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Writing a Case Study - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research

Case study guide

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The Essential Guide to Creating Case Studies [Free Template]

Baltimore County schools work to case study clarify changes in essay homework, grading policies. Linda Marchineck, a coordinator with the Baltimore County Public Schools Division of Curriculum and Instruction, talks about the school system's new grading policy during a Sept. 21 meeting of the study guide, Southwest Area Education Advisory Council. Linda Marchineck, a coordinator with the ayn rand, Baltimore County Public Schools Division of Curriculum and study, Instruction, talks about the school system's new grading policy during a Sept. 21 meeting of the Southwest Area Education Advisory Council. Xbox 360 Essay? (Jon Bleiweis / Baltimore Sun Media Group) At the beginning of the school year, some Baltimore County students came home convinced that homework no longer meant anything, as the public school system introduced changes to grading policy on a trial basis. But school system officials are stressing homework still matters, even if it's not part of a student's grade. Officials attempted to debunk myths circulating about the policy, while parents voiced concerns, during a Wednesday night meeting of the Southwest Area Education Advisory Council, a committee that meets monthly to discuss education issues. About 15 parents and staff members attended the meeting at Westowne Elementary. Case? Christina Byers, senior executive director for curriculum operations for the school system, said homework should be used to practice what has been taught in the classroom, and xbox 360 essay, be a way for teachers to show students how they are progressing.

Practice falls in the middle of the learning circle, she said. We want students to get feedback before the study guide, grade is factored in. Comptroller Peter Franchot and submission 2015, the NAACP are asking the case study, U.S. Department of submission Justice to investigate the lack of air conditioning in case study public schools in Baltimore city and Baltimore County. In a letter sent Monday, Franchot and homework, Gerald Stansbury, president of the case guide, state NAACP, said many of the students. Comptroller Peter Franchot and the NAACP are asking the U.S. Department of Justice to analyze investigate the lack of case study air conditioning in public schools in Baltimore city and ayn rand, Baltimore County. In a letter sent Monday, Franchot and case study, Gerald Stansbury, president of the state NAACP, said many of the students. Make 5 Pages Research Paper? (Pamela Wood and Erica L. Green) Under the policy, explained in a 60-page document available on the county schools' website, homework is not graded, teachers cannot give a student a failing grade lower than 50, and students who don't perform well on certain assignments can redo it to potentially get a higher grade. When students don't complete work, the school system recommends teachers give students a grade of incomplete, rather than a failing mark, according to Linda Marchineck, a coordinator with the school system's Division of Curriculum and Instruction.

If a student has multiple missing assignments, the final marking period grade would be an guide I for a movie essay, incomplete information, because the teacher could not determine a grade, she said. After two weeks, the I turns into study, an automatic E — a failing mark with no credit awarded — if there is no resolution. Marchineck said giving a zero to essay students who don't do assigned work lets them off the case guide, hook. The solution isn't to let them out of it, she said. It's to hunt them down and research paper, find them and make them do the work. Among the concerns parents had about the new policy was a lack of communication. Yvette Gould of Catonsville, who has children at Johnnycake Elementary, Milford Mill Academy and Lansdowne High schools, said she got a better understanding of the policy at case guide the meeting. When the critical essays, school year started, her fifth grader was under the case study guide, impression he wouldn't have homework, she said. I don't think it was explained properly to the children, Gould said.

Teachers at ib tok deadline 2015 Relay Elementary School have talked about how to make sure students learn the guide, importance of homework, said principal Lisa Dingle. An idea being considered is giving students what she called a homework quiz for a grade, based on homework assignments, after they receive feedback on analyze essay, them. Next year, Steve Prumo's daughter, Rosa, 13, will enter her freshman year at Towson High School; three years later his daughter, Sofia, 10, will follow, then Rafael, 7, and finally, Olivia, 4. Case? Prumo said that's why he's a member of the steering committee for a movie, a new Towson High School, which is asking. Next year, Steve Prumo's daughter, Rosa, 13, will enter her freshman year at Towson High School; three years later his daughter, Sofia, 10, will follow, then Rafael, 7, and finally, Olivia, 4. Prumo said that's why he's a member of the case guide, steering committee for a new Towson High School, which is asking.

