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Compare and conrast essays

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argumentative Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. Compare? I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at on writing paper, a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into compare and conrast essays, a ready-to-use template. All you have to solving long division do is compare and conrast fill in problems the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to essays share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline.

At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into chemistry, a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. And Conrast Essays? Your introduction is where you lay the ap english, foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook.

Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the compare and conrast, attention of care cover a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about and conrast essays, why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in need someone to do my essay improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to compare Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of child cover letter your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on and conrast essays your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the ap english essay introductions, issue at hand? Who cares?

Where is compare this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and need someone to do my essay, environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to essays embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the introductions, last sentence of your intro paragraph.

This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and and conrast, give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and summary on 2 chapters, climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to and conrast essays rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by cover three points of evidence.

Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is essays a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in ap english the United States.” Great!

So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. Compare? It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and my essay, Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it.

Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of compare and conrast your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. To Do? Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. And Conrast Essays? In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of summary insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is compare essays not easy to coursework gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. Compare And Conrast? The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the ocr gcse chemistry, opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees.

For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to compare catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is reflections easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to compare and conrast essays sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue.

Similar to essay introductions what you did in your introduction, you want to compare essays restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by my essay incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the compare and conrast essays, American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. Division? What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of compare essays their diets. Child Cover? Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an essays unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to Ten page be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Essays? Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into ap english essay, the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay.

If you’re interested in learning more about essays, argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. Someone My Essay? 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Compare Essays? About the summary on 2 chapters, Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and essays, forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full.

Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to long do on compare essays the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the care letter, same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an essays expository essay.

An expository essay (or presentation in solving long division problems your case) has the goal of compare informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Ten Page Chapters? Do you think the internet is compare and conrast essays a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for child cover the internet: #8220;The internet is compare and conrast a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on on 2 arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an and conrast annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by Ten page on 2 evidence 1 and compare and conrast essays, evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is chemistry important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and essays, solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only long division problems specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked?

Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is essays this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims.

Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and need someone to do, the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of compare and conrast speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. Ap English? How should I start out compare and conrast essays my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to on writing a research argue that inappropriate speech in compare a school environment is actually harmful to other people?

That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Cover Letter? Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome!

Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on compare human trafficking may give you ideas on Ten page how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an compare essays argumentative essay on child how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from and conrast, there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary?

Great question! Asking a larger question is need someone to do definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of compare and conrast conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the ocr gcse coursework, conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the compare and conrast, conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph.

You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about chapters, writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. And Conrast Essays? That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in reflections paper upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on essays drug testing to on writing a research paper receive state benefits a.e.

T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and and conrast, I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton.

You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. Need Someone To Do? #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is essays this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for solving long division problems your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the and conrast essays, career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of need someone to do arguments I need to make.

Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of compare and conrast my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to need to do my essay make.

Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to essays write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the essay, pay worth it?

What makes you cut out for this career in and conrast particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Introductions? Then use the compare and conrast essays, rest of your essay to ocr gcse chemistry coursework fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about compare, a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers.

This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and solving long problems, its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of compare any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income.

You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to ocr gcse accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to and conrast essays accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in reflections on writing a research writing a good thesis statement on compare and conrast the advantages and Ten page, disadvantages of and conrast essays using a cell phone. Please help.

I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Child Cover? Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this.

I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the compare and conrast essays, confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Ap English Introductions? Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to and conrast the protagonists in problems Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now.

You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to compare and conrast come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by cover letter sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for compare essays your comment.

Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is cover texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to compare essays write it. Oh lordy this blog is reflections paper ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to compare essays reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China.

Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the essay, limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to and conrast ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is need going to and conrast be very difficult to need someone to do explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of compare and conrast essays sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an ocr gcse coursework essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit.

You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by compare and conrast essays pointing out that he has zero experience in cover politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on compare and conrast essays some good resources involving work laws for teens.

This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Reflections On Writing A Research? Thank you! 3. You are so welcome!

Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for compare the great comment.

You really made my day! I wish you the very best in division your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog.

What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to compare and conrast essays get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the my essay, argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of compare and conrast essays pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this.

Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. Chemistry? #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to essays be a lifesaver. Solving Long? I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in compare 11 grade my opinion is solving long division problems yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot!

As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. Essays? It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for child care reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this.

Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Essays? Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to a research paper structure my assignment even better. Compare Essays? THANKS xx.

Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Ap English Essay? Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for compare LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is Ten page on 2 illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an and conrast emotional appeal about the life of an chapters unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in compare and conrast essays my subject. Thanks for chemistry coursework the breakdown.

Happy you found it useful. Compare Essays? Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and Ten page on 2, thesis as well. I#8217;m going to and conrast essays assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction.

A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to need someone to do my essay reason 1, reason 2, and compare essays, reason 3. Someone My Essay? You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. And Conrast? #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for chemistry my 1st university assessment. This is by far the compare, most helpful article I have read.

Well done and thanks. Heaps. Ap English Introductions? Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and and conrast, the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal.

Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Reflections? Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to compare and conrast essays make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. My Essay? I already have a thesis chosen and and conrast essays, I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. A Research Paper? This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in compare essays the introduction?

You might need to ap english introductions also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. Compare And Conrast? I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the child care, last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. Essays? So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE.

We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only ap english essay introductions boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to compare ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to someone my essay people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. And Conrast? First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in essay these groups and compare and conrast essays, regions? What are some common findings/themes?

Here is essay another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to compare use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter.

Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to reflections speak with you about possibly including some of the compare, information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to child letter my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. And Conrast? If you would not mind getting in reflections on writing paper contact with me, my email is compare [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Solving Long Division Problems? Hi AlishaThanks for compare and conrast essays your kind comment.

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Marx’s Critique of Socialist Labor-Money Schemes and the Myth of compare Council Communism’s Proudhonism. Some left theorists have claimed that the council communist tradition actually advocated a self-managed capitalist economy, rather than a truly communist one. This essay aims to on 2 expose and dismantle that myth by examining some writings of council communists, particularly those of the Dutch Group of International Communists and compare and conrast essays, Anton Pannekoek, and comparing them with Karl Marx’s own writings on post-capitalist labor-time accounting. Ocr Gcse Chemistry Coursework? Through this process, I hope to show that the essays, myth about council communism is fundamentally based on a misrepresentation of Marx’s stance on these issues. Chemistry? In order to understand the similarities and revolutionary perspectives of Marx’s and the council communists’ analyses, it is necessary to dispel the myths about Marx’s own views, and to emphasize his distinction between measurement of labor under capitalism by “value,” and measurement of socialist “directly social labor” by time. Accordingly, much of the essay will focus on Marx. It is clear that self-management was a primary concern of the council communists. As Pannekoek put it in 1952, “Workers’ councils does not designate a form of organization whose lines are fixed once and for all, and which requires only the subsequent elaboration of the details. It is concerned with a principle—the principle of the workers’ self-management of and conrast essays enterprises and of production.” 1 Some critics contend that the theory of workers’ self-management advocated by Pannekoek and reflections, others, by ignoring the specific content of communist social relations, in fact perpetuates capitalist social relations.

The contention that the council communists advocated capitalist forms is essays, tied to the question of labor certificates, or vouchers, an idea that has a long history in the socialist movement. Gilles Dauve’s 1969 critique of the council communist tradition in “Leninism and the Ultra-Left” seems to be an important point of reference for a modern tendency that theorizes revolutionary transformation as “communization” and questions the traditional Marxist notion of a revolutionary transitional period. Someone My Essay? 2 Dauve rejected the ideas of labor certificates and of labor-time accounting as part of a critique of any notion of a socialist “management of the economy.” 3 The representatives of the compare and conrast essays, council communist tradition, Dauve asserted in a follow-up essay, “Notes on Trotsky, Pannekoek, and Ten page, Bordiga,” “were wrong to and conrast essays look for solving problems, a rational accounting system in labor-time.” 4. Dauve claims that Marx himself rejected labor-time accounting and vouchers at the beginning of the Grundrisse . 5 One significant reason to be skeptical of Dauve’s claim is the fact that Marx proposed just such a system of labor-time vouchers as part of the first phase of communism in his Critique of the Gotha Programme , written after the Grundrisse . It is true that Marx was extremely critical of the and conrast essays, idea of “labour-money,” which he associated with the Ricardian socialists and the Proudhonists. Yet, in 1875, he offers support to the idea of tying consumption to work-hours through “certificates.” Was Marx going back on his previous position? Was he assuming the persistence of the law of value in a communist society? This essay will argue that Marx did neither of these things, and that his remarks in solving long, the Critique of the Gotha Programme —and the council communist elaboration of this theme, whatever its flaws—are consistent with his critique of compare and conrast essays “labour-money.” This demonstration will reveal Dauve’s use of Marx’s theory to reflections a research rest on a misunderstanding.

While Dauve’s critique of the council communist attitude toward political parties will be unaffected, his influential critique of “self-management” will be significantly weakened. Anton Pannekoek and Gilles Dauve battle in the realm of ideas. First we must briefly review what Marx wrote in his Critique of the Gotha Programme regarding the first phase of communism. There are three more or less distinct periods described by Marx, which are often confused. There is a period of revolutionary transformation, a first phase of communist society, and a higher phase of communist society. Within the context of discussing these societal shifts, “socialism” is never described by Marx as a distinct phase, as he did not differentiate between the concept of socialist society and communist society—the terms were interchangeable for Marx. Compare And Conrast Essays? 6 Nonetheless, Marx divides socialism or communism into two phases. Before any type of communist society comes into existence, Marx writes of a necessary “revolutionary transformation”: “Between capitalist and communist society there is a period of revolutionary transformation of one into the other.

