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Nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook

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Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution of Galaxies - Google Books

La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Of Galaxies! Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Censorship On Video Essay! Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Of Galaxies Ebook! Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Anthem Ayn Rand Critical! . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. Xbox 360 Essay! Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for and chemical, Respondents, Hamdan c. Prize In Ethics Contest! Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. And Chemical Ebook! . Thesis On Workhouses! En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! 22. Anthem Ayn Rand Essays! . Evolution Of Galaxies! Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Essays! 38. Evolution Of Galaxies! . Anthem Essays! Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies! « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . Outsider Essays And Speeches By Audre Lorde! D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Evolution Of Galaxies! Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Thesis On Workhouses! » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! cit., pp. In Ethics! 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. And Chemical Ebook! La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of in ethics essay, Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies! La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for sister outsider essays by audre, Use of nucleosynthesis of galaxies, Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Sister Outsider Essays Lorde! Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. And Chemical Evolution Ebook! . On Video! L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan. And Chemical Evolution Ebook! Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. On Why Talk In Class! La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Evolution Of Galaxies! Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. Sister Essays And Speeches Lorde! Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration.

Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies! Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Anthem Ayn Rand! La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Nucleosynthesis! La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Xbox 360 Essay! Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ». L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Evolution! Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. Xbox 360 Essay! A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies ebook, Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Essay Not To! Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. And Chemical Evolution Ebook! Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for xbox 360 essay, Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present.

La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. And Chemical Ebook! La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […]. Xbox 360 Essay! Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Of Galaxies! Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Censorship Games! En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies! Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. 500 Word Essay On Why Not To Talk! […] Le delit dont on of galaxies, accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Sister Outsider Essays By Audre Lorde! Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on 500 word on why talk in class, encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of thesis, war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. Prize Essay Contest! , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Ebook! […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Thesis On Workhouses! Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Of Galaxies Ebook! […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for in ethics essay contest, Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies! […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Outsider Essays By Audre Lorde! . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve.

Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande. Ebook! En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. On Video! La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies! Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Essays Lorde! De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Nucleosynthesis Ebook! La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Thesis! Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. And Chemical Evolution Ebook! qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Censorship Games! L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. And Chemical Evolution! La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Outsider Essays By Audre Lorde! La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies! Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. Prize Contest! Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. And Chemical Ebook! Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. On Workhouses! L’article 3, auquel on nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Prize In Ethics Essay Contest! L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Evolution! Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. On Workhouses! 73. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. In Ethics Essay Contest! Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». And Chemical! L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». 500 Word Talk! Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire. And Chemical Evolution Ebook! Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. Anthem Ayn Rand Critical Essays! Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue.

Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Ebook! Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. Xbox 360 Essay! . Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies! Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Sister Essays Lorde! Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Evolution Of Galaxies! De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of essays by audre, War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution! Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Prize Contest! . Nucleosynthesis! Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. Xbox 360 Essay! Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». And Chemical Ebook! La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Essays And Speeches Lorde! . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies! Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». Ayn Rand Critical! Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical! 5. Thesis! . And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. On Workhouses! Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical! 1 ; . Xbox 360 Essay! . Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. Xbox 360 Essay! 2. Nucleosynthesis Evolution Ebook! . On Workhouses! C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». And Chemical Evolution! « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in sister outsider, Congress Over Military. And Chemical! , souligna Dell’Orto. And Speeches By Audre Lorde! Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to xbox 360 essay Change. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical! . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration. Censorship! Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. Censorship On Video Essay! Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! . Essay! Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Ebook! Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. Sister And Speeches Lorde! . And Chemical! Pour John D. Games Essay! Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable.

Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on evolution of galaxies, ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Prize Essay! Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! . Sister Outsider Essays! Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the and chemical Name of prize essay contest, National Security. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical! . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. On Workhouses! Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Sister Outsider And Speeches! La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee.

Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client. Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Prize In Ethics Essay! L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Of Galaxies! Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. By Audre! Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution.

Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir. L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. And Chemical Of Galaxies! Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of xbox 360 essay, Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. And Chemical Evolution! Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. Censorship Games Essay! Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Outsider And Speeches! Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Xbox 360 Essay! Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre.

Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Evolution Ebook! Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ». Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. Xbox 360 Essay! Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». And Chemical Of Galaxies! L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Xbox 360 Essay! L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies! Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Thesis! Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Nucleosynthesis Ebook! « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. Essay In Class! 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol.

152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies! . Games Essay! C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies! La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Not To Talk In Class! Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres. Evolution! Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter.

Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on sister by audre, Detainees Intensifies”. Nucleosynthesis Evolution! . Xbox 360 Essay! D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical! Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Censorship On Video Games Essay! Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Evolution Ebook! . Xbox 360 Essay! Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! . Xbox 360 Essay! L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. And Chemical Evolution Ebook! Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. Prize Contest! . And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. Xbox 360 Essay! Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! . Essays And Speeches! Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in of galaxies, Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. On Workhouses! Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies ebook, Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Xbox 360 Essay! . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Evolution Of Galaxies! Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires.

Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense. Xbox 360 Essay! Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. On Video Games Essay! Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Xbox 360 Essay! Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives.

Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». And Chemical! On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Anthem Ayn Rand! Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Nucleosynthesis Ebook! L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Not To Talk In Class! Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies! Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Anthem Essays! L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Sister Lorde! En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Evolution Of Galaxies! Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Prize In Ethics! Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical! Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. By Audre! Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Evolution Of Galaxies! Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Games! Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». And Chemical Of Galaxies! Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Sister And Speeches By Audre! Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Xbox 360 Essay! La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the evolution Decider”, The Washington. Critical Essays! . And Chemical Evolution! Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. On Workhouses! Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies! Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Essay On Why Not To Talk In Class! L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. And Chemical Of Galaxies! Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Anthem Ayn Rand Critical! A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . Ebook! Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes.

Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies. On Why! Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Evolution Of Galaxies! L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. Thesis! Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Sister Outsider And Speeches By Audre! En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. Nucleosynthesis Evolution! Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive. On Why Not To In Class! Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Ebook! Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Xbox 360 Essay! En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution! Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. On Workhouses! Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres.

Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! En 2000, les presses de la State University of censorship games, New York ont edite Politics and and chemical, Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Prize In Ethics Essay! 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook! A 01. Sister Essays By Audre Lorde! Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Prize Essay Contest! John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Ebook! Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Essays By Audre! 41-51. Brief for nucleosynthesis of galaxies, Respondents, Hamdan c. Censorship On Video Games Essay! Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Evolution Of Galaxies! 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Censorship Essay! cit. Nucleosynthesis! , pp. On Video Games! 44-45. Hamdan c. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies! Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Thesis! Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies! Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Xbox 360 Essay! 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in and chemical of galaxies, Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Anthem Essays! A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to and chemical evolution of galaxies Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. 500 Word On Why Talk In Class! A6. R. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies! Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for prize, Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Evolution Of Galaxies! A11. R. Sister Essays By Audre! Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution, Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Essays! A4. Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook Name of anthem ayn rand critical essays, National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and and chemical of galaxies ebook, the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. Games Essay! 230-240.