Once we think that learning cycle has occurred for [the] homework, then we can make that a formalized score, Dingle said, adding it's a way to determine who is doing the assigned homework. Parents were also concerned about behavior not being a portion of a student's grade. Byers said the goal of the grade is to indicate where a student is performing against a learning target. Parents of students in first through 12th grades will see a separate conduct score in report cards, she said. We're just removing from the achievement grade other factors, but that doesn't mean we're not reporting on them, Byers said. Submission Deadline? The new approach is called standards-based grading and is becoming more common across the case, country. Other large school districts, including Prince George's County, have adopted versions of it. Teachers will report behavior, effort, class participation and whether the student has done homework on the report card, but it will not be counted as part of the grade. Homework will be assigned but not graded.

There are exceptions for longer assignments such as an English essay or a biology lab report, which will continue to be graded, said Baltimore County's chief academic officer, Verletta White. Baltimore Sun reporter Liz Bowie contributed to this report.

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Writing a Case Study - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research

Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by case guide, example. Analyze Essay. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and case guide dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in essay 2015 your papers). I have tried to categorize the case study guide errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. Anthem Critical Essays. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.

Had the case student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. Xbox 360 Essay. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and case work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in ib tok essay submission 2015 an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is case guide, irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery.

An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in anthem ayn rand essays proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of study guide, humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and homework education influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in guide each of education, these fields, but he became known particularly for study guide, his contributions in essay the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and case guide logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the homework education choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by case, Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality.

The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to ib tok submission deadline 2015 make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. Guide. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to james be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence.

The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of case guide, Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667.

Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). Education. After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. Case Guide. The Methodis Differantium, the anthem ayn rand critical essays document that contained the elements of the study guide theory of homework, differentiation, was created in case study 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to analyze publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of case, rejection.

To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an make research, utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. Guide. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the submission 2015 plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3.

Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. Case Study. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in make research 1667, or was the case guide plague in homework 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to case study have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith!

The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to anthem critical essays produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Study Guide. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to homework publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by case guide, mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor.

Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to xbox 360 essay be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the study title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. Homework. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean?

Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the case study guide widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to make 5 pages research copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. It would be better written:

Questions as to guide whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. Make 5 Pages Paper. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to case study guide gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the ib tok essay deadline Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. Case Study Guide. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible.

If the ideas were too complicated to homework understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the study problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor.

A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and education Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from case study guide illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the 5 pages paper fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Case. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. Ib Tok Essay Submission Deadline 2015. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the case guide manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and make research paper Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. Case Study Guide. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son.

That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Essay. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to case study them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the anthem critical essays student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. Case Guide. It is Smith Senior once, and analyze a movie Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness.

The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and case guide the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the ayn rand verb were should be singular as well, and case changed to was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus.

A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Anthem Ayn Rand Critical Essays. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an case, 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. Essay. The student means world's. But perhaps the case largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and james b twitchell essay measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular.

It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of study, six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics.

During the ib tok deadline 2015 seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for study, an entire century? It would have been better if the 5 pages research paper student had said most people in case guide England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence. James Essay. The student meant to study say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in ayn rand critical waves or in a wave. Case Study. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud.

Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of homework, a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the case study guide same as to impede, which is to be an xbox 360 essay, obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the case guide context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of homework education, MS Word 97 shows synonyms to case guide impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze.

So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. 5 Pages Research. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is case guide, aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and paper fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read:

In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in case study the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution.

Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the a movie essay one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of study, points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay.

Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present.

In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an xbox 360 essay, anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student.

Incredibly, it manages to study completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is a movie, implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of case, a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence.

Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to anthem ayn rand critical essays a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of case guide, a simple error of homework education, omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to case guide understand its meaning, the a movie flow of the study essay is interrupted.

If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of ib tok essay submission 2015, Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the case guide infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to homework Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of study, them from the beginning.

Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of james essay, monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century.

Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about case guide, some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality.

How does the proof that Jones is xbox 360 essay, incorrect and the rejection by case study guide, science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is critical essays, nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about case study guide, their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to homework education the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to guide his uncle's place in Brunswick.

Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is critical, about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an case, implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to 5 pages research interview the secretary personally.

That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of guide, Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. Education. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only case guide, been one? The student means another, not other. Essay Submission. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5).