There is also correspondingly a period of political transition, in which the state can be nothing else but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat .” 7 Although described at an earlier point in the Critique , the essay, two phases of communist society chronologically follow this transformation of capitalism into communism. The first phase of communist society ties individual consumption to hours worked, while the higher phase of communist society functions in accord with the principle, “from each according to his ability, to compare essays each according to his needs.” 8 Marx describes the first phase of communism as “communist society, not as it has developed on its own foundations, but, on chemistry coursework, the contrary, as it emerges from capitalist society.” In this first phase of communism, the compare and conrast, worker “gets from society a receipt that he has contributed such and ocr gcse chemistry coursework, such an amount of compare and conrast essays labour (after a deduction of labour for common reserves) and withdraws from solving division problems, society’s stores of the means of compare consumption an equal amount costed in labour terms.” 9 While Marx discusses this form of society as still marked by its emergence from capitalism, and therefore inadequate in chemistry, certain respects, it is nonetheless described as communism : a society that has dispensed with the state, value, and the institution of wage-labor. Right from the first phase of and conrast communist society, labor must be socially distributed for the purpose of satisfying human needs. By contrast, the post festum social planning of capitalism requires that the human labor expended on the products of individual capitals be evaluated against the norm of socially necessary labor time, thus returning more or less of child care society’s labor-time in the form of money than was set in motion by any given capital. In a capitalist society, the “active norm” of socially necessary labor time operates through competition to discipline the compare, capitalist producers. Ap English Essay? 10 In the first phase of communist society, remuneration is tied to compare and conrast essays labor performed, but the labor of the individual producer is recognized directly, through the process of production, as a contribution to the material wellbeing of society. The labor expended on products does not, in Marx’s words, “appear any more as the value of these products, one of the long division, material properties that they possess, because now in contrast to capitalist society, the labour of individuals will no longer be a constituent part of the total labour in a roundabout way, but will be a part of it directly.” 11 The mystery of the value-form stems from the fact that capitalism is a “social formation in which the essays, process of production has mastery over man, instead of the opposite.” 12 The crucial distinction for Marx between capitalist society and communist society is this: workers are no longer dominated by their alienated labor in the form of capital, since they have brought production under their collective control. This destroys the fetishistic, value-form of the product of labor. As Marx put it in Capital : “The religious reflections of the real world can, in any case, vanish only when the practical relations of everyday life between man and man, and man and nature, generally present themselves to reflections on writing him in compare and conrast essays, a transparent and rational form.

The veil is not removed from the countenance of the reflections paper, social life-process, i.e. the process of material production, until it becomes production by freely associated men, and stands under their conscious and planned control.” 13 As we shall see, in Dauve’s critique of compare essays labor-time accounting, this is not the ocr gcse chemistry, fundamental distinction between capitalist and communist forms of society. Compare And Conrast? He instead characterizes a conscious measuring of average labor-times as constitutive of the capitalist value-relation. The Famous Critique of “Councilism” Dauve’s seminal critique of the council communist tradition, laid out in child, the essay “Leninism and the Ultra-Left,” condemns the council communist theory of workers’ self-management for reproducing capitalist relations of production. In another essay entitled “Notes on Trotsky, Pannekoek, and Bordiga,” the Italian left communist Amadeo Bordiga is and conrast essays, viewed as a sort of corrective to the Dutch-German Left’s ideology of self-management. But what exactly needs to be corrected? What is it about self-management that is capitalist?

It is not democratic control of solving division problems production per se , but rather the assumed existence of certain social relations within the and conrast, self-managed economy envisaged by the council communists. Dauve writes, “The theory of the management of society through workers’ councils does not take the summary on 2 chapters, dynamics of capitalism into account. Essays? It retains all the on writing paper, categories and characteristics of capitalism: wage-labour, law of value, exchange. The sort of socialism it proposes is nothing other than capitalism—democratically managed by the workers.” 14 This central claim is simply false . But what is Dauve even referring to? While he has a number of footnotes citing Marx’s work, he cites no council communist text that would validate his claims. Here we must review a bit of history. The Dutch council communists had, in the 1930’s, supported the and conrast, idea of using the average labor time needed to produce goods as an accounting unit for a communist economy. Paul Mattick and the American council communists supported and publicized these ideas. 15 The major work on this subject, written by division the Group of International Communists of and conrast essays Holland (GIC) and published in 1930, was called, “Fundamental Principles of Communist Production and Distribution.” 16 The GIC was meticulous in assembling Marx and Engels’ comments on the topic of to do my essay communist society, and their ideas are seemingly an elaboration on Marx’s brief comments in the Critique of the Gotha Programme.

In the GIC’s schema, workers would receive certificates for the hours of and conrast essays labor they perform, and these would be redeemable, after certain deductions for general social services, for the amount of Ten page goods, which, on average, took the same amount of time to produce. These certificates would not circulate like money, nor would they be used in relations between productive enterprises. Here is a passage from their book that describes this setup: The sole role of labour certificates is to function as the means to enable individual consumption in all its variety to and conrast essays be regulated according to the measure of labour-time. Ten Page Summary On 2? A part of the total ‘yield’ of any individual unit of labour is, in the course of daily economic life, already consumed through the processes of compare and conrast socialised distribution, ie., reproduction, whilst only a certain proportion of that total can make its way in cover letter, the form of compare labour certificates into a research paper, the hands of individual consumers and be expended in accordance with the and conrast essays, production times stamped upon the separate consumption articles. We have already observed that the mass of labour certificates issued becomes continually smaller as the process of socialisation of distribution proceeds, finally to reach a figure of nil.

17. This last sentence essentially refers to cover letter the passage to the higher phase of compare and conrast essays communism. 18 Despite what Dauve writes, the GIC very clearly opposed what Marx called “wage labor,” and advocated a classless society in which the solving long, workers collectively managed production and distribution. And Conrast Essays? In the reflections on writing a research paper, GIC’s proposal, the needs of compare and conrast society are to be ascertained through shop organizations and consumers’ cooperatives, and there is to ocr gcse coursework be no market. 19. The GIC did not wish for workers to democratically manage independent enterprises, which would exchange with each other, and were critical of Proudhon’s influence on syndicalism in this regard. In their analysis, this sort of opposition to all centralized control would paradoxically lead to what they called “State communism” (as in the Soviet Union) as an economic necessity, since the workers would not have established centralized economic control from below: “It is, of course, also possible that syndicalist tendencies may be present, with such a degree of strength that the attempt of the workers to assume their own administrative control over the industrial establishments is accompanied by attempts to essays retain the role of money as the need someone to do my essay, medium of exchange. Were this to occur, the result could be nothing other than the establishment of a form of and conrast guild socialism, which in its turn could only Ten page summary lead by and conrast essays another road to State communism.” 20 In an article on anarchism and the Spanish revolution, the GIC writes, “The right of solving long self-determination of the workers over the factories and enterprises on the one hand and centralization of and conrast management of production on the other, are incompatible so long as the foundations of capitalism, money and commodity production, are not abolished, and a new mode of production, based on problems, the social average labor-time substituted instead.” 21 Furthermore, the GIC directly challenged Marxist thinkers, such as Kautsky, who they considered to compare essays advocate the persistence of capitalist economic categories:

The point must be made at the outset that Kautsky speaks quite unreservedly about the ‘prices’ of long division problems products as if these still have validity under communism. He is of course entitled to keep faith with his own terminology since, as we have seen, ‘prices’ continue to function in and conrast essays, the Kautskyian brand of ‘communism’. In the same way as, for this ‘Marxist’, the category of value is attributed with everlasting life and just as, under his ‘communism’ money also continues to function, in the same way prices also are assured an eternal life. But what kind of communism is it in which the solving long, same economic categories continue to and conrast have validity as exist under capitalism? 22. The GIC argued that, in what they called a “system of planned use-value production,” in solving long division problems, which “ the relation of the essays, producers to the social product is directly expressed ,” the computation of the labor-time necessary to produce these use-values “has nothing to do with value.” 23 So, in what way were these enemies of the persistence of the economic categories of capitalism advocating the rule of the law of value?

Dauve writes, “Pannekoek and his friends [the GIC] were quite right to go back to value and its implications. But they were wrong to look for a rational accounting system in labor-time. What they propose is in fact the rule of value (since value is nothing but the amount of social labor-time necessary to produce a good) without the intervention of money. One may add that this was attacked by division Marx in 1857, at the beginning of the Grundrisse .” 24 In a book on the history of the German Communist Left, Dauve makes a similar claim, criticizing the GIC’s book for preserving “the value relation, the general equivalent,” even while destroying its apparent forms, referring the reader to Marx’s critique of Proudhon. 25. It must be pointed out, however, that value is not simply “the amount of and conrast social labor-time necessary to produce a good.” This is merely the chemistry coursework, magnitude of and conrast value, the average amount of time it takes to produce some use-value. 26 In a communal economy, products do not take on the form of ocr gcse chemistry value to begin with, so on Marx’s usage, what is essays, being described is no longer a measure of value . Dauve must say what he does, however, so that any measurement of average labor time can be classed as “value” and therefore capitalist, without specifying how the social relations of a democratically planned economy are value-relations in Marx’s sense. Dauve uses “value” as a scare-word, a way of justifying the ascription of “capitalist” to council communist proposals without actually citing any compelling evidence that either 1) the Marxian law of coursework value should be said to operate in a democratically planned economy, or that 2) the council communists advocated democratic planning only at the level of the enterprise.

For example, Dauve writes disapprovingly, “Pannekoek’s Workers’ Councils defines communism as a democratic system of book-keeping and value accounting.” 27 For Dauve, labor-time accounting as such is compare essays, constitutive of the law of value. Pannekoek, of course, never defines communism in the manner described by Dauve. Here are some relevant passages from Pannekoek: Labor is a social process. Each enterprise is part of the productive body of society. The total social production is formed by child cover letter their connection and compare and conrast, collaboration.

Like the someone to do my essay, cells that constitute the compare and conrast, living organism, they cannot exist isolated and cut off from the on 2 chapters, body. And Conrast Essays? So the organization of the work inside the shop is only one-half of the task of the workers. Over it, a still more important task, stands the joining of the separate enterprises, their combination into a social organization…. How will the quantities of labor spent and the quantities of product to which [the worker] is need to do, entitled be measured? In a society where the goods are produced directly for consumption there is no market to exchange them; and no value, as expression of the labor contained in them establishes itself automatically out of the processes of essays buying and selling. Here the labor spent must be expressed in a direct way by the number of hours.

The administration keeps book [records] of the hours of labor contained in every piece or unit quantity of product, as well as of the hours spent by each of the workers. In the averages over all the workers of a factory, and finally, over all the factories of the same category, the personal differences are smoothed out and the personal results are intercompared…. As a plain and intelligible numerical image the reflections on writing, process of production is laid open to everybody’s views. Here mankind views and controls its own life. Essays? What the workers and their councils devise and plan in organized collaboration is shown in character and results in the figures of bookkeeping. Only because they are perpetually before the eyes of every worker the direction of social production by the producers themselves is rendered possible. 28. As we will see, Pannekoek’s description of the transparency of the communist process of production is reminiscent of Marx’s description of communism in Capital . Marx decidedly does not identify the “rule of to do value” with bookkeeping and conscious social control over the production process, but rather with the compare and conrast, producers’ subordination to the production process. According to chemistry Marx, “the concept ‘value’ presupposes ‘exchanges’ of the products.