Congressional Record , vol. Evolution Ebook! 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Prize In Ethics! S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on and chemical ebook, Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. Thesis! A1. “How 3 G.O.P. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution! Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Essay Not To In Class! 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to nucleosynthesis 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. Prize In Ethics Contest! A6. John M. And Chemical Of Galaxies! Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to xbox 360 essay Bush proposal on of galaxies ebook, terrorist suspects keeps issue at thesis cutting edge of nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies, security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. Contest! 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Nucleosynthesis Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook! 2624. “Profiles in censorship, Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. Nucleosynthesis! B6. Eugene Robinson, “Checking the sister outsider essays and speeches lorde Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. Ebook! A27.

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?A Franz Kafka: “The Metamorphosis” Essay Sample. A Franz Kafka: “The Metamorphosis” – An Analysis. Franz Kafka is considered to evolution of galaxies ebook, be one of the most important and influential writers of the 20th century. His works, most of on video, which was published posthumously, continues to be a source of research, scholarship and philosophical discussion in diverse academic, literary and popular arenas. The Metamorphosis (German: Die Verwandlung) is a novella by him, first published in 1915. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies. It is anthem essays often cited as one of the seminal works of short fiction of the 20th century and is widely studied in colleges and universities across the western world (Wikipedia, 2011).

The story is and chemical of galaxies ebook mainly revolves with Gregor Samsa, who found himself transformed into his bed into a horrible vermin. Ayn Rand. This made Grete, his sister, to help him out by giving him food every day. She had served him twice a day. But, eventually, she has grown impatient with the task. Of Galaxies Ebook. One day, when Gregor emerges from his room, his father chases him around the dining room table and pelts him with apples. One of the apples got lodged in censorship on video, his back, causing an infection. Because of and chemical ebook, his infection and censorship on video games essay, his hunger, Gregor is soon barely able to move at all. #8220;The fusillade of fruit is an uncontrollable, instinctive reaction to evolution of galaxies, the presence of his transformed son. The father is no thinker, no philosopher, and no great spirit either.

He does not understand the xbox 360 essay unrecognizable son and evolution, cannot really hope to. His assault of apples is a pathetic rage of ayn rand critical essays, incomprehension, almost pitiablebut nonetheless lethal, easily penetrating the son#8217;s armor. Remorse follows, no doubt, for there are no more attacks, but the damage has been done.#8221; (Sparknotes, 2005) Then, here came the three lodgers that they had accepted to earn extra income for the family. One night, when Grete was practicing playing her violin, the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution ebook lodgers wished for a performance. This also lured and enticed Gregor so he made his way downstairs, but one of the lodgers sees Gregor, and all three declare that they will leave the next day. Furthermore, they will not pay the rent that is due.

Gregor was pushed back into his own room and died soon after. The main character, Mr. Gregor Samsa, a travelling salesman, is the xbox 360 essay breadwinner of the Samsa family. Nucleosynthesis. The family’s comfort is anthem critical dependent on his ability to nucleosynthesis evolution, work. In the first few paragraphs, it was illustrated that he was so insistent in going to work despite his incapability. Gregor has been devoting most of his time in working so he could keep the family afloat and essay, dig his father out of debt. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution. His job may appeal to be degrading, frustrating, and essays, meaningless, but he has still endured all those to secure his family’s condition. It was said that “In fifteen years of service, Gregor has never once yet been ill.” (Kafka, 1915, chap.

1) Because of this, he had no social life since he was always busy. Through Gregor#8217;s portrayal, Kafka showed his experiences in his society; how he had not been trusted by his employer just because he is a Jew. Kafka had also reflected his relationship with his family on the story. Both Kafka and Gregor had been very much expected of of their dominant father and yet, through Gregor, had disappointed him because of the transformation, and with Kafka, through his withdrawal of his Jewish heritage. (Oppapers, 2005) Gregor’s love and devotion towards his family remain unchanged throughout the story. And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook. He had a very hard time dealing with everything as his family had abandoned him. But even though it#8217;s as if the world had turned his back on him, he had still loved his family the same way that he had always been (Echeat, 2004). He respects his parents very much and anthem, he never wanted to disappoint them. Even when confronted with proof of his family’s scorn and rejection, Gregor refuses to see them as anything but justified in their disappointment and anger towards him. He’s also very supportive in pursuing Grete’s dream.

It was said there that “It was his secret plan to send her to the conservatory next year though it would cause great expense” (Kafka, 1915, chap. 2). Having awoken up in nucleosynthesis evolution, his troubled dreams, it seemed that it had gone off even in 500 word on why not to talk in class, reality. He’d thought of getting up to catch the next train, rather than grieving upon his inexplicable transformation. Finding out that he had nothing to do but to stay at nucleosynthesis of galaxies ebook, home due to his condition, he had to cope with the changes while maintaining his daily routine. Xbox 360 Essay. Soon, his human voice disappears and his preferences grow more insect-like. With time, he masters the coordination of his new body. He thinks less and crawls on walls and ceilings. Gregor’s metamorphosis symbolizes another change in which he becomes more distant from his family through discovering all the lies that his family had told him about not having any money.

The reason he worked so hard and nucleosynthesis evolution, it was all for a lie, when his family did have money all saved up, just that they wanted more. He becomes less human like and decides to keep to himself because he is probably really hurt. The change that he goes through in the metamorphosis change is mainly shown when he became less human and xbox 360 essay, dependent on nucleosynthesis of galaxies ebook, his family instead of his family being dependent of him. Gregor’s radical change of mind is sister outsider essays by audre boosted by ebook the events that take place about all the lies that he was told about his family’s financial problems, thus causing a loss of caring for his family and a feeling of individuality which all start to alienate him from his family and the rest of human society. No one had ever questioned why the metamorphosis has ever taken place simply because no transformation happened. The complete dependence of critical, Gregor#8217;s family and employer on nucleosynthesis and chemical, him, then, is seen as an ironic foil to the reality of Gregor#8217;s anatomical transformation into a parasite. Gregor was just compared to an insect since he is afraid of xbox 360 essay, those who surround him. He had developed the and chemical fear of an insect, being effectively shooed away by hissing voices and stamping feet. He’d rather live somehow dark and distant. The removal of the things inside Gregor#8217;s room had symbolized his alienation from the society. When people took everything from essay anybody, it would feel like everything had been gone, making him feel alienated, unwanted and unloved.

Like in the begging of the book he was a person concerned with the evolution of galaxies ebook welfare of thesis on workhouses, others and worked hard to help them. Nucleosynthesis Evolution Ebook. But towards the end he became a bit retarded by believing that he was a bug and started to accept his surrounding and start acting like one. He became less concerned with his well being and sister outsider lorde, that of those around him, but just did not care anymore, just wanted to nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies, do nothing. He was not concerned with what he could do to in ethics contest, help him but just be there. The more Gregor went through his metamorphosis, the less human like he became. Thus separating him from the rest of the human society and, causing him no to want to nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies, interact with his family as well as anyone else that he came in contact with, which caused his ultimate demise. Censorship On Video Essay. The transformation had brought a quick degradation in his relationship with the mother and the father. His inability to communicate symbolizes his alienation from nucleosynthesis ebook society. After the incident, the one where his father had pelted apple towards him because of what had happened, Gregor was aleady in doubt if he had really known his father very well. For the first few years, it seemed that his father was still fond of him; always welcoming him home from work, but now, it looks like everything had changed.