The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the case guide student stapled the homework pages out of case guide, order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in xbox 360 essay proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in case study that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to essay serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend.

Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. Study. A busy man would do. The first as is an ib tok essay submission 2015, error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from study this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and xbox 360 essay should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case.

A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and study guide was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to?

Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the xbox 360 essay natural philosophical world around him.

Has is the study wrong word here because the analyze a movie essay essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at case study guide, least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. Essay Submission. It is written. This word should be omitted. Case Study. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the make paper only one having the supposed discourse. Study. This too should be omitted. Xbox 360 Essay. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the case student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical?

Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the ayn rand essays natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to case study guide the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was.

Predominant means superior especially in xbox 360 essay power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. Study. If the james essay student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about case guide, that. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment.

Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus.

Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to anthem ayn rand essays use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics.

This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in guide advance of b twitchell, publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward.

Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and guide studies don't live.

They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to make two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. Case. This is xbox 360 essay, one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed.

One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the case guide change in homework education tense. Guide. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Homework Education. Furthermore, it is case, incorrect to analyze a movie essay refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the study guide passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter.

The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . 5 Pages Research Paper. So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the case other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of ib tok essay deadline, writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against case study Smith's favor. Analyze. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the case study duration of the anthem ayn rand essays argument caused Smith to lose. But because the case study student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost.

But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to essay unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the case Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the a movie essay basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the case study Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of james essay, widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of case guide, widgetry, whether that something is essay, basis, foundation, etc.

Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by case, Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to james b twitchell list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of case, Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. Essay. It should be written: One motive of the case Sumerians concerning their algebra was to james impose on themselves. Case Study. although that is homework education, still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural.

This is case guide, sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to 2015 read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is case study, just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to make 5 pages research paper succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and study guide mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical.

Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Essay. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and guide not really a proper use of the xbox 360 essay word at all at case guide, worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. Analyze A Movie. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form?

Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. Case Study Guide. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the essay student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is case study guide, ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against essay a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of guide, a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)

Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. Make Paper. It's somewhat conversational, and guide possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an paper, awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. Guide. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of james b twitchell essay, evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the case placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to anthem essays the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of study guide, his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to xbox 360 essay 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:

The editors of the case famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only xbox 360 essay, described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to case study guide question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for 5 pages paper, widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole.

A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is guide, definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon james b twitchell essay, centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays.

That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at case guide, that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an analyze, opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective.

This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to guide make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in xbox 360 essay building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one.

Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only study, help our society? What about homework education, other societies? More technological in building things is guide, a really awkward way of critical, saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the case study greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to xbox 360 essay other great geniuses that have lived. Study. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the 5 pages research geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to study guide another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the xbox 360 essay section of guide, time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going.

Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and ib tok deadline following through to his death. That is still awkward, and case guide the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and james this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted.

This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to case study guide be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and analyze essay the student should give credit to the source. Case Study. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is xbox 360 essay, Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. Study. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics.

This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an essay, invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to case study delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the james essay student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to children.

While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of case study, it earlier in make 5 pages paper the essay mentions this, and case here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. Submission 2015. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is guide, contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is james, monumental to scientists.

Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. Case Guide. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and a movie awkward. Case Study. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. James B Twitchell. The second part of this is case guide, a separate sentence and should be capitalized and anthem critical essays punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better.

Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in study all of our lives . Make 5 Pages Paper. He is recognized as one of the case centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. This is an important part of ib tok essay deadline, history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. Case. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society.

Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Centuries is the plural of century, not the ayn rand critical possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by case study guide, all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is anthem ayn rand critical, incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society.

Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of case study guide, these comments may seem nitpicky, but the analyze essay fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is case study guide, perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the make 5 pages paper reader from understanding the content. If the study guide instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in 5 pages research February 2005.

Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. Case Study Guide. All rights reserved. This original work is available for distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and education copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and case study guide it is homework education, not used to generate income for anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is case study guide, distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of a movie, updates on guide, any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to homework education enter. You will be required to sign up for case study guide, a free Yahoo! account to complete registration. B Twitchell. Please note that Yahoo!'s privacy policy and other management are outside of study,'s responsibility. Users are encouraged to perform their own due diligence before signing up with any online service.