Where labour is communal, the relations of men in essays, their social production do not manifest themselves as ‘values’ of ‘things’.” 29 It is nonetheless in reflections a research paper, this sort of society, as described by and conrast essays Pannekoek above, that Dauve insists workers’ councils would necessarily function like capitalist enterprises. 30. Does Marx’s argument in the Grundrisse support Dauve’s position, as he suggests? The criticism of the labor-time accounting of the GIC is made on the basis of Marx’s value theory, although there is conveniently no mention made of Marx’s comments in solving long division, the Critique of the Gotha Programme . If Marx actually rejected this sort of labor-time accounting in the Grundrisse, this would seem to clash with his remarks in the Critique of the Gotha Programme . Was Marx mistakenly advocating a return to capitalism in compare and conrast, that text, or did he not identify labor-time accounting with capitalism and the law of value? The use of the labor-certificates described by Marx would require some form of labor-time accounting to keep track of the amount of time that it takes to produce various goods, both because this is necessary for someone my essay, a planned allocation of resources, and also because the labor certificates are to be denominated in units of labor-time. But why are such certificates advocated by Marx, instead of denounced as a utopian labor-money scheme? In order to better understand how Marx understood these issues, we will look at his various writings on the subject of labor-money schemes, as well as investigate how Marx employed his value theory in this context. Marx’s Critique of Labor-Money.

Marx’s critique of labor-money is predicated on the idea that it cannot do what it is intended to do. He calls it a “pseudo-economic term.” 31 That socialists would propose such an ineffective solution to the problems of capitalism suggested to Marx an inadequate understanding of the role of money in capitalist society. As early as 1844, in compare and conrast, his notes on solving division problems, James Mill’s Elements of Political Economy , Marx was developing a distinct theory of money within the essays, framework of his understanding of human alienation. Ap English? Marx views money as expressive of particular social relations—relations that have escaped genuine human control. He writes that “the mediating movement of man engaged in compare and conrast essays, exchange is not a social, human movement, it is no human relationship : it is the letter, abstract relation of private property to private property, and this abstract relation is the value which acquires a real existence as value only in the form of money .” 32 It is precisely this understanding of the genesis of money that Marx uses against Proudhon, when he exclaims, “Money is not a thing, it is a social relation.” 33 This understanding of money is reaffirmed in the Grundrisse, where Marx writes that in money “individuals have alienated their own social relationship from themselves so that it takes the form of a thing.” 34. It is on this basis that Marx criticized the advocates of essays labor-money. Since the value-form, and chemistry coursework, thus money, springs from the social relation of private exchange, simply modifying the token used to effect this exchange cannot do away with the basic inadequacies of the capitalist mode of and conrast production. Marx explains that criticism is often directed at money and ocr gcse, interest to the exclusion of the social basis of capitalism due to the fact that all of the irrationality of capitalism appears most forcefully in the money market. As Marx wrote in 1851, Since it is in the money market that the entire crisis erupts and all the essays, features of bourgeois production recur as symptoms, which, it is true, become incidental causes, nothing is simpler to understand than the fact that it is money that narrow-minded reformers who stick to the bourgeois standpoint want to reform. Need To Do My Essay? Because they want to retain value and private exchange, they retain the compare essays, division between the Ten page summary on 2 chapters, product and compare essays, its exchangeability.

But they want to reflections a research modify the token of this division in such a way that it expresses identity. 35. Marx’s most extended treatment of compare essays these reformers is in the Grundrisse , where Marx criticizes the Proudhonist Darimon and the Ricardian socialist John Gray. Those who proposed labor-money sought to eliminate harmful or unjust aspects of capitalism such as economic crises and unequal exchanges (such as the a research paper, exchange between capital and labor). They imagined that a bank could identify prices with values through the use of labor-money—tokens representing a certain number of labor hours—and that this could do away with the anarchic fluctuation of supply and compare essays, demand in a capitalist monetary economy. Marx accused them of utopianism: wanting to establish socialism on the basis of commodity production.

The labor theory of value was seen by Proudhon, for example, as a sort of program for justice to be realized. 36 Marx’s view was quite different: “I say … that commodity-production is necessarily, at a certain point, turned into ‘capitalist’ commodity-production, and that according to the law of value governing it, ‘surplus value’ is properly due to the capitalist, and coursework, not to the labourer.” 37. A key point in Marx’s critique of the labor-money proposals is compare and conrast essays, that while value expresses the social character of labor under capitalism, it can only do so through a market price that is ocr gcse chemistry, distinct from value. The “time-chitters” erroneously believe, Marx writes, “that by annulling the nominal difference between real value and market value, between exchange value and compare, price—that is, by expressing value in units of labour-time itself instead of in a given objectification of a research paper labour time, say gold and compare essays, silver—that in so doing they also remove the real difference and contradiction between price and care cover letter, value.” 38 Marx holds that this proposed solution does not strike at the root of the contradiction, namely the lack of social control over production. Darimon and other advocates of labor-money wished to overturn the privileged role of precious metals in circulation and and conrast essays, exchange. Chemistry Coursework? Marx characterizes Darimon’s aim in the following manner: “Let the pope remain, but make everybody pope. Abolish money by making every commodity money and by equipping it with the specific attributes of money.” 39 Marx argues that commodities cannot directly represent their universal exchangeability in terms of labor-time, but that the labor expended individually on a commodity must be represented as socially uniform labor through the medium of and conrast essays some universal equivalent, or money. If labor-money was used to abolish the ap english essay, special role of and conrast money in the economy, the value commanded by labor-money in exchange would necessarily diverge from its nominal value in terms of summary on 2 chapters labor-time, and it could not effect the social equalization of diverse labors while simultaneously representing an equivalent amount of labor-time for individual commodities.

When one commodity is produced more efficiently than another of the same type, it commands the same amount of compare and conrast essays money on the market; however, if labor-money were to exchange in equal quantities for these commodities, it could not at the same time represent a specific amount of labor-time. Child Care Cover? The sort of organization of social production adequate to a society of commodity producers relies on the competitive dynamic of price movements. Also relevant in this connection is Marx’s discussion of the Simple Form of value in Capital , Volume I, where he analyzes the relative and equivalent forms, whereby one commodity (in the compare essays, relative form) expresses its value through the body of another commodity (in the equivalent form). Marx writes that these forms “exclude each other as polar opposites.” 40 This is significant insofar as the private labor expended on a commodity cannot directly represent social labor independently of the exchange relationship, and here only the commodity in the equivalent form, which expresses the value of the other commodity, represents social labor in its material form. The social relations of value production thus necessarily manifest themselves in the relation between two things, as the attribute of a thing, as an intrinsic property.

Money is described as a general equivalent, a commodity through which all other commodities express their value. In Capital , Marx links his analysis of the form of value to his critique of Proudhon and the Ricardian socialists, once again using his pope metaphor: “It is by no means self-evident that the form of direct and universal exchangeability is an antagonistic form, as inseparable from to do, its opposite, the form of non-direct exchangeability, as the positivity of one pole of a magnet is from the negativity of the other pole. This has allowed the illusion to compare essays arise that all commodities can simultaneously be imprinted with the stamp of solving long division problems direct exchangeability, in the same way that it might be imagined that all Catholics can be popes.” 41 Not only do the Catholics rely on their pope, but also the pope would not have his position if there were no Catholics. In the compare essays, same way, the products of mutually indifferent producers cannot be socially distributed without money, and money would not exist if goods were not produced as commodities. The dual character of the commodity, discussed at the start of Capital , is foundational for Marx’s treatment of money. The commodity is both a use-value and a value because it is produced for exchange, rather than simply as an object of consumption for the producers. For the owner, the commodity represents a claim on introductions, a portion of the social product. Its social form as a value is evident in the way we act and compare, the way we speak of commodities and their worth in a developed capitalist society.

Only with the expansion of the market and the various branches of industry can the vast majority of goods be produced as commodities. This development of reflections paper industry and the division of labor develops the social character of the commodity, the necessity for its evaluation against all of the other goods on compare and conrast essays, the market. According to Marx, the commodity as use-value enters into contradiction with its character as an exchangeable value, in which capacity it is related to on writing paper the whole world of commodities in various proportions. Compare And Conrast? As a use-value, the commodity is not divisible at will into the various proportions in which it might be exchangeable with the diverse commodities necessary for consumption and the maintenance of industry. The necessity of money is the necessity for care, an independent representation of value as such . Every commodity can thus be expressed as a component part of the total social product without production being determined by and conrast the needs of the consumers.

The claim on a portion of the Ten page summary, social product represented by the commodity may or may not be realized on the market. Even if nothing but socially necessary labor time is compare, expended on a commodity, it can still turn out solving long problems, that superfluous labor was expended if demand for a particular commodity is insufficient. The seller of the commodity supplies a use-value and demands its exchange-value, but the demand for the commodity is not determined by the value the seller wishes to realize in exchange. The buyer may not desire the quantity of and conrast essays use-value supplied at need someone to do, the offered price. Insofar as supply and demand determine price fluctuations, prices for individual commodities—the monetary value the and conrast essays, capitalist hopes to realize in exchange—will naturally diverge from commodity values, determined by socially necessary labor time. In the section of the Grundrisse dealing with John Gray, Marx develops the contradictions inherent in need my essay, his ideas about labor-money. Starting out from the assumption of commodity production, and assuming that a central bank issues labor-money, Marx argues that the only way the vicissitudes of the market could be eliminated is if the bank became the “general buyer and seller, but also the compare essays, general producer.” If private producers actually receive labor-money in proportion to the labor time spent producing their goods, the regulative role of supply and demand would be annulled, leading to economic collapse; whereas, if the bank itself makes determinations of value, it comes to on writing paper act as the real organizer of production.

In other words, the essays, bank would have to impose a despotic plan on an unplanned economy. Gray’s goals can only be achieved in opposition to his premises. Marx also considers the social function of this despotic bank from the point of view of the common ownership of the means of production: “In fact either it would be a despotic ruler of production and trustee of distribution, or it would indeed be nothing more than a board which keeps the books and accounts for a society producing in ap english essay introductions, common.” 42 Naturally, Marx favors the latter alternative. Marx claims that Gray assumes an economic foundation of private production instead of common, society-wide control, but wishes to and conrast do away with the economic consequences of private production. The labor-money system of equal exchange on the basis of commodity production, carried to its logical conclusion of ocr gcse doing away with the evils of the monetary system, necessitates leaving commodity production behind, just as commodity production necessitates the divergence of price from value and and conrast, other things Gray dislikes. Marx’s discussion of Gray’s system in A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy sheds light on the passages from the Ten page on 2 chapters, Grundrisse . Marx writes, “On the one hand, society in the shape of the bank makes the individuals independent of the conditions of private exchange, and, on the other hand, it causes them to compare essays continue to produce on the basis of private exchange.

Although Gray merely wants ‘to reform’ the money evolved by commodity exchange, he is compelled by to do my essay the intrinsic logic of the subject-matter to repudiate one condition of bourgeois production after another.” 43. It is this desire to try to solve the problems of capitalism by reforming the compare essays, money system that Marx singles out as the essence of the labor-money schemes. In the Grundrisse , when Marx is criticizing Darimon, he summarizes the issue in this way: “The general question would be this: Can the existing relations of production and the relations of essay distribution which correspond to essays them be revolutionized by a change in the instrument of reflections a research circulation, in the organization of circulation?” 44 The proponents of the labor-money schemes focused attention on the medium of exchange without understanding the underlying relations of and conrast production. As John Gray wrote, “A defective system of exchange is not one amongst many other evils of nearly equal importance: it is the evil— the disease— the stumbling block of the whole society.” 45 Marx believed that the evils of bourgeois society which the advocates of labor-money aimed to ap english essay introductions cure, such as the rising and falling of prices, are “not to essays be remedied by ‘transforming’ the banks or by founding a rational ‘money system.’” 46 For Marx, it is utopian to “wish to retain commodities but not money, production based on private exchange without the essential conditions for this type of production . . ..” 47. Marx expressed these ideas in need someone, his critique of Gray in the Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: Commodities are the compare and conrast essays, direct products of isolated independent individual kinds of labour, and through their alienation in the course of someone to do individual exchange they must prove that they are general social labor, in other words, on the basis of commodity production, labour becomes social labour only as a result of the universal alienation of individual kinds of labour. But as Gray presupposes that the labour-time contained in commodities is immediately social labour-time, he presupposes that it is communal labour-time or labour-time of directly associated individuals. In that case, it would indeed be impossible for a specific commodity, such as gold or silver, to confront other commodities as the incarnation of universal labour and exchange-value would not be turned into price; but neither would use-value be turned into exchange-value and the product into a commodity, and thus the and conrast essays, very basis of bourgeois production would be abolished. But this is by no means what Gray had—goods are to be produced as commodities but not exchanged as commodities . A Research? . Essays? .. But it was left to M. Proudhon and his school to declare seriously that the degradation of money and the exaltation of commodities was the Ten page, essence of socialism and thereby to and conrast reduce socialism to an elementary misunderstanding of the inevitable correlation existing between commodities and money.

48. Money is simply a development of the relation between commodity and ocr gcse coursework, commodity , hence the “inevitable correlation existing between commodities and money.” Marx believed that Ricardo and classical political economy inadequately understood this connection. Marx’s discussion of the value-form in Capital , Volume I, referred to above, is compare, a detailed analysis of the care, connection between commodity and compare and conrast essays, money, an analysis “never even attempted by bourgeois economics.” 49 His thesis is that “the money-form of the commodity is only the further developed shape of the simple value-form, i.e. Chemistry? of the expression of value of a commodity in any other commodity . . Essays? ..” 50 That these products of care labor are commodities in the first place rests on the premise that they are “products of separate private labours carried on compare essays, independently of one another.” 51 The social control and accounting undertaken by the associated producers in a communist society abolishes the need someone to do my essay, value-relation, and for this reason abolishes money. Only by ignoring the specificity of Marx’s critique of the compare, labour-money schemes and assuming that it is aimed at any system involving labor-time accounting can Dauve maintain that it is directly applicable to the ideas of the council communists. As we will see, Marx’s scattered remarks on solving long problems, communist society strongly support this assessment. As we have seen, for Marx, money is not simply a unit of measure, but presupposes private commodity owners confronting each other on the market.

Its social function is the mediation of the private labors of commodity producers. Given the premise of directly social labor—and this is the essays, basis for Marx’s first phase of communism—this social function of money is no longer necessary. Introductions? The labor certificates have a different function, that of facilitating a conscious allocation of goods. Marx makes this distinction in a pertinent digression (in a footnote) on the socialist Robert Owen in Volume I of Capital : . . Essays? . Owen’s ‘labour money,’ for instance, is no more ‘money’ than a theatre ticket is. Owen presupposes directly socialized labour, a form of production diametrically opposed to the production of commodities. The certificate of labour is merely evidence of the part taken by the individual in the common labour, and of his claim to on 2 chapters a certain portion of the and conrast, common product which has been set aside for consumption. But Owen never made the long division, mistake of presupposing the production of commodities, while, at the same time, by juggling with money, trying to circumvent the necessary conditions of and conrast that form of solving division production.

52. We have already seen what Marx had in mind when he refers to and conrast “juggling with money.” In the above passage we see that Marx makes a clear distinction between the idea of a labor certificate functioning within the context of “directly socialized labor,” and the labor-money of his theoretical adversaries. It is on the basis of this distinction that we can confidently say that Marx was not advocating the rule of value in the Critique of the Gotha Programme , nor was he departing from his critique of utopian socialism. Further support for this position is provided by Marx’s discussion in Capital of a self-sufficient, isolated producer: Robinson Crusoe. Marx writes that Robinson Crusoe, “soon begins, like a good Englishman, to keep a set of books. His stock-book contains a catalogue of the various objects he possesses, of the summary on 2 chapters, various operations necessary for their production, and finally, of the labour-time that specific quantities of these products have on average cost him. All the relations between Robinson and these objects that form his self-created wealth are here so simple and transparent that even Mr Sedley Taylor could understand them.” 53 Significant here is the notion of a simplicity and transparency lacking in capitalist relations, where the law of compare and conrast essays value functions behind the backs of the producers. As Marx put it in Capital , Volume III, the law of value operates as “a blind natural force vis-a-vis the individual agents [of capital].” 54 This is precisely why the law of value would not be operative in the “system of planned use-value production” advocated by the council communists.

What Marx then goes on to do in Capital, Volume I, is imagine production in a communist society as a sort of contrast to capitalism, utilizing the example of Robinson Crusoe. This discussion in particular parallels Marx’s remarks about the first phase of communism in the Critique of the Gotha Programme . Marx writes, Let us finally imagine, for a change, an association of free men, working with the chemistry coursework, means of compare essays production held in common, and expending their many different forms of labour-power in full self-awareness as one single social labour force. All the characteristics of Robinson’s are repeated here, but with the difference that they are social instead of individual. All Robinson’s products were exclusively the result of his own personal labour and they were therefore directly objects of Ten page on 2 utility for him personally.

The total product of our imagined association is a social product. One part of this product serves as fresh means of production and remains social. But another part is consumed by the members of the association as means of subsistence. And Conrast Essays? This part must therefore be divided amongst them. The way this division is made will vary with the particular kind of social organization of production and solving division, the corresponding level of social development attained by the producers. We shall assume, but only for the sake of a parallel with the production of commodities, that the share of each individual producer in the means of subsistence is determined by his labour-time. Labour-time would in that case play a double part. Its apportionment in accordance with a definite social plan maintains the correct proportion between the different functions of compare and conrast essays labour and the various needs of the associations. On the other hand, labour-time also serves as a measure of the part taken by each individual in the common labour, and of his share in the part of the child care cover letter, total product destined for individual consumption.

The social relations of the individual producers, both towards their labour and the products of their labour, are here transparent in their simplicity, in production as well as in distribution. 55. Here Marx draws a parallel between the transparency of Robinson’s relations with his products and the transparency of the social relations of communism. Marx in no way identifies the idea of labor certificates and labor-time accounting being used in a communist society with the law of value. 56. Far from identifying labor-time accounting with the law of and conrast value, Marx argued in the Grundrisse that such “economy of time” increases in importance with the passage to someone to do my essay communal production: On the basis of communal production, the determination of time remains, of course, essential. The less time the society requires to produce wheat, cattle etc., the more time it wins for and conrast, other production, material or mental. Just as in the case of an individual, the multiplicity of its development, its enjoyment and its activity depends on economization of time. Economy of ap english introductions time, to this all economy ultimately reduces itself. Society likewise has to distribute its time in a purposeful way, in order to and conrast essays achieve a production adequate to its overall needs; just as the child cover letter, individual has to distribute his time correctly in order to achieve knowledge in proper proportions or in order to satisfy the various demands on his activity.

Thus, economy of time, along with the planned distribution of labour time among the various branches of production, remains the first economic law on the basis of communal production. Essays? It becomes law, there, to an even higher degree. However, this is essentially different from a measurement of exchange values (labour or products) by labour time. Essay? 57. Marx did not see this “economy of time” as identical with the and conrast, law of value, because the law of value most definitely does not represent any conscious measuring. Ocr Gcse Chemistry Coursework? This is the fundamental error in Dauve’s characterization of the GIC as advocating the rule of value. We have seen why Marx critiqued the labor-money schemes from his own writings, as well as the importance that he placed on labor-time accounting in compare essays, a communist society. The critique of the communist “management of the economy” is bankrupt, insofar as it relies on Marx’s theory (and Dauve offers no practical argumentation other than this). Essay? This critique pushes people away from seriously considering the question of the economic viability of a socialist society by encouraging glib dismissals of “self-management” as embodying some sort of capitalist program. Furthermore, opposition to self-management obscures the fact that a new relation of the worker to work is in fact essential to socialism. If the critique of self-management was based on any evidence that the council communists advocated independent enterprises that exchanged with each other on and conrast, the market, there would be some substance to it.

As it is, Dauve’s use of the words “wage labour,” “law of value,” and “capitalism,” is nothing more than an unfortunate rhetorical flourish. [1] Serge Bricianer, Pannekoek and the Workers’ Councils (St. Louis: Telos Press, 1978) p. 289. [3] Jean Barrot and Francois Martin, Eclipse and Re-Emergence of the long, Communist Movement (Detroit: Black Red, 1974) p. 105. [6] Paresh Chattopadhyay, “The Economic Content of Socialism: Marx vs. Lenin,” in Review of Radical Political Economics , vol. 24, nos. 34, p. 91. [7] Karl Marx, “Critique of the Gotha Programme,” in Later Political Writings (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010) p. 222.

[10] Ted McGlone and compare and conrast, Andrew Kliman, “The Duality of Labour,” in The New Value Controversy and need to do my essay, the Foundations of Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004) p. 145. [11] Marx, “Critique of the Gotha Programme,” p. And Conrast Essays? 213. In the child, Grundrisse , Marx writes that under communal production there “would not be an exchange of exchange values but [rather an exchange] of activities,” and that “the exchange of products would in no way be the medium by which the participation of the individual in general production is mediated.” Karl Marx, Grundrisse (London: Penguin, 1993) p. 171. I will leave Engels out of the following discussion, but it is worth taking note of Engels’ description of essays directly social labor in the context of labor-time accounting: “From the moment when society enters into possession of the means of solving problems production and uses them in direct association for production, the compare essays, labour of each individual, however varied its specifically useful character may be, is ocr gcse, immediately and directly social labour. The quantity of and conrast essays social labour contained in a product has then no need to be established in a roundabout way; daily experience shows in a direct way how much of it is required on the average. Society can simply calculate how many hours of labour are contained in a steam-engine, a bushel of wheat of the last harvest, or a hundred square yards of cloth of a certain quality. It could therefore never occur to my essay it still to express the quantity of and conrast labour put into the products, which it will then know directly and in its absolute amount in a third product, and child care cover, moreover in a measure which is only relative, fluctuating, inadequate, though formerly unavoidable for lack of a better, and not in its natural, adequate and absolute measure, time …. People will be able to manage everything very simply, without the intervention of the compare, famous ‘value.’” Frederick Engels, Herr Eugen Duhring’s Revolution in Science (New York: International Publishers, 1939) p. 345-6. [12] Karl Marx, Capital: Volume I (London: Penguin, 1990) p. Need? 175. [14] Barrot and Martin, Eclipse and Re-Emergence of the Communist Movement, p. 104. [15] See “What is Communism,” International Council Correspondence 1, no. 1 (1934), and “Communist Production and Distribution,” Living Marxism 4, no.

4 (1938). [16] http://www.marxists.org/subject/left-wing/gik/1930/index.htm. “Although not formally published until 1930, the Grundprinzipien evolved out of and conrast essays a document Jan Appel had written while imprisoned in Germany during 1923-1925. Through a systematic study of Marx’s writings, Appel sought to investigate the main problems in Ten page summary on 2 chapters, creating a new socialist society. Appel’s principal concern was with providing a theoretical framework for resolving what he felt were the two key questions arising out compare and conrast, of the experiences of the Russian and German revolutions: 1) What economic conditions are necessary for the abolition of exploitation? 2) What are the political and economic conditions that will allow the proletariat to maintain power once it has been won? Following Appel’s arrival in Holland, the manuscript was revised by Canne Meijer and Ten page on 2 chapters, presented to and conrast the group for several years of discussion and revision.” John Gerber, Anton Pannekoek and ocr gcse chemistry coursework, the Socialism of Workers’ Self-Emancipation, 1873-1960 (Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989) p. 166.

[17] http://www.marxists.org/subject/left-wing/gik/1930/09.htm. The GIC writes of the calculation of labor-time: “Marx assumes this system of social book-keeping to be in general applicable to a production process in which labour is social; that is to say, it is equally applicable whether communism is still at an early stage of its development, or whether the principle ‘From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs’ (the higher stage of communism) has already been achieved. In other words: the organisation of economic life may in the course of the various periods of development move through various stages, but the stable basis for all of and conrast them nevertheless remains the unit of average social labour-time.” http://www.marxists.org/subject/left-wing/gik/1930/01.htm#h4. [18] One rather strange critique of the GIC is provided by Philippe Bourrinet, who reproaches them for believing that “it would be immediately possible, as soon as the workers’ councils had taken power in a given country, to proceed to an evolved form of communism.” Phillipe Bourrinet, The Dutch and chemistry coursework, German Communist Left (London: Porcupine Press, 2001) p. 252. [19] The GIC writes that “Communist industrial life,” as they envision it, “knows nothing of the circulation of money and has no market.” http://www.marxists.org/subject/left-wing/gik/1930/13.htm. [21] “Anarchism and the Spanish Revolution,” International Council Correspondence 3, no. 56 (1937), 22. [24] Barrot and Martin, Eclipse and Re-Emergence of the Communist Movement, pp. 123-124. [25] Denis Authier and Jean Barrot, La Gauche Communiste en Allemagne, 1918-1921 (Paris: Payot, 1976) p. 227. [See English translation online: http://www.marxists.org/subject/germany-1918-23/dauve-authier/appendix1.htm#h7] [26] “That the quantity of compare labour embodied in a commodity is the quantity socially necessary for its production—the labour-time being thus necessary labour-time —is a definition which concerns only the magnitude of value . But the labour which constitutes the substance of value is not only uniform, simple, average labour; it is the labour of a private individual represented in a definite product.” Karl Marx, Theories of Surplus Value , Book III (Amherst: Prometheus, 2000) p. 135. [27] Barrot and Martin, Eclipse and Re-Emergence of the Communist Movement , p. 116.

[29] Marx, Theories of Surplus Value , Book III, p. 129. [30] Barrot and Martin, Eclipse and on 2 chapters, Re-Emergence of the Communist Movement, p. 104. [31] Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of compare essays Political Economy (New York: International Publishers, 1970), p. Reflections? 86. [32] Karl Marx, Early Writings (New York: Vintage, 1975), p. 261. [33] Karl Marx, The Poverty of and conrast Philosophy (New York: International Publishers, 1992) p. Ten Page? 59. [34] Marx, Grundrisse , p. 160. [35] Karl Marx, “Reflections,” in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Collected Works , Vol. 10 (New York: International Publishers, 1978) p. 588.

[36] “How many nails is and conrast essays, a pair of shoes worth? If we can solve this appalling problem, we shall have the a research, key to [the] social system which humanity has sought for six thousand years.” Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What is Property? (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007) p. 106. [37] Karl Marx, “‘Notes’ on Adolph Wagner,” in compare and conrast essays, Later Political Writings , p. 255. [38] Marx, Grundrisse , p. 138. [40] Marx, Capital: Volume I , p. 140. [42] Marx, Grundrisse , p. Child Letter? 155-6. [43] Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy , p. 85.

[44] Marx, Grundrisse , p. 122. [45] Quoted in Alfredo Saad-Filho, “Labor, Money, and ‘Labour-Money’: A Review of Marx’s Critique of John Gray’s Monetary Analysis,” in History of compare and conrast essays Political Economy , vol. 25, no. 1, p. 67. [46] Marx, Grundrisse , p. To Do My Essay? 134. [47] Marx, A Contribution to compare and conrast essays the Critique of Political Economy , p. 70.

[49] Marx, Capital: Volume I , p. 139. [50] Karl Marx, “The Value-Form,” in Capital Class , no. 4, p. 141. [52] Marx, Capital: Volume I , p. 188-9. [54] Marx, Capital: Volume III (London: Penguin, 1991) p. 1020.

[55] Marx, Capital: Volume I , p. Reflections A Research? 171-2. [56] In Volume II of Capital , Marx again supports the compatibility of compare and conrast essays communist production and the use of ocr gcse chemistry labor certificates, writing, “With collective production, money capital is completely dispensed with. The society distributes labour-power and means of production between the various branches of industry. There is no reason why the producers should not receive paper tokens permitting them to and conrast essays withdraw an amount corresponding to their labour time from the social consumption stocks. But these tokens are not money; they do not circulate.” Karl Marx, Capital: Volume II (London: Penguin, 1992) p. 434. [57] Marx, Grundrisse , pp. 172-3. Kees on Sun, 20th Mar 2016 7:33 am. This excellent article has been translated into French and will be published on http://www.aaap.be/Pages/Theme-Period-of-transition.html. We’d like to contact de writer. Would you accept an exchange of links?

Confronting “Anti-Neoliberal Left” Collaboration with Trumpism and the Far Right. Speakers: Andrew Kliman, Bill Weinberg, Brendan Cooney, Ravi Bali, Anne Jaclard. MHI can now be contacted directly in several locations in ocr gcse, the US, UK and Sweden. “Raya Dunayevskaya: Biography of an Idea” MHI is compare essays, happy to distribute this documentary film by chapters Alex Fletcher. It explores many major concepts of the philosopher, activist, and feminist Raya Dunayevskaya, who developed Marxist-Humanism over much of the last century, up until her death in 1987. The 79-minute film contains rare video clips of her speeches and offers glimpses of and conrast essays material in her archives, as well as featuring interviews of 3 MHI members who belonged to Dunayevskaya’s organization during her lifetime. Contact us if you would like MHI to join a discussion at your screening: [emailprotected]

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We have expanded our page of Archives of Marxist-Humanism. And Conrast Essays? It contains various writings by Raya Dunayevskaya from 1941-1987. Some are in the archives collection that she created and donated to Wayne State University (available on child cover, microfilm), and many are from additional original documents. Compare Essays? Documents and talks will continue to be added in the future. There are also some works by others, and more of these will also be added. Dunayevskaya’s books are described on ocr gcse coursework, our Literature page, along with pamphlets and works by others that are available for purchase. Some people are not seeing our letters sent via Mail Chimp because they are going into compare, spam, “junk,” a “promotions” box, or elsewhere.

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9 11 attack essay Analysis of the attacks of 9/11. September 11, 2001 attack is an historical event that was regarded by many people as the most significant event in and conrast, the United States of America. Division Problems. The attack led into compare deaths of a good number of people inside United States than any other one-day event since the ocr gcse chemistry, Pearl Harbor attack. It was noted that the people who passed away in compare and conrast essays, that terrifying incident that morning were just the most direct victims of the attack (Wilborn, 2003). In addition, many would be affected by the ensuing war on terror, the doctrine of pre-emptive attack on sovereign nations, an orgy of war and surveillance profiteering, and the ever increasing dismantling of corporate and government accountability. The September 11, 2001 attack was recognized as an essay, act of mass-murder that resulted into the deaths of nearly four thousand people.

The event left many people in great shock. However, other important facts concerning the attack remain a mystery to a large portion of the population. In many parts starting from the physics of the World Trade Center collapses up to the investigation processes, to who was the beneficiary from the and conrast, attack the reality of the entire event diverges from the myth. From the various analysis carried concerning the event of the September 11, 2001, the terrorists had been working to bring together a group of militants to attack the United States on the 10 th anniversary of the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington. Chemistry. How the essays, September 11, 2001 events influenced critical infrastructure as a whole. Critical infrastructure includes the systems and assets that are very vital in summary, performance of the United States` economy. Therefore, the destruction of such assets would have a very significant impact on the security of the national economy, public health or safety and the general security of the society. Examples of a country’s critical infrastructure include telecommunication systems, water supply infrastructures, production of electricity, and compare and conrast essays, agriculture among other systems. In the United States, the critical infrastructure departments consists of defense industrial base, energy sector, public health and healthcare, commercial facilities and transportation systems.

The critical infrastructures are known to be very vital because of their purposes or services they offer to the country. Furthermore, these assets and systems are very complex thus; the influences of someone my essay terrorist attack could spread far and and conrast, beyond the Ten page chapters, exact target and compare and conrast essays, reverberate long after the immediate damage (Kingsbury, 2003). The essential goods and services are provided by a research paper, agriculture, water and public health sector of the critical infrastructure of the United States. The country’s security and freedom are ensured by the government institutions. Compare. Whereas, the productivity of the economy and its growth is facilitated by the information and telecommunications department. According to research, the terrifying attack of September 11, 2001 created an immediate and substantial effect on the international travel worldwide. For instance, the United States especially experienced a reduction in international visitors in ap english, particular those flying in from overseas.

This reduction in international visitors illustrated the widespread concern about the safety of international air travel. It was also noted that economic factors were also the major contributor in the reduction in the travel to essays, the United States after the occurrence of the attack. The global economy is reported to have experienced an extreme recession rate that led to the reduction in demand for air travel between 2001 and division problems, 2002. The attacks of the September 11, 2001 led to the country’s reduction in the production of goods and services because of lack of essays foreign exchange that could be brought in by the international air travelers. For instance, due to the attack there were concerns and ap english essay, deteriorating economic conditions because of the more restrictions being put on the visa policy. Negative perceptions were created among the visitors thus increasing concern within the travel industry that the United States had become a less attractive travel destination hence spoiling its image worldwide. The September 11, 2001 attacks cause huge disruptions that affected a large number of critical infrastructure sectors in the United States both regionally and nationally. The major sectors affected included telecommunication systems, transportation, banking, and financial sectors. The nation’s dependence on information technology demonstrates the new vulnerabilities to critical infrastructure (National Infrastructure Protection Plan, 2006). Therefore, as a way of protecting these critical infrastructures it is necessary that the necessary personnel are identified and contacted at locations noted as critical infrastructures mainly for the purpose of opening communication lines. Through this easier acquisition of the important information that could assist in analyzing the location that will assist in compare and conrast, general protection is allowed.

There was creation of new office of long division problems homeland security within the national Security Council. The main purpose for this development was to establish and compare, coordinate the launching of a comprehensive national strategy that could offer security to reflections on writing, the United States from the and conrast essays, threats. It also had the responsibility of need to do my essay ensuring that United States critical infrastructure was protected from the attacks of the terrorists. The national critical infrastructure protection plans in every country chose to identify these infrastructures through a national catalogue of critical infrastructures and to create measures required for and conrast their protection especially from terrorist attacks. This could by adopting an international systems perspective. It could also be through accepting responsibility for hazards and disasters. Therefore, the September 11, 2001 was for sure a terrifying event that led the reduction of economic status of the United States.

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Doping In Sports Essays and Research Papers. of banned performance-enhancing drugs (PEDS) in sports is commonly referred to as doping . ? The word doping is compare . probably derived from the Dutch word dop, the name of an alcoholic beverage made of grape skins used by Zulu warriors in order to care, enhance their prowess in battle. The term became current around the turn of the 20th century, originally referring to illegal drugging of racehorses. ? ‘ Doping ’ however is as old as competitive sport itself. ? Modern times - In 1904 Olympics marathon. Anabolic steroid , Blood , Bone marrow 1357 Words | 7 Pages. Reality We Need To Embrace Doping in sports (Performance Enhancing Drugs) has become an issue in all sports of all . And Conrast! levels. In the last decade the amount of players who have been caught using performance enhancing drugs has tremendously increased. Ocr Gcse Chemistry! Doping is and conrast essays considered an reflections artificial aid. An artificial aid allows an athlete to compare, compete at a higher level.

However, these aids have technically been in use in sports since the Greeks first put on shoes in the Olympics. Doping is another artificial aid. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Androgen 1185 Words | 4 Pages. ? DRUGS , SPORTS , AND ETHICS Testosterone, Anabolic Steroids, and Human growth hormone . Ocr Gcse Chemistry Coursework! are the new trend in the sports filed, athletes are doping . What are the enhancement drugs , Why its becoming popular and compare and conrast essays why it should be banned? Testosterone is care cover produced by both women and men but men produced 10 times more than women.

It is compare and conrast male sex hormone, its effect in increasing muscle mass. Anabolic Steroids are derivatives of Testosterone which. Anabolic steroid , Doping , Drugs in on writing paper sport 983 Words | 3 Pages. Doping in Sports My high school cross country coach once told me, “Ryan, greatness isn’t just given out; you have to go out and . earn it. You can only earn it through an compare essays extreme amount of hard work and sacrifice.” Today how ever in the twenty first century this statement can become a lie. Greatness no longer requires the same amount of dedication as it did fifty years ago.

Everyday greatness is given in the forms of needles and small pills. The doping situation in professional and amateur sports. Amateur sports , Anabolic steroid , Androgen 2597 Words | 7 Pages. ?Doing steroids, which is known as doping , is need someone to do a problem in sports that needs to be stopped and needs to be stopped fast. Compare! Ask . anyone with a decent knowledge of sports and current events, and they will tell you: nearly every week, another high-profile doping story makes its way to the headlines of newspapers around the world. A quick Google News search for “ doping ” revealed over 7,500 results from the solving long, past week alone. The stories ranged from the lesser known 2 Youth Olympic Games Wrestlers who were. Alberto Contador , Anabolic steroid , Androgen 1172 Words | 5 Pages. Doping in Sports Steroids are a bigger problem now then they’ve ever have been.

They’ve always been a problem but they’ve been . incognito to the public eye. The New York Times bring up a troubling issue that’s been going on and conrast, for years and Ten page chapters that is the misuse of steroids in professional level sports . Compare And Conrast Essays! The New York Times recently featured an article entitled “Steroids in essay Sports ” Oct 11, 2012. In this article the times aims to compare essays, convince their readers that steroid use is bad if not worse then ever before. Anabolic steroid , Androgen , Barry Bonds 1719 Words | 5 Pages. Blood Doping in Sports The controversy of blood doping stems from the misuse of ocr gcse chemistry blood transfusion and . the essays, hormone erythropoietin in competitive sports . According to the World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), blood doping by blood transfusion and the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is known to increase the athlete's red blood cells count to enhance oxygen intake. This method allows the athletes' body to generate more energy by ocr gcse chemistry coursework increasing the and conrast, bodies aerobic capacity, or VO2 max, by retrieving pints. Blood , Blood transfusion , Drugs in sport 841 Words | 3 Pages. smokers from risking their health by smoking, why should we prohibit track stars or weightlifters from taking risks with their health in pursuit of their . goals? -Robert Simon, PhD Professor of Philosophy at Hamilton College Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport 2003 Seeking an ‘Unfair’ Advantage There is no coherent argument to support the view that enhancing performance is unfair; if it were, we would ban coaching and training.

Competition can be unfair if there is unequal access to reflections on writing, particular enhancements. Drug , Drugs in compare and conrast sport , International Olympic Committee 825 Words | 3 Pages. Should Doping Be Allowed in Sport. The occurrence of performance enhancing drugs in sport and what they mean to the social activity Savreet Saini 20389276 TA: William KIN . 250 March 18th, 2013. Solving Division Problems! Since the 1960s, following World War II, there has been an compare and conrast augmented use of coursework illicit drugs by compare athletes (soc notes). Doping , commonly defined as the use of long division problems a drug or blood product to compare and conrast essays, improve athletic performance, is one of the most controversial matters in modern sport (lawref). There are arguments for both the cover letter, acceptance and compare and conrast ban on. Carl Lewis , Doping , Drug 1553 Words | 4 Pages. ?Blood Doping Although “ doping ” is the illegal use of drugs by athletes to enhance performance as well as training or . participating in a sporting event, most athletes are also relatively unlikely to ever undergo testing. The first drug to be used was heroin and morphine.

Heron was mainly found in horse racing circles, while morphine was the thing to do which was so-called endurance in Ten page on 2 sports . Using drugs to cheat in sports is essays not new but is becoming more effective. Even if performance-enhancing. Amateur sports , Drug addiction , Drugs in sport 1273 Words | 3 Pages. Illegal Doping in ocr gcse Sports By Christian Folsom 2013 Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the cheating that is taking . place in professional sports through doping . Introduction I. When you compete in a sport do you compete fairly? Better yet, when you compete, do you expect other competitors to compete fairly? Many people in professional sports are not competing fairly. II.

Competition has been around for as long as man has been around. When one competes they are putting all of their practice. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Androgen 1101 Words | 3 Pages. Research Focus: Sports amp; Fair Play Dilemma: Pragmatism versus idealism Understanding the current reality 1. What are the ideas of . fair play in compare sports ? a) What principles and/or value lie behind the ideals of fair play? 'Fair play' is usually understood to solving problems, mean using only and conrast, tactics that are in accord with the spirit of the sport . In ethics, the concept of fairness involves treating everyone equally and impartially. It is complex notion that comprises and embodies a number of values. 2008 Summer Olympics , Athens , Avery Brundage 760 Words | 3 Pages. The term “ doping in sports ” refers to child care letter, the sudden outbreak of recent performance-enhancing drugs used by compare and conrast essays professional athletes. . Steroids, the long problems, most commonly used drug, promotes protein and growth of the muscle tissue that can help the athletes build muscle far bigger then any workout could (Bosshardt). Compare And Conrast! Even though each professional league has their own drug testing policy, no league is someone to do my essay clean of the drugs. The benefits of taking performance-enhancing drugs ranges from not only gaining stamina, but also.

Bodybuilding , Doping , Drugs in sport 627 Words | 2 Pages. Analytical Summary Paper: The Doping Dilemma In “The Doping Dilemma”, Michael Shermer writes about the consequences and the . ethics behind performance enhancing substances in professional sports . He begins with an compare anecdote, which describes the need someone my essay, feeling of getting “dropped by your competitors on essays, a climb” (420:2). As described by the author in the development of the solving long division, story, every athlete has a genetic limitation that regular training cannot exceed (421:4). According to compare, Shermer, the only thing to be. Amateur sports , Competition , Doping 973 Words | 3 Pages. project on Doping in Sports . Doping is a very controversial topic in sports , mainly baseball and child letter . the Olympics. Doping refers to the act of using performance enhancing drugs to gain an unfair advantage over your opponent. Some examples of doping substances include anabolic steroids, erythropoietin (EPO), tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) and modafinil. Some substances are legal in small doses such as alcohol and caffeine. And Conrast Essays! Another form of doping is long division problems blood doping . Blood doping is the compare essays, practice. 2008 Summer Olympics , Erythropoietin , Hematocrit 385 Words | 3 Pages.

Blood Doping Introduction: The sporting culture has become highly competitive, causing athletes to ap english, turn to drugs or supplements to compare and conrast, gain that . edge over need my essay other athletes. Some athletes have even looked past drugs and supplements to pass the competition testing policies, turning to and conrast essays, blood doping . Blood doping is the act of extracting blood from an solving problems athlete, then prior to compare, competition re-injecting the blood back into the athlete’s body. Reflections A Research! This is a very dangerous procedure that is usually performed by a doctor. Anemia , Blood , Bone marrow 1099 Words | 3 Pages. common in today’s modern sports . Doping in sport refers to the use of prohibited substances that may give an . athlete an essays artificially improvement in their natural ability over other competitors. To Do! The fundamental principals of fair play and sporting ethics are violated.

Highly skilled athletes are not rewarded for compare and conrast essays, hard work but instead those associated with banned substances are recognised for their achievements. The BALCO scandal has highlighted the ever-existing problem in sport . Athletes, even at the. Bioethics , Carl Lewis , Cheating 2071 Words | 5 Pages. Sport is so much a part of daily life for so many Australians. An Australian child is brought up to idolise their sporting heroes and to pursue . the sport itself. It is devastating to ap english essay introductions, think that maybe our sporting heroes are cheats.

Today students are being pressured to perform at higher levels to and conrast essays, make the first team, representative side or a sporting scholarship at a Greater Public Schools (GPS) which then could lead to the opportunity to make a break into the professional sporting teams. With the. Doping , Drug , Drugs in sport 2501 Words | 7 Pages. ?Consider if steroids were legal, how much more exciting sports would be and t would be fair to everyone. Why: As an athlete and ap english introductions competing in . Compare And Conrast Essays! a high level sport , I easily understand athletes and their reasons for doping in ocr gcse coursework sports . And Conrast Essays! At a high level you’re always striving to my essay, be the best you can be ad better than your opponents to win. Also, as a candidate for the Provincial and National Team for Canada I have experience in knowing what you need to know and expect while participating in essays these events. Anabolic steroid , Blood , Drugs in sport 1237 Words | 3 Pages. Blood Doping: Is It Rational and chemistry coursework Ethical?

Edward Goldschmidt Comp. And Conrast! 1112 Prof. Flocco 2/12/2013 Blood Doping : Is it Rational and Ethical? You’re in Ten page chapters the big race and your rival . who you’ve been neck and neck with all year long somehow beats you by way more than usual. You ran one of the best races of your life and compare and conrast essays he somehow beat you and you don’t know how. Winning that race would have gotten a lot of Ten page on 2 opportunities from big colleges and instead of looking at you they’re looking instead, at your rival. Compare And Conrast Essays! How would you feel if you. Anabolic steroid , Blood , Erythropoietin 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Lance Armstrong's Doping and Lying. Do you think a professional athlete should be punished for cheating in an event that has already taken place?

This is the case with professional cycler Lance . Armstrong. He was found guilty of reflections paper doping , or using an illegal performance enhancing drug, in the Tour de France, which is the biggest cycling race in all of professional cycling. He was rightly stripped of and conrast essays his titles and Olympic medals for the illegal uses of drugs such as EPO, Testosterone Enhancement, steroids, and other performance enhancing. Amateur sports , Lance Armstrong , Professional sports 793 Words | 3 Pages. R-EPO amp; EPO Blood Doping Erythropoietin (EPO) is a naturally occurring hormone; EPO is produced by the kidneys. Need To Do! EPO is a hormone that . Compare And Conrast! stimulates the production of red blood cells in our body. However, the hormone EPO can also be manufactured synthetically. Reflections Paper! Recombinant EPO (R-EPO) is the synthetic version of EPO and it’s used as a medicine for patients suffering from a disease like anaemia which cause deprivation red blood cells (RBC’s).

R-EPO used to essays, bring patients red blood count to a normal. Anemia , Blood , Bone marrow 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Blood Doping in ap english essay Endurance Sports Blood doping has become a consistant part of compare and conrast essays sports and fair play. . Blood doping enhances your performance by ap english essay introductions increasing red blood cell mass and as a result delivering more oxygen to muscle. This “boost” of energy has sparked major controversy in the sports world for what it can do for an athlete during endurance events such as running. The risks involve putting the cardiovascular system of the athlete being in severe danger because of compare and conrast this procedure. Still, there. Anemia , Blood , Drugs in Ten page on 2 sport 2836 Words | 8 Pages. Sports Doping Comparisons Is there really a difference between anabolic steroids and blood doping ? In reality, . don't they both enhance athletic performances?

To solve these questions you have to figure out what are they, how they work and what are the side effects. Anabolic steroids, or more precisely, anabolic/androgenic steroids, belong to essays, a group known as ergogenic, or so-called 'performance-enhancing,' drugs. They are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, a natural male hormone. 'Anabolic'. Anabolic steroid , Androgen , Blood 606 Words | 2 Pages. Drugs in Sport The use of drugs in chemistry coursework sports goes back a long-long time, in fact back to the original Olympics held from 776 to . Essays! 393 BC. Old texts suggest that humans were always trying to find ways to do more work with less effort (work hard but suffer less). This caused them to find, invent amp; use drugs or supplements.

Thus people began using drugs amp; performance enhancers. Doping is the use of performance enhancing drugs in on writing paper sport , it is illegal, but the use of compare and conrast essays drugs completely isn’t. That. Carl Lewis , Doping , Drugs in sport 1202 Words | 3 Pages. Adam Licht FYS Research paper Darft History of doping Texts going back in history suggest that men have always sought a way to work . harder or at child cover letter, least to suffer less at compare, what they were doing. It has even been argued that Adam and Eve were the first to take a substance (the forbidden fruit) to gain “god like power”. Essay Introductions! When the fittest of a nation were selected as athletes or combatants, they were fed diets and given treatments considered beneficial. Scandinavian mythology says Berserkers. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Ancient Olympic Games 945 Words | 3 Pages. excellence in performance and physical fitness.

Helping them are refined training methods and technologies. Essays! Never have athletes had more training aids at . Ocr Gcse Coursework! their disposal. Twenty years ago, drug testing in essays sport was in its beginning stages. Now, it is ap english introductions complex and in constant change. Keeping sport clean has become a never-ending race between drug testers and those who choose to cheat. And as much as the quest for the podium or championship should be the and conrast, big news, often negative reports about positive. Anabolic steroid , Doping , Drug 2037 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in our society for thousands of years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the first . Ap English Essay! Olympic Games in 776 BC. They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to be a part of society. The 204 nations who participated in the 2012 Olympics give a glance of and conrast how almost everyone in the world is exposed to sports . Reflections On Writing A Research! There is absolutely no doubt that the world’s society is affected by sports . Compare! However, the essay introductions, question at hand is compare and conrast essays not whether sports affect.

Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits of Sports From a presentation to a High School: Benefits of Sports (PDF 104k). Get healthy! Health is the reason . for ap english essay, exercise, not sports — sure. But a great side-effect of sports is exercise. Exercise improves cardiovascular fitness and controls your weight. More importantly — being active in sports can help you look good! Athletic activity: * Reduces body fat, strengthens bones, and and conrast essays builds muscle * Improves coordination, balance, flexibility and endurance * Slows the someone to do, aging. Animal Collective , Exercise , Muscle 1811 Words | 6 Pages. But I think as generation is passing by compare the importance of sports and games is diminishing.Todays youth is ap english essay introductions more interested in virtual games . like playing Xbox ,PS,mobile games rather than real games which could be beneficial for them.Not only shifting of interest to virtual games,some have reasons of studies or work and they are not able to take out compare and conrast essays time for sports and games or they don’t give much importance to it.But here my motive is to make you aware of its benefits and what are the things you.

Game , Health , Henry Luce 873 Words | 3 Pages. Ydiop Bdap and Shemesh Lee 3/1/2012 KIN 330 Sociocultural Analyses of Sport and Exercise Sports Observation Physical . activity is a form of long division exercise of movement that includes daily activities and many different sports . Does physical activity have to and conrast essays, be a vigorous form of exercise or movement? No, it doesn’t have to be only vigorous exercise or movements. Physical activity can consist of planned actions, like walking the dog, jogging, speed walking, doing chores, loading and unloading trucks. Basketball , Game , Observation 1688 Words | 4 Pages. scussions of violence in sports , like discussions of deviance, are often connected with people’s ideas about the moral condition of society as . a whole. When athletes engage in quasi-criminal violence on the ? eld or criminal violence off the ? eld, many people see it as evidence that the moral foundation of society is eroding.

They fear that young people who look up to athletes as role models are learning a warped sense of morality. Statements about violence in sports are often confusing. Some people. Aggression , Anomie , Crime 2477 Words | 7 Pages. The Importance of Drug Testing in Sports. cheating.” Cheating is wrong in need to do every aspect in and conrast life; relationships, school, work, and to do most definitely sports . Cheating is never a good . choice; there will always be consequences if one is caught in the act or after. Cheating will never make one look better; it is unfair and gives one an compare essays advantage that is not deserved. Someone To Do My Essay! There are many performance-enhancing drugs floating around professional sports now a day. Many professionals are tempted day to day with drugs such as: Erythropoietin, Human Growth Hormone. Anabolic steroid , Doping , Drugs in sport 1445 Words | 4 Pages. Unit assessment Sports Performance (FD): 50% Assignment, 50% Examination Assignment: Making reference to compare and conrast, theoretical literature and . integrating pertinent examples, critically examine how the presence of drugs in reflections on writing a research paper sport could be harmful to both active participants and the broader sports community.

Due date: 12 Noon on Friday 7th December 2012 [feedback available on-line from 18th January, 2013] Length: 1500 words Value: 50% Introduction This essay examines. Carl Lewis , Doping , Drugs in sport 1929 Words | 6 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society I’m of two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society. On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Compare! Sports can build one’s character and promote the virtues of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to a greater cause. Over the summary on 2 chapters, past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Compare And Conrast! Sports play the fundamental role.

Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. children active and healthy. It is so that they don’t become lazy and unmotivated. By playing sports it is a way for kids to become active and . sociable with other kids around them rather than having them sit on reflections, the computer all day or watching T.V. When it comes to team sports it can have its advantages and disadvantages, it can be worthwhile for that kid or it can end up in a disaster. Being in compare essays a team sport takes effort and dedication, when a team member is someone my essay down and was counting on compare and conrast, you to be there. American football , Brain , Concussion 1453 Words | 3 Pages.

A form of art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is need someone to do my essay activities that consist of physical attempt, ability, . entertainment, and compare mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and chemistry coursework skateboarding, are said to be a physical art, but why can’t they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isn’t just a form of compare and conrast art, it can also be competitive. Dance is someone to do something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and tons of practice. Dance team is always looked at compare and conrast, as the entrainment or just performing, never seen. Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages. ?Practicing a sport is need much more than the and conrast, sole act of pushing my body through exhaustion or using my skills to reach a goal.

Many positive . Ocr Gcse Chemistry Coursework! results come with participating in and conrast essays a sport . There aren’t too many negatives that can take place. After getting involved in ocr gcse chemistry sports , there are many effects that can happen including physical, human and social effects. The first major effect of practicing a sport is compare essays that I will develop physical abilities. My body will be in ocr gcse chemistry better shape, and I’ll be able to achieve. Better , Exercise , Hypertension 1912 Words | 5 Pages.

Name : Zuhrotul Inayah / 11320098 Class : B Subject : Writing SPORT Doing sport activities are mostly done to keep health . Compare! such as jogging, riding bike, and doing gym by paper many people. These are done twice every week especially at compare and conrast essays, Monday and Saturday because these are a free day and they have many free times to do sport activities. Need Someone To Do My Essay! Then, sport is very satisfied to get a good healthy and is useful activities. Compare! Sport could give more positive result than doing something which is on writing a research not beneficial like. Blood , Exercise , Heart 2629 Words | 7 Pages. incidents in the news such as the National Rugby League and Lance Armstrong doping scandals have made this a hot topic and compare increased public . awareness. Performance enhancement in sport has been around for a very long time, as far back as ancient Greek Olympians and Roman Gladiators. This essay will explore the following issues and put forth the argument that professional sport people should not be banned for life from playing their sport if they are convicted of using performance enhancing drugs. These issues. Amateur sports , Drugs in sport , Professional sports 1278 Words | 4 Pages.

Steroids in Sports In many places around the world today, sports competitions are increasing in popularity due to solving long division problems, the quest to and conrast, . win, to be the best. Child Letter! Many athletes will do anything to compare essays, win, whether that means breaking the rules or cheating. The desire to win is imbedded into all humans, especially when professional athletes of today’s age are becoming icons and are viewed as figures of greatness by reflections their rare abilities to perform at such a high level. The quest for money and compare and conrast fame is also a common reason. Anabolic steroid , Barry Bonds , Baseball 2570 Words | 7 Pages. Corruption In Sports Money Matters the Most Sport is ocr gcse a big phenomenon of today, it is very important part of today life. . However, sport is rather contradictory phenomenon.

It is connected with big humanistic values and it formats life and values of billions of people on the one side. Compare! It is also connected with dirty business, doping , corruption and violence on the other side. Corruption in paper sport should be matter of concern not of pessimism. We are not speaking about decline of and conrast sport values. But we. Bribery , Cricket , International Cricket Council 2476 Words | 7 Pages. In the early time periods, when humans competed in sports , they have tried to gain an advantage against their challenger. The yearning for on writing a research paper, . all competitive increase is a component of human nature.

As a consequence, there are thousands of records supporting use of performance enhancing drugs as far back as ancient times. Doping is the most scandalous and talked-about matters in sports currently and over compare and conrast essays the past couple of decade’s performance-enhancers, such as EPO have become a part of today culture. Anabolic steroid , Blood , Drugs in sport 2289 Words | 7 Pages. Annotated Bibliography Matt. Mackenzie Topic: Elite Sport Resource 1 Magazine: Triathlete Location amp; Access: this magazine can be found . in newsagents throughout Australia. As well as this it is cheap costing only $10.50 Subject Area: Nutrition for Triathletes at the elite level.

Taylor, P. 2010, ‘Nutrition Q amp; A: Boost you immune system with good nutritional choices’, Triathlete magazine issue March 2010, pg. 118 In this article Taylor reviews the influences having a poor immune system. Bendigo, Victoria , Charles La Trobe , Elite 1806 Words | 6 Pages. Doping in Sport and the AFL Policy on letter, Drugs. ?Drugs in sport What is it?

Drug’s in compare essays sport or doping is ap english essay when an athlete takes performance enhancing drugs or any . banned substance. The sports that have the most trouble with drugs are Weightlifting, cycling, badminton, boxing, track and compare and conrast field. Reflections On Writing A Research! These athletes take drugs so they can be the best in there sport . One of the most recent cases was American sprinter Marion Jones who won five gold medals in the 2000 Olympics at essays, Sydney, since then she has been stripped of all her medals after admitting. 2000 Summer Olympics , Drug addiction , Drugs in sport 475 Words | 2 Pages. Issue in Sport : The Ethical and ocr gcse coursework Legal Sport is a big phenomenon of today, it is a very important part of today life. However, . sport has it contradictory phenomenon. It is connected to big humanistic values and it formats life and billions of people on the one side. It is also connected with dirty business, to name one, corruption. Corruption is compare essays sport should be matter of concern.

This is summary on 2 chapters a high issue and a challenge if it is not deal properly. To prevent and compare eliminating corruption, it is ocr gcse chemistry coursework important. Amateur sports , Bookmaker , Bribery 1885 Words | 5 Pages. thing? In the world of sports , we see respected athletes not only acquiring fame and wealth, but influencing things like racial and gender . equality. And Conrast Essays! Yet, we also see on television what happens when athletes are dishonest; they can be publicly stripped of their dignity and reputation. Furthermore we see on television examples of moral deviance in business, politics, and entertainment; as well as the dire consequences of being held responsible for such acts. Participating in sports exposes individuals.

Academic dishonesty , Dishonesty , Gerald Graff 2442 Words | 7 Pages. Steroid Use in Sports: The Deadly Decision. Steroids: The Deadly Decision Sports can teach us so many things. We learn to take responsibility, work hard towards a common goal, and ap english essay . sportsmanship towards one another. The basis of these principles isn’t taught in the big leagues but in the midst of high school sports where most find their passion for a sport . Compare! This is the level where a strong foundation for these principles is built. Child Care! High school sports provide an outlet for some students as well as a place for healthy competition until the compare and conrast essays, competition. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Androgen 1515 Words | 4 Pages. Joe Barsh amp; Olivia Grout EDPE 414 6 Dec. Essay Introductions! 2012 Steroid Use in Sports The NCAA and MLB have very different, yet strict drug policies . that protect their athletes and run throughout their programs. Termed as “Performance Enhancers”, the NCAA bands any drug or hormonal substance that is chemically or pharmacologically related to testosterone, as well as any current illegal drugs.

Stimulants, anabolic agents, masking agents, analogues, anti-estrogen and and conrast essays beta-2Aagonists are examples of ap english currently. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Androgen 1694 Words | 5 Pages. Analyse the Methods Used by the World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) to Regulate the Performance of Athletes’ World-Wide Using Three Ethical Principles of the Global Business Standards Codex (Gbsc). The methods used by the world Anti- Doping Agency (WADA) are very important in regulate the performance of athletes all over the world. Essays! These . methods are very strict methods, which promote a healthy, and safety for athletes, with a purpose of ocr gcse trying to improve high performance’s qualities and enhance the level of playing field. The WADA methods are based on three ethical principles of the Global Business Standard Codex (GBSC), which is citizenship, dignity and fairness principles. The WADA placed. Carl Lewis , Doping , Drug 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

Use of Drugs in Sports The nature of sports inculcates a strong desire to win among the athletes, and many athletes are willing . to do anything to win. Every athlete wants to get an edge over their opponents, causing many athletes to turn to performance enhancing drugs to and conrast, gain this edge. Performance enhancing drugs (PED) are the artificial substances used by ocr gcse chemistry coursework athletes to enhance and improve their performance in sports . The common types of PED include steroids, blood doping , stimulants and and conrast essays Erythropoietin. Caffeine , Carl Lewis , Doping 2694 Words | 7 Pages. NFL named him their acclaimed 1960s Man of the Decade. Division! His statement that winning is the only thing that matters in and conrast sport , is one of the . truths that is still inherent in ap english introductions today's world of sports . Athletes are willing to compare, cheat to guarantee success, either through the use of ap english introductions performance-enhancing drugs, or through the act of injuring others. And Conrast! These days, drugs, blood doping , corruption, injuring others and someone my essay the consequences of winning and more importantly losing is all evident. Lombardi's statement. Blood , Gold , Gold medal 2731 Words | 7 Pages.

Lance Armstrong and His Doping Scandal Speech. Full-Sentence Outline Template Topic: Lance Armstrong and his Doping Scandal Specific Purpose: My Purpose of giving the speech is to compare and conrast, . persuade the class that the Lance Armstrong’s doping scandal was more complicated than it seemed. I want to persuade the class that however that it is fair for him to loose his titles because he cheated but he should not be treated as a criminal or villain when considering the history of the sport . Introduction: Attention-getter: Can you name a few cyclists besides. American Cancer Society , Cycling , Doping 1057 Words | 4 Pages. Sport to need someone to do my essay, promote education, health, development and peace “ Sport is a universal language. At its best it can bring people . Compare Essays! together, no matter what their origin, background, religious beliefs or economic status. Division! ” United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan Why a year of sport ? The United Nations has been collaborating with non-governmental organizations, the private sector, universities, parliaments and compare and conrast a range of religious and spiritual communities for reflections a research, a long time. What was missing. Ban Ki-moon , Boutros Boutros-Ghali , Kofi Annan 1050 Words | 4 Pages. Sports Marketing The Four E’s Group Presentation and Report Sports Marketing The Four E’s Group Presentation and Report . Contents: Page: 2. Introduction, Engagement 3. Experience 4. Entertainment, Emotion 5. Essays! Conclusion 6. Bibliography and PREZI link Introduction Sports ’ marketing is becoming more readily known as the vehicle that drives the sports business to success.

It is “orientated toward consumers and about thinking, deciding and acting in terms of the final. Business , Emotion , Marketing 1971 Words | 7 Pages. Why are named drugs used in sports ? When we exercise, there is an increase in the blood flow which provides the muscles with a constant . To Do! supply of compare oxygen and nutrients and all the toxic waste products are removed from the on 2 chapters, body by this metabolism. Compare! There are many instances where an athlete has used a drug to enhance the desired output in an unfair and illegal manner. Such a practice is termed as “ doping ”. Eventually in the long run, the effect of drug taking leads to Ten page on 2 chapters, other mental disorders and even. Amphetamine , Anabolic steroid , Cardiac arrest 986 Words | 4 Pages. be a good leader. In this portfolio I am going to explore different leadership approaches and attributes within the context of sport . Through . examples of current leaders in sport I hope to identify similarities to theoretical evidence. Sport is a disciplined activity that demonstrates a lot of role models for leadership, not just athletes, a lot of and conrast essays jobs within the sport sector include leadership qualities.

What makes a leader? The debate between is a leader born or made has opened up a lot of. Ethical leadership , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 2158 Words | 7 Pages. said to be physically possible or impossible. At the point of this battle between man and solving problems his restraints, is the sporting arena. Sporting figures have . always been globally awarded heroic status due to the amazing physical feats they may overcome. Sport means a great deal to a lot of people and there is globally a great deal of compare and conrast money involved in chemistry sporting business annually.

In the quest for glory and riches, despite an increase in emotional pressure from the public eye, our modern day warriors push. Addiction , Alcohol abuse , Drug 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Should Drugs Be Legalised in Sport? drugs be legal in sports ? There is a lot made of sports people taking performance enhancing drugs during training or . competition. But many people are still split on compare essays, the subject of drugs in child cover sport . is it fair , is it in the spirit of the sport , there arguments for both sides in the sports world, in compare and conrast my following research I will put forward an un-biased view on both sides of the coin, using many sources of past research , books , and trusted internet sites.

I will be discussing sports has a whole industry. Ancient Olympic Games , Doping , Drug addiction 1406 Words | 4 Pages. believe it is the enormous amount of pressure that is ap english essay put on compare and conrast, these athletes. Although many current athletes secretly follow the cheating paths of Barry Bonds . and Lance Armstrong to excel in solving division problems their respective sports , they fail to realize the culture of cheating changes the way people look at the sport . Performance enhancing drugs are used by professional athletes to improve their efficiency. Performance enhancing drugs, or steroids, increases testosterone in compare and conrast the body and Ten page summary on 2 chapters helps athletes recover from.

Alex Rodriguez , Barry Bonds , Baseball 1313 Words | 4 Pages.