He didn’t even think twice of pelting the apples towards Gregor because of so much rage in his heart. He had never considered Gregor’s feelings after the transformation. But even though his father had a cold heart with him, Gregor still thought that it was his all fault why his father was like that. He had never blamed others for their mistakes; he always took account for all the things that make things worse. Grete, on the otherhand, was at thesis on workhouses, first very willing to nucleosynthesis and chemical ebook, help. Xbox 360 Essay. She was the only one who had the nucleosynthesis and chemical ebook nerve on coming inside Gregor’s room. On Video. She even delivers Gregor’s food in nucleosynthesis, every meal.

Gregor feels reassured by xbox 360 essay the efforts being made on his behalf. Nucleosynthesis. She had a very strong relationship with Gregor before the transformation, which had faded in no time. Grete, despite the essay on why not to talk kindnesses she shows her brother, is unable to bear looking at him. Mrs. Samsa, however, was a mere representation on how the society would react with Gregor’s transformation. Shock, fear, and nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook, sadness –all had happened in one momentum.

She had always loved Gregor so much but it was very disheartening for thesis on workhouses her to nucleosynthesis evolution ebook, look at her son. Doubtful that her son would not go back to his former self, she has still her faith on him. Gregor had also been degraded by the lodgers. Prize In Ethics Essay Contest. Although he wanted nothing but see Grete play the violin, they had thought that he was there to scare them off. They had even warned Mr. Samsa that they would file a case against the Samsa family since they didn’t tell them about Gregor living on nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution ebook, the next room. All three declare that they will leave the next day; further, they will not pay the rent that is due. This represents how people become so judgmental to in ethics essay, others even though they had not known every reason behind every action. Once he’s unable to communicate, Gregor becomes a mere observer of the world around him. Gregor’s metamorphosis symbolizes how he becomes less human day after day, ignoring his needs to becoming a person who simply does not care anymore.

At the same time, this isolation evokes a series of startling revelations and actions from his parents and sister, triggered by their assumption that he can no longer understand what they say and their belief that he has lost all human traits. In the novel, It is nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook not why the transformation happened that was explained, but what it is for; the effects of the transformation. It teaches us how we should value the people around us; how we should appreciate all the outsider and speeches by audre hard work that they’re doing. It was said there, “You’ve got to get rid of the idea that that’s Gregor. We’ve only and chemical of galaxies ebook harmed ourselves by believing it for so long. Essays By Audre. How can that be Gregor? If it were Gregor, he would have seen long ago that it’s not possible for and chemical evolution human beings to outsider and speeches by audre, live with an animal like that and he would have gone of his own free will. We wouldn’t have a brother any more, then, but we could carry on with our lives and remember him with respect.” (Kafka, 1915, chap. 3) With this line, Grete only shows that she still doesn’t believe that the insect is Gregor. She insulted the of galaxies insect after it had driven off their tenants.

It can be reflected that the thesis on workhouses main character’s transformation had significances. After Gregor’s transformation, they have to evolution of galaxies ebook, make some adjustments. Gregor#8217;s appearance no longer concerns him. He had gotten used to it. This symbolized how he is becoming less of himself and how he is slowly drifting away from the people around him (CustomWritings, 2003). His parents now appreciate all the new work his sister was doing even though, before they had seen her as a girl who was useless and annoying. Sister Essays By Audre Lorde. Through the metamorphosis, Gregor becomes more aware of what he wants and what he needs instead of what he needs to do for others. Since he had been the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution breadwinner of the family, he felt that he needed to be the one responsible of 500 word essay not to in class, all the things. He had carried all the weight of the problems that the family had to nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook, face. He had worked through all the xbox 360 essay obstacles on his own. But when the and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook transformation occurred, it was the first breath of fresh air.

He first panicked; thinking he can no longer go back to his daily routine. It felt to him that the world is falling apart. Xbox 360 Essay. He was being more pessimistic than the usual. And Chemical Evolution. He kept on on workhouses, blaming himself why his family is suffering. But after quite some time, it was just a blessing in disguise. He, himself, had realized that he had been devoting his life, serving for his family, giving only a little time even for himself. He had been giving all the wants and needs of his family, but not to nucleosynthesis evolution, himself. With the help of transformation, it was his time to give only for himself; to think and to ponder; to reflect and to realize. His life can never be called as his, since it was served for his family. 500 Word Talk In Class. Being too devoted and respectful child, he was willing to and chemical ebook, give up anything for his family, even his own happiness and freedom. Gregor did not seem shocked that his family wanted to kill him off either, almost as if he had been expecting it.

He was only upset because he had scared his sister. It was as though Gregor had removed himself completely from his self, bordering on prize contest, indifference. And Chemical Evolution Ebook. Self-alienation was the word commonly used to describe Gregor#8217;s state in essays and speeches by audre lorde, the end. Nucleosynthesis Ebook. Although this self-alienation came strongest in the end of his life, it had been occurring from the moment Gregor accepted his life at essay, the office. Evolution Ebook. Alienation coming from his family had been occurring from the moment as well. The transformation also made his family realize that they should not be dependent to Gregor; that they should do something to support the ayn rand essays family. Five years after their business collapsed, Gregor’s father now has a new job.

He currently works as an employee in a banking institute despite his old age. His mother sews fancy underwear for a fashion shop and his sister has taken a sales job. They also have new tenants so they can have extra income to support their financial needs. Franz Kafka insinuated that we shouldn’t work like insects for others leaving out evolution time for ourselves as Gregor had but instead work for ourselves with pride and dignity as the family did at the end of the story. Gregor was taken for granted by his family. They never considered what his needs and wants might be. Critical Essays. When Gregor had transformed, only then did they realize how they are dependent on and chemical evolution, him. In reality, the thesis on workhouses same thing happens. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies Ebook. People only start to appreciate ones worth when it#8217;s already too late. (123Helpme, 2003) Like generations of today, they are not very expressive of their feelings. Censorship On Video Essay. They just give more value to their personal ego, thinking that showing how much you love somebody will be so overrated. So when somebody had moved to a far place, or passed away, it was always far too late for them to show them how they really value that person.

In the and chemical of galaxies ebook end, only regrets will fill their hearts. The transformation had shaken the whole family. At first, almost all was eager to be of help to Gregor, especially Grete. But eventually, they had grown tired and impatient of the works and xbox 360 essay, only see Gregor as a burden to the family. Relating this to reality, when someone gets really ill, everybody would start to feel sorry and nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook, extend their sympathy. Later on, only few will remain since the rest may only view the sick person as a hindrance to their life. (123Helpme, 2003) Being sick is prize essay contest like being a baby once again. One will be helpless and would never be productive until he had recovered from nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies ebook illness. And when someone is sick, it is not only him that suffers. Other family members will endure too, since they had to take care of the sick person. Friends, co-workers and thesis on workhouses, other people closely related to the sick person will be affected too, for the sick person may have to do something very important to those people that will be postponed until he will be able to nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, resume his duties. With life#8217;s twist and turns, changes may happen in the most unexpected, ill-fated way.

With this, people have to xbox 360 essay, learn how to keep up with everything. Like Gregor, he had gone with the thunder and storms, but had known how to dance in the rain. (Echeat, 2004) Gregor experienced something that only Kafka could ever imagine but he still, against nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, all odds, learns to xbox 360 essay, deal with it and makes the best out of things. In reality, when people throw rocks at you, you can only do things with those: make a bridge to keep on moving on or make a wall to exclude yourself from humanity. Is this the perfect essay for nucleosynthesis you? Save time and order ?A Franz Kafka: “The Metamorphosis” essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for anthem ?A Franz Kafka: “The Metamorphosis” The novella The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, has themes and characters which parallel some of those in The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the main themes in#8230; The use of nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies ebook, alienation in The Metamorphosis. Franz Kafka’s use of social commentary in the novella The Metamorphosis illuminates destructive effects of alienation through Gregor’s life before and after his transformation into a monstrous vermin and the#8230; The Loss of contest, Humanity Kafka#8217;s #8220;The Metamorphosis#8221; Language forms the basis of civilization. Without language there can be no memory, no culture, certainly nothing as complex as social structure or humanity.

In Franz Kafka#8217;s, #8220;The Metamorphosis#8221; the#8230; An Analysis of “The Metamorphosis” The Transformation of Gregor’s Family : An Analysis of “The Metamorphosis” In Franz Kafka’s 1915 novella “The Metamorphosis,” is about betrayal and humiliation of an individual by nucleosynthesis of galaxies his family. Gregor#8230; A Psychoanalytical Criticism of The Metamorphosis. The deeper meaning of “The Metamorphosis”, by on video games essay Frank Kafka, can be interpreted in many ways depending on critical theory is used to examine it. From a feminist criticism, one can#8230; Comparison of #8220;The Death of Ivan Ilych#8221; and evolution of galaxies, #8220;Metamorphosis#8221; Ivan Ilych#8217;s death was like Gregor#8217;s Metamorphosis; in anthem ayn rand critical, that, they were both powerful introductions to the stories. In both stories the character#8217;s Gregor and nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies, Ivan Ilych are introduced in a#8230;

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Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution of Galaxies by Bernard E J

essay on dsch op 7 The string quartets of Joseph Haydn afford a unique opportunity in the annals of Western art – to trace the development of a major genre from birth to maturity, and all within the output of a single artist. A corollary benefit is to ebook outline the evolution of a leading composer's genius, since Haydn's quartets extend from his very first to thesis his very last published works. Just what is evolution a quartet? The standard dictionary definition is merely a work written in four separate vocal or instrumental parts. But the string quartet, using an array of two violins, one viola and one cello, demands far more. Perhaps Goethe said it best: a stimulating conversation between four intelligent people. The challenges and anthem essays, opportunities that the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies, form presented to Haydn are summed up by Reginald Barrett-Ayres: The limitations imposed by four stringed instruments appealed so much to his sensitive mind that he often used the xbox 360 essay, string quartet as a means of expressing his deepest and innermost thoughts. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies Ebook? To Henry Lang, Haydn poured into the medium his love of life, inexhaustible humor and impeccable craftsmanship and to Barrett-Ayres Haydn was master yet student, scholar yet romantic, the sister outsider by audre lorde, essence of stability yet an adventurer.

To Paul Griffiths, Haydn applied his abundant wit to the process of discovery of the essence of the quartet as a celebration of the arrival of language, just as a child claims a command of language by indulging in wordplay. Griffiths likens the quartet to a living species and asserts that to search for its origins is as vain as to search for the origins of man. Thus, it is hardly surprising that scholars trace the genesis of the quartet to many disparate roots. Griffiths notes that works for four voices extend back to Protin in the late 12th century. Others cite a number of isolated examples of instrumental works specifying two violins, a viola and a cello by Gregori Allegri (1582 - 1662), Franz Xavier Richter (1709-89) and nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies, others, all of which predate Haydn. Barrett-Ayres finds Haydn's work – melding technique and feeling, form and freedom, rules and imagination – to be a synthesis of the extremes of two immediate predecessors – Georg Matthies Monn (1717-50), a master of technique but austere and cold, and outsider, Frantisck Xavier Dussek (1731-99), amateurish but full of feeling. Most theorists trace the nucleosynthesis and chemical ebook, string quartet as having evolved from the Baroque trio sonata, which consisted of two melodic upper lines and a continuo of censorship on video varying instrumentation comprised of virtually any lower voices (most often a harpsichord, but also organs, cellos, lutes or bassoons) to provide the harmonic base. Aside from the general impulsion of progress, the impetus for this development has been traced to and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook the use of larger venues (and even the censorship games, outdoors) where the continuo (especially a delicate harpsichord) would be sonically lost, a desire for structurally intricate music to nucleosynthesis and chemical ebook stimulate musicians' interest, and the emergence of the viola as a viable instrument rising above its accustomed role as a mere adjunct to on workhouses the cello and of galaxies, part of the not to talk in class, continuo. Rosemary Hughes notes the esthetic logic of the and chemical, result, as it parallels the constitution of the string section – divided violins, violas and cellos reinforced by double basses – that forms the foundation of the standard orchestra. Yet, she notes that until Haydn even music designated for four players was not cohesive, but rather tended to be showy and ornate. How many quartets did Haydn write?

The general consensus seems to be 69, although older authorities tend to cite 83. The higher figure credited quartet arrangements of a symphony and a sextet with two horns (Op. 1, #s 3 and 5), the seven-movement Last Words of Christ on the Cross and early works now thought to be spurious, while overlooking the so-called Op. 0 that emerged relatively recently. Part of the confusion arose from Haydn himself, who included a set of six quartets published as his Opus 3 both in censorship, a reprint of his quartets in 1802 and in a catalog of of galaxies ebook his life work he prepared in 1805, although he had omitted them in in ethics essay contest, an earlier listing of his output. They now are thought to have been written by Romanus Hoffstetter, a monk who deeply admired Haydn and wrote: everything that flows from Haydn's pen seems to and chemical evolution of galaxies me so beautiful and remains so deeply impressed in my memory that I cannot prevent myself now and again from imitating something as well as I can. (In the 500 word essay not to, days before copyright, publishers often passed off amateur work as by famous compatriots.) Yet, some Haydn experts doubt that an amateur, no matter how devoted, could have produced work of of galaxies such quality. Xbox 360 Essay? Ironically, among the and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, spurious works is the essays and speeches, lovely serenade movement of Op. 3, # 5, perhaps Haydn's most popular piece of all, which, in all likelihood, he didn't actually write! (Were this a scholarly article – heaven forbid! – this would be an incidental footnote, but speaking of experts … well, I need to at this juncture. The following two sections may seem a pastiche of others' observations, but the fact is that in nucleosynthesis, making my way through the mass of Haydn's massive and (to me) largely unfamiliar quartet output, I found my understanding vastly enhanced, far more than with more familiar music or more manageable chunks of the repertoire, by in ethics essay contest, the guidance provided by several thoughtful analyses, and so it seems appropriate to summarize and pass them along for the benefit of readers rather than derive my own, far less useful, thoughts.

The specific sources for these are given at the end of this article.) In keeping with their general faith in progress, earlier critics tended to dismiss all but the nucleosynthesis of galaxies, last of Haydn's quartets. Thus, in the 1908 edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians E. Anthem Ayn Rand Essays? Heron-Allen wrote that the early quartets of Haydn seem to us sadly feeble in the present day; there is not enough flesh to cover the skeleton; and the joints are terribly awkward. He asserted that only in the last 14 quartets, after his long life of incessant practice did Haydn begin to show in the lower parts some of the boldness which had been only allowed to the 1st violin. Nowadays, though, all but a few of Haydn's genuine quartets are held in great esteem. Consistent with the publishing custom of the time, nearly all of and chemical evolution of galaxies Haydn's quartets were released in sister outsider essays and speeches lorde, sets of and chemical of galaxies six, even though Haydn did not necessarily plan them as integral editions. Anthem Essays? Except for and chemical ebook the unpublished Op. By Audre? 0, his first ten authentic quartets (together with two arrangements) were issued as his Opus 1 and 2 . While their exact dates of creation are not certain, they are believed to have been written between 1752 and 1760, possibly in 1757 when a Baron von Frnberg asked Haydn to compose a work for and chemical of galaxies four string players (including Haydn) for a music-making party at his castle.

Significantly, the compositions are labeled in censorship games essay, his manuscripts as notturni and in his thematic catalog initially as cassatio and of galaxies ebook, later as divertimenti a quarto . Indeed, they bear a strong resemblance to the orchestral nocturnes, cassations and divertimentos of the time and Haydn clearly did not think of them as forging a new genre. Several modern commentators note that structurally they resemble suites, with the five traditional movements (allegro, minuet, adagio, another minuet, presto finale), all in major keys (except minuet trios), melodies characteristic of Austrian folksongs, much two-part harmony (often by doubling the two violins and viola/cello parts), imitative filler phrases of ascending and on why talk in class, descending figures, and dominant violins whose occasional dialogues recall trio sonatas. Some have even posited that continuo parts should be inferred. 1792 Portrait by Hardy. Haydn's next set of quartets, published as his Op. 9 came in 1770. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies? In the interim decade he had entered the service of the royal Esterhzy family and was installed in their castle, where he was expected to compose prolifically and produce appropriate music for their frequent entertainments. Haydn apparently recognized that his new set of quartets represented a quantum leap, as in his retirement he reportedly told his publisher Artaria to exclude all the predecessors from sister essays and speeches by audre a planned collected set of nucleosynthesis of galaxies his string quartet output.

Griffiths and anthem critical, Geiringer attribute this mainly to a new emphasis upon dialogue among instruments – ideas are not merely imitated or repeated but modified and developed as they are passed from voice to voice, and sequencing and modulation evolve into nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies, elaboration, all of which were to become hallmarks of the maturity of the censorship on video essay, medium. Written as a genuine cycle, as would all of his further quartets, the individual pieces display variety within a fundamental style. Here, they feature a virtuostic first violin part, presumably written for Luigi Tomasini, an evolution, excellent violinist whom his deeply devoted patron had hired for the court orchestra, and interior 6-4 cadences suggest opportunities for Tomasini to on video games improvise cadenzas. Despite the dominance of the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, violin, Barrett-Ayres notes that the primary difference from symphonies of the time was that the symphonies' repeated sequencing and variety of in ethics timbres satisfied listener demands while boring the executants, whereas quartets strove to and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook present intrinsic interest for the players. Put another way, David Francis Tovey states that the self-sufficiency of each part marks the emergence of the quartet from the matrix of the orchestra.

The result, as noted by on why talk, Istvn Barna, was a radical shift in purpose – these were consciously written to engage listeners' concentration, rather than serving as mere background for conversations of aristocratic company. From this point forward, all Haydn quartets would be shorn of the second dance movement, although in his next dozen (perhaps in keeping with their generally light tone, in nucleosynthesis, which a rest seems appropriate to prepare for the vigorous finale) the minuets would precede the adagios . In each of the next two years Haydn wrote six more quartets, published as his Opp. 17 and 20 . Sun Quartets - title page. After this astounding outburst of discovery and excellence, Haydn wrote no further quartets for nine years. Hughes speculates that he may have succumbed to the demands of routine work for his Prince, or perhaps that his instinct demanded that he wait until he could reach a new plateau.

Known as the Russian Quartets, not because of Slavic influence over their content, but merely because they were first played at the home of the Russian Prince and future Czar, Haydn described his next Op. Sister And Speeches By Audre? 33 cycle as written in ebook, a completely new and special style, even though most scholars regard them more as a consolidation of his prior work than truly novel, Ludwig Finscher going so far as to regard the tag as misleading and a mere marketing gimmick. Sister Outsider Essays By Audre? Yet their quality is universally praised. Thus, Marion Scott notes that the first notes of the first subject generate the melodic dimensions of an entire work, likening it to a seed that strikes roots, stems, leaves and flowers that grow until the plant is nucleosynthesis and chemical a mass of beauty. Geiringer, too, hails their thematic elaboration raised to the status of a main stylistic feature, and especially the dissecting and reassembling of fragments of the subject which, Webster notes, is developed in all the parts within a primarily homophonic structure.

Lszl Somfai salutes their concentration and restlessness that leaps beyond Haydn's classical ideals to anticipate 20th century chamber music. Games Essay? Barrett-Ayres cites their luminous, translucent texture and jubilant finales, which he attributes to the influence of Mozart's early quartets. Hughes credits them with effortless fluency, and and chemical evolution ebook, Griffiths hears in essays, them the first full pervasive flowering of Haydn's trademark wit, culminating in surprises such as the end of Op. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies Ebook? 33 # 2 in broken phrases, 4½ bars of silence and a final whimper. Xbox 360 Essay? Perhaps for the last reason, they became hugely popular, appealing alike to connoisseurs and unsophisticated listeners, the demand generating dozens of transcriptions and four further editions in two years and stimulating others (including Mozart) to write quartets of their own. Somfai even credits the Op. 33 cycle with launching one of the first known professional string quartets, which toured them (and other works) for eight months in private homes and public concerts in nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution, a number of cities, thus spreading Haydn's growing celebrity yet further. Haydn's Op. 33 quartets were highly influential, but perhaps their greatest impact was upon Mozart, who met Haydn in 1781 and by audre lorde, performed with him. And Chemical Evolution? (Talk about superstar concerts!) As Geiringer notes, their personalities and temperaments were diametric opposites: Mozart, who developed and in ethics contest, wrote quickly, was young, moody, a flamboyant solo performer and a disorganized spendthrift, while Haydn, 24 years older, was deliberate, calm, steadfast, private, precise and thrifty. Yet, they loved each other's work, Haydn famously proclaiming on a number of occasions that Mozart was the greatest composer of all, and Mozart reciprocating by asserting that it was only from Haydn that he learned to write quartets. Of Galaxies Ebook? (Indeed, scholars believe that Mozart may have been stimulated to write a set of six earlier quartets, K. 168-173, in response to essay Haydn's Opp. 9 and 17.) The young admirer then embarked on his own first set of mature quartets, and nucleosynthesis ebook, after two years of highly uncharacteristic struggle produced six (K.

387, 421, 428, 458, 464 and 465) which he felt worthy of being dedicated to Haydn. Anthem Ayn Rand? Griffiths notes that while Haydn's were carried forward by development, Mozart strove for nucleosynthesis of galaxies ebook balance and resolution, and of course they were suffused with his ineffable formal perfection and grace. Somfai notes with some irony that the huge impact of the Op. 33 set and its many imitations upped the ante for Haydn's next quartets, which continued to consolidate his achievements in the genre. 500 Word On Why Talk In Class? Thus, after another lengthy gap, during which he continued to pour out symphonies and a curious single quartet (Op.

42), his next six quartets ( Op. 50 – 1787) focused on nucleosynthesis of galaxies, further unification by xbox 360 essay, basing entire movements upon the components of a single theme, rather than contrasting ideas, and generally exploiting the resulting motifs to expand the development sections of sonata form movements. The next dozen, published as Opp. 54 and 55 (three each, 1788) and Op. 64 (six, 1790) are regarded as retrenchments in of galaxies, which the censorship, first violin resumes dominant brilliance, in part to gratify Johann Tost, a former Esterhzy violinist who had become a wealthy merchant and who commissioned them. Incidentally, Op. 64 includes the evolution of galaxies ebook, thoroughly delightful Lark Quartet, which was the most popular of Haydn's early quartets and thus played a crucial role in apprising concert-goers and record buyers of the vast world that preceded the widely-acknowledged final masterpieces. Haydn's next quartets, published in two sets of three as Opp. 71 and 500 word essay not to talk in class, 74 , reflect a drastic change in the composer's life.

After his three decades of nucleosynthesis and chemical ebook devoted service to the Esterhzys his music-loving patron died, and on workhouses, the heir summarily dismissed the of galaxies, court musicians and relieved Haydn of his duties. Perhaps not enthused with the prospect of ending his life as a servant, Haydn turned down offers of new court appointments and instead accepted an opportune offer by Johann Peter Salomon, a German violinist turned English impresario, to come to London, where he was feted as artistic royalty. Written in 1795-6 upon his return to 500 word essay on why Vienna, the new sets of quartets were intended for nucleosynthesis of galaxies a second London visit and reflect the freedom and cosmopolitan influences the prize contest, former provincial servant had never known before. Of equal importance, they were aimed for public performance in vast concert halls before eager crowds rather than in the more intimate confines of a royal castle before invited dignitaries. And Chemical? This is immediately apparent from their opening notes – like his London symphonies, they begin with expectant hushed passages or bold introductory gestures, as if to briefly quiet a restive audience before settling down to on video games essay business.

Other elements to appeal to popular audiences noted by Webster include their more original themes, bolder contrasts and distant keys. But beyond specific ingredients, Barrett-Ayres considers their overall texture and instrumentation to reflect an of galaxies ebook, orchestral quality, their character to herald a battle between Haydn's classical roots and emerging romantic tendencies and, perhaps most important, a shift of perspective from a primarily intimate performers' medium to one oriented toward ticket-buying listeners in a public venue. The radical reorientation paved the way to Haydn's final set of not to talk in class quartets, universally hailed as his masterpieces. Commentators generally concur that Haydn's next and final set is the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution ebook, greatest among his many quartet masterworks – the harvest (Bennett-Ayres), excelsior (Geiringer) and songs of experience in which Haydn's creative life reaches its fulfillment (Hughes). Written in 1796 or 1797 (the autographs are lost and the chronology is somewhat speculative), they were commissioned by Count Joseph Erddy who specified exclusive use for three years. When published in 500 word, 1799 and nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook, dedicated to him (thus their occasional reference as the Erddy Quartets), they first appeared in Vienna in two sets of three as Opp. 75 and 76, and then took their final form together in anthem critical essays, London as Op. 76. Back from England, financially independent and liberated from servility and prior routine, Haydn was at last free to write as he wished and poured himself into the new quartets (as well as his most ambitious and ultimately most popular work of nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies all, the Creation oratorio). The result was an intensification of his prior achievements with added weight and ayn rand critical essays, character. The respected author and music historian Charles Burney hailed them as full of invention, fire, good taste and new effects and and chemical ebook, proclaimed that he had never received more pleasure from anthem critical instrumental music.

Each of the six quartets displays this fine balance between consolidation of the tradition Haydn already had created and evolution of galaxies ebook, his irrepressible drive toward yet further innovation, and boasts sufficient riches to warrant individual consideration. The first quartet of the series, in G major. The opening of the first Op. 76 quartet (cello part) The second Op. 76 quartet, in d minor, is known as the censorship on video, Quinten (Fifths) for its distinctive opening motif of falling tonic and dominant open fifths which generate the entire work (and, perhaps not coincidentally, The fifths motif of the Quinten Quartet. The third quartet, in C major, is called the Emperor. The Emperor hymn of the nucleosynthesis, third quartet. The fourth quartet, in B-flat major, is the xbox 360 essay, Sunrise,

The sunrise theme of the fourth quartet. In the last two Op. 76 quartets Haydn turns to structural exploration and an ample dose of and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook mischievous humor. The opening movement of the essay, fifth, in D major, departs from the evolution ebook, sonata form of the first four to what Robin Golding can only prize in ethics essay describe as unorthodox variations, as it really seems to defy conventional formal analysis and thwarts expectations, even while suggesting an intensely human struggle. Thus, its elegant, dignified dance theme in triple time devolves into d minor, fragments, repeats the and chemical evolution, first phrase in furious scalar runs, tries to reassert itself, but then breaks away and takes off at a faster clip propelled by essay on why not to talk, sixteenth notes that never release their grip. Finally, the and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, opening phrase keeps repeating itself until it gives up into a concluding cadence. The ensuing largo in the remote key of essays and speeches by audre F# major provides another glance ahead to Beethoven with tender phrasing, soft dynamics and searching modulations.

Haydn aptly labels it Cantabile e mesto – singing and nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies, sad. Geiringer attributes its tone quality of ethereal beauty in sister outsider essays and speeches by audre, part to the key, which precludes the use of open strings by any of the nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies, players. The minuet, too, contains unorthodox touches – each time it settles into its expected consistent triple time, syncopated duple figures disrupt the pace, and its trio, with constant activity never rising above a whisper, hints at games deep secrets. Evolution? The presto finale begins where it seemingly should end – with three insistent tonic cadences – and xbox 360 essay, then gallops off in unbounded joy broken only by occasional grand pauses, its frantic pace, sustained length and jagged phrasing as challenging for the players to maintain as for listeners to marvel at. As with the fifth, the final Op. 76 quartet, The theme of the sixth quartet trio. Although the nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook, six Op. 76 quartets were Haydn's last complete set, he wrote two more masterworks, Op. 77, and then tried to write another two in 1803 at the then extreme old age of 71 but was able to complete only the two inner movements, an adagio and minuet.

Haydn's calling card. But despite all the scholarship, influence and 500 word essay, devotion his quartets have attracted, perhaps Haydn had had his last say in an 1802 letter, cited by Geiringer, that he had written to admirers in Bergen, Germany, who had put together an amateur performance of his Seasons oratorio and who had conveyed their gratitude for his art: Often, … when my powers both of body and evolution of galaxies, mind were failing and I felt it a hard matter to anthem essays persevere … a secret feeling within me whispered, There are but few contented and happy men here below; everywhere grief and care prevail; perhaps your labors may one day be the source from which the weary and worn … may derive a few moments' rest and refreshment. And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies? What a powerful motive for pressing onward! No better key has ever been given to unlock the constant wonder, fascination and sheer joy of Haydn's life-affirming quartets. If any tangible measure of Haydn's success in revitalizing the weary and ayn rand, worn with a few moments' rest and refreshment be needed, surely it lies in the generally superb quality of recordings of his quartets. It's hard to go far wrong among them, perhaps because the very nature of the works inspires an extraordinary degree of enthusiasm, love and devotion among a wide swath of players. At the outset, we should note that few performers of the Haydn quartets bother mentioning whether they use period instruments, and with good reason – it hardly matters, since even modern ensembles prize the fabulous string instruments made in Italy by Stradivari, Guarneri del Gesu, Amati and others generations before Haydn and aspire to nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies play the surviving originals, as their gorgeous tone has never been matched, despite all the progress and improvements in instrument construction since then.

Even modern craftsmen attempt to emulate them but have yet to uncover all their secrets. On Video? Yet while the instruments themselves haven't been altered since well before Haydn's time, techniques of playing them have changed considerably, as have stylistic approaches to nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies older music. Among the fundamental issues to prize be determined by modern performers are tempos (in the days before metronome markings, scores merely specified abstract terms such as allegro, andante , etc.), whether to observe all repeats (and, if so, the degree to which they should be varied), ornamentation, dynamics and nucleosynthesis of galaxies, accents (most of which were omitted from scores, since performers were assumed to have the taste and training to know how and when to essays apply them), and which of the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution, available editions to on workhouses use (as many of the autographs have been lost, and Haydn's intent can be hard to nucleosynthesis evolution ebook glean beneath the gloss (and errors) added by generations of editors). While scholars may have been aware of the scope and ayn rand essays, excellence of Haydn's achievements, in the public mind during most of the pre-LP era he had written a dozen or so great symphonies, two oratorios and not much else of value, and so it is hardly surprising that recordings of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution ebook his quartets were few and far between. Essay? Isolated movements occasionally were used as filler to sets of other, presumably more important, quartets that required odd numbers of nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies 78 rpm sides.

The first ensemble to devote serious attention to Haydn was the sister essays, Hungarian Lner Quartet (comprising Jen Lner, Joszef Smilovits, Sndor Roth and Imre Hartmann), which recorded acoustical versions of Op. 76 # 5 and the spurious Op. 3 # 5 (probably for its famous serenade). Electrical remakes of both were joined by Op 64 # 5 (the Lark) and Op. 76 # 3 (the Emperor), plus the andante of Op. 76 # 2. All were on Columbia 78s, and evolution of galaxies, now Rockport CDs. Tully Potter describes their sound as soupy due to ayn rand essays their extremely wide vibrato and he adds that their ensemble could be sloppy yet redeemed by a natural flair and warmth. Fascinating comparisons lie in the lighter, brilliant precision of a 1926 recording of Op. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Of Galaxies? 76 # 1 by essays by audre, the Lner's compatriots, the Budapest Quartet, and nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, the grace, rhythmic snap and considerably less portamento and vibrato in a 1928 set of the Lark by the Franco-Belgian Flonzaley Quartet, both of which sound comparatively modern. On Workhouses? While the comparison suggests that the Lner may have sounded dated even at the time, their records (which, according to Gramophone , reportedly sold especially well in England and Japan) exemplify the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies ebook, somewhat indulgent romantic view of 500 word on why not to in class Papa Haydn. The sea change came in nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies ebook, 1932 when the Belgian Pro Arte Quartet (Alphonse Onnou, Laurent Halleux, Germain Prevost, Robert Maas) launched a series of HMV sets of 78s, each with nearly an hour's worth of music on anthem, seven records containing three or four Haydn quartets (now available in the original configurations on Pristine Audio or combined into two Testament four-CD sets).

As an indication of Haydn's lack of and chemical of galaxies renown at the time and prize in ethics contest, the consequent presumed financial risk, the project was undertaken by a Haydn Quartet Society, which sputtered after the fifth release in and chemical evolution, 1935, but by 1938 had issued eight volumes with 27 quartets (plus two of Hoffstetter's), but included only two of Op. 76 (the Emperor in 1934 and the Sunrise in 1938). Essays? In a 1937 review welcoming Volume 6, Gramophone offered its highest praise, citing the perfection of ensemble and continuous beauty of tone and finish. Notably, in nucleosynthesis and chemical of galaxies, light of Haydn's letter noted above, which assumed renewed significance on the eve of essay on why talk World War II, the review alluded to and chemical evolution the sanity of Haydn's music. It spells unbelievable peace to be able to leave this mad world, if only for essays a while, and recover in these inspired pages – the work of a man who had faith – a sense of proportion, a sense of certainty that all will be well, however dark the present outlook be. Heard today, the Pro Arte records amply reflect that view – a fine balance between level-headed focus and incisive commitment, with just enough grace and a hint of playfulness to nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies rise above the mundane, and some deeply heartfelt phrasing (especially in the Emperor andante ) – both a glance back at the romantic style of their predecessors and a salute to the devotion that the 500 word not to talk, composer lavished on his work, while at the same time forcefully advocating the worth of these pieces for listeners of the future. Dozens of recordings of individual Haydn quartets were cut throughout the pre-stereo era. While the vast majority of these are no longer available, record catalogs of the time list 78 sets by the Calvert, Capet, International, Poltronier, Prisca, Rich Queling, Roth and Wendling Quartets and LPs by the Amadeus, Baroque, Borchet, Budapest, Galimar, Griller, Hollywood, Hungarian, Italian, Koeckert and Vienna Kozerthaus Quartets, plus an extensive series by the Schneider Quartet (Alexander Schneider, Isador Cohen, Karen Tuttle, Hermann Busch) for the Haydn Society. Evolution Of Galaxies Ebook? Unfortunately, few are available nowadays to document the evolution and variety of talk styles of the and chemical ebook, era, but the thesis, Schneider series has been restored to currency on nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution ebook, the Vinyl Fatigue website.

Serious and weighty, their generally slow tempos yield affecting adagios, andantes and largos and respect the fundamental classical nature of the outer movements, but the minuets in particular tend to xbox 360 essay lack a vital spark and the sonic quality is rather flat. The stereo era saw an exciting development that heralded growning interest in the depth of Haydn's output – the production of integral sets of the entire quartet oeuvre. Evolution Of Galaxies? During the 1960s the enterprising Vox label issued ten 3-LP Vox Boxes split between the Dekany and Fine Arts Quartets (Leonard Sorkin, Abram Loft, Irving Ilmer, George Sopkin). The latter's versions of the later quartets, including the Op. 76 set, boasts finely graded dynamics and tempo variation within a warm acoustic and a wide stereo soundstage that enables listeners to trace the individual instrumental lines, an important consideration where, as here, the players opt for a well-blended sonority. In the early 1970s they were joined by a second complete set by anthem, the British Aeolian Quartet (Emanuel Hurwitz, Raymond Keenlyside, Margaret Major, Derek Simpson), released in seven boxes of between three and six LPs on the Argo label in Europe and on nucleosynthesis and chemical ebook, London Stereo Treasury in censorship games, America (and now combined in a budget Decca CD box).

Like the Pro Arte, the Fine Arts projects a tangible sense of and chemical of galaxies enthusiasm, sparked by inventive dynamics and added (and occasionally subtracted) grace notes, but always within a aura of elemental dignity that seems appropriate to the spirit of each work. Although an integral set of the sister and speeches, full run of Haydn quartets places the Op. 76 group in and chemical evolution of galaxies, perspective (and provides an entire day's worth of mostly fine music), at least three are also available in more affordable and digestible segments, mostly comprising a single opus (or combining those having only three quartets) on two CDs. The complete Haydn quartet recordings of the Hungarian Ttrai Quartet (Vilmos Ttrai, Istvn Vrkonyi, Gyrgy Konrd, Ede Banda) (3 LPs, 2 CDs, Hungaroton) have been universally praised since their series began with the Op. Critical? 76 set in 1964, and to many they still represent the epitome of achievement in this realm, managing a near-ideal blend of the and chemical of galaxies, range and xbox 360 essay, qualities that make Op. 76 so wondrous – bold yet relaxed, surprising yet logical, detailed yet disarmingly simple, classical yet tinged with sly wit, and above all technically precise yet infused with humanity. No matter how many other renditions you’ve heard, you can always return to and chemical of galaxies ebook the Tatrai set for an intangible feeling of well-being and comfort that subtly compels awe of the magnitude and complexity of Haydn’s achievement and still speaks to us, utterly undimmed and immune from the anthem ayn rand, abrasion and nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution ebook, attenuation of all the time that has passed since its creation. A more recent set by thesis, the German Buchberger Quartet (Hubert Buchberger, Julia Greve, Jachim Etzekm Helmut Sohler) on nucleosynthesis of galaxies, Brilliant, has the added advantage of xbox 360 essay budget pricing. Their readings are lively paced and sharply phrased, with incisive rhythm, crystalline recording, and nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies ebook, a fresh, uninflected approach that seems entirely suitable in the earlier works but may strike some in Op. 76 as just a bit superficial, lacking character or depth, especially in the slow movements.

Also economical and even more convenient are the more routine recordings of the Hungarian Kodaly Quartet (Atilla Falvay, Tams Szab, Gbor Fias, Jnos Devich) on Naxos, all of which are available as single CDs (so that, for example, Op. 76 comprises one volume of essay #s 1-3 and another of of galaxies #s 4-6). On Video Essay? Both the Buchberger and Kodaly complete cycles are available in deeply discounted boxes, which make both storage and nucleosynthesis of galaxies ebook, economic sense if you plan to ayn rand get more than a few (although mixing and matching for evolution ebook the sake of variety makes sense as well). Also worth consideration are individual sets of Op. 76 by groups that have not ventured into the full series of Haydn quartets. Quatour Mosaques (Erich Hbarth, Andrea Bischof, Anita Mitterer, Christophe Coin) (nave astree CD set, 2000) – Despite the French-sounding name, this is an xbox 360 essay, offshoot of the Concentus Musicus Wien, and despite the lean, wiry sound of that esteemed ensemble’s pioneering recordings of Baroque repertoire, the Mosaques nestle the Haydn quartets in rich warmth, abetted by a resonant acoustic, in which the cello is given unusual emphasis to challenge the evolution, violin’s natural dominance and to sister essays impart a symphonic texture throughout. Thus, the cello’s anchor to the three chords that open Op. 76 # 1 linger to of galaxies underline and thus integrate the censorship essay, opening theme, the canon of the # 2 trio is uncommonly spooky and the energy of the nucleosynthesis evolution ebook, finale of # 5 is especially exhausting.

Yet, more than in any other set I’ve heard, the Mosaques attempt to essay on why talk replicate the performance style of Haydn’s time. By severely limiting vibrato, which can obscure inaccuracy, they place a premium on the precision of of galaxies ebook their intonation. Some of Haydn’s elegance is sacrificed, but the playing is full of sharp, fascinating detail, and while some of their phrasing and accentuation may sound odd, presumably it is boasts the virtue of on video games authenticity. I’ve grouped these together because (to me) they lack the historical significance or special touches of the others. They’re all technically secure, played with sufficient enthusiasm, are free of rhetoric, give a good sense of the works, are well-recorded and shouldn’t disappoint. The differences among them seem rather slight.

Perhaps appropriately, given its naming in honor of the Viennese modernist who helped humanize twelve-tone writing, the Alban Berg Quartet has a bit more spontaneity, as in the opening of the “Sunrise” which breathes with creative phrasing that animates the score into a living entity, yet their readings have little wit – they’re far from nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies grim, yet tend to be rather serious and focused, although sufficiently swift and light to avoid any feeling of tedium or undue weight. The Takasz have a sweeter sound, in 500 word essay not to, part from their more immediate recording and wider violin vibrato. Nucleosynthesis Of Galaxies? The Eder, named for its cellist (rather than, as usual, for the first violinist and presumed leader), is slightly more mellow, with a richer, balanced sound. Formed in Britain by Jewish Viennese refugees, the Amadeus compiled a vast catalog of on why not to talk in class solid recordings during its remarkable 40-year tenure, including 27 quartets by Haydn, which are lean, swift (with few repeats) and imbued with no-nonsense clarity. Haydn's evolution of the string quartet, the of galaxies, subtleties of on workhouses which can elude amateurs, has been traced by a number of historian/scholars.

Among them, I found these to be extremely insightful and nucleosynthesis and chemical, valuable: Reginald Barrett-Ayres: Joseph Haydn and on workhouses, the String Quartet (Schirmer, 1974) – this is one of those rare books that transcends its nominal subject, placing detailed analyses of each set of quartets in context with astute excursions on musical forms, parallel events and other musicians. Nucleosynthesis And Chemical Evolution Of Galaxies? Paul Griffiths: The String Quartet – A History (Thames Hudson, 1983). Xbox 360 Essay? Karl Geiringer: Haydn – A Creative Life in Music (Norton, 1946; 2d edition: Doubleday, 1963). Rosemary Hughes: Joseph Haydn – chapter in Chamber Music , ed., Alec Robertson (Penguin, 1957). James Webster – article on Haydn in Grove's Dictionary of and chemical evolution of galaxies Music and Musicians (2001 edition). Reginald Barrett-Ayres: notes to the Aeolian Quartet LP boxes of Opp. 0/1/2 and 76/77/103 (London Stereo Treasury STS-15328/32, 15333/36) – these supplement his book with even more detailed analyses of the sister by audre, individual pieces.

Laszlo Somfai – notes to the Tatrai Quartet CD sets of and chemical of galaxies Opp. 20, 33, 64, 71/74 and 76 (Hungaroton 11332-33, 11887-88, 11838-39, 12246-47 and 12812-13) and the Festetics Quartet CD set of Op. 9 (Hungaroton 12976-77). Xbox 360 Essay? Istvan Barna – notes to the Tatrai Quartet CD set of nucleosynthesis evolution of galaxies Op. 17 (Hungaroton 11382-83) and LP of Op. 77 (Hungaroton SLPX 11776).

Marc Vignal – notes to games the Mosaques Quartet CD set of Op. 76 (Astre E 8665). Robin Golding – notes to the Lindsay Quartet CD set of Op. 76 (ASV DCA 1077). And Chemical Evolution Ebook? Misha Donat – notes to the Taksz Quartet CD set of Op. 76 (London 425 467).

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