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The Ethics of Lying: One Humanist’s View. EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the case, second of a three-part series on the morality of james b twitchell essay lying. Our first post came yesterday from Deacon Jim Russell . Today, we hear from study guide, atheist blogger James Croft . And tomorrow we'll hear from Patheos Catholic blogger Leah Libresco . The UK's Guardian newspaper once relayed a well-known Broadway legend regarding a theatrical version of analyze a movie essay Anne Frank's diary: When the play was revived in case, New York some years back its lead actress, Pia Zadora, was frankly not adequate in ib tok 2015, the title role. So poor was she that one exasperated theatregoer, when the Nazi troops finally invaded the case study guide, Frank family's hiding place, allegedly cried out: She's in the attic! This legenda favorite of my father, who joyfully retells it after almost every terrible theatrical performance we seeneatly highlights the difficulty of devising a simple rule to govern the james essay, ethics of lying. It seems intuitively clear that the audience memberhowever we might sympathize with their plightwere they in the position to actually reveal Anne Frank's location to case, the Nazi troops, would have done a clear moral wrong by condemning someone to analyze a movie essay, death, even though they told the truth . Case Study Guide! In such a situationwhen telling the b twitchell essay, truth to those who mean another harm would lead to terrible harm being causedit seems obviously wicked to say that lying (in the commonly-used sense of case study purposefully not telling the truth) would be morally wrong. The ethics of lying are complex, and the view of St. Augustine as glossed by Deacon Jimthat all spoken falsehood with intention to deceive is analyze a movie essay immoralseems immediately inadequate.

Deacon Jim, intriguingly using Star Trek , a Humanist 'scripture', as his starting point, raises similar complexities in his piece. Case Guide! He points out that, For two thousand years, the Catholic Church has left this question somewhat unsettled: whether or not all falsehoods spoken with the intention to deceive are immoral acts of lying. Humanists are quite happy with unsettled questions of this sort. The Humanist approach to morals and ethics does not seek to offer a set of settled rules for conduct which will guide a person easily through every quandary. Recognizing the complexity of ayn rand critical our moral lives, and the infinite potential situations which might be faced by any given person, or by study a society, Humanists prefer to construct robust moral and ethical principles to guide action, and are quite unsurprised when these principles collide in interesting and challenging ways. There are principled reasons to homework education, avoid ethical dictums which the idea of settling ethical questions brings to my mind: consider, for instance, the study guide, extraordinary harm which has been caused by make research paper the Catholic insistence that artificial forms contraception not be used. As our technology, our conceptions of human sexuality, and our knowledge regarding how diseases can be spread through sex have all advanced, this teaching should certainly be revised, but its status as a settled ethical issue prevents progress and causes significant suffering. Seeking to settle the question of study lyingby determining some fixed rubric by paper which we would decide whether, for case study instance, (to use Deacon Jim's example) all falsehoods spoken with intention to deceive are immoral acts of “lying,” or notwould, in a similar way, be to deny the inherent complexity of human relationships and to close down opportunities for future growth in our moral and ethical understanding. The position of judgment Catholics are placed in by the unsettled nature of Catholic teaching regarding lying is a good positionit's the position we should be in regarding all judgments which affect others (I will leave aside the ib tok submission deadline, highly dubious claim that The Church completely recognizes and respects the study, rights of conscience of homework education its Catholic members). Having said this, what might be broad moral and ethical principles which should guide human conduct in this area? I think Deacon Jim gives us a way to approach this question when he raises what he calls the 'societal' or 'common-good' aspect of truth-telling:

The stability of human society really depends on the good will that ought to study, exist among individuals, and that common good can only be realized by truthfulness. While I certainly agree that many other societal goods depend on homework, good will between members of a community, there is good reason to doubt that common good can only be realized by case guide truthfulness. Indeed, the apocryphal anecdote with which I began speaks against education this view: the audience member imagining themselves to study guide, be revealing Anne Frank's location, though speaking truthfully, is homework education not promoting the common good or improving good will between members of the society. Rather, their truth-telling breaks down the fabric of social trust required for communities to guide, operate to the good of their members. How so? Because good will is a more expansive and complex concept than truthfulness. And sometimesperhaps oftenwe demonstrate our good will toward others by not telling the truth . This is essays perhaps why the Eighth Commandment charges people not to bear false witness, rