIn address, Twitter handle, or Instagram.
Make sure that picture from the ASCE conference in Duluth two years ago doesn't come back to about haunt you. Use our guide to cleaning up your social media presence here. A personal portfolio site is another great add-on for orwell essay, an engineering resume. Your resume is words, words, words, but a portfolio site shows images and diagrams. Pro Tip: Not sure how to make your own portfolio website for process, your engineering resume? Google it for dozens of examples, or see this article for tips . To write a solid professional engineering resume:
Know you'll need to send out 200+ engineering resumes to get that perfect job. Essay Bookshop? You'll have to tailor each one to every job description. Build your own engineer resume templates to streamline the process. Fit your engineering resume to the job posting like an Oldham coupling by picking the right skills. Build a skills list from the essay for emily offer. Then prove you have those skills by showing relevant experience. Use numbers to bookshop add metrics to your achievements. Essays About Narcissism? An engineering resume with measurable wins will beat a plain vanilla offering any day. Got questions or tips about how to make a great engineering resume?
Give us a shout in the comments section! Tom Gerencer is a founder and orwell bookshop former owner of sociology MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in orwell essay bookshop, the fields of writing sociology personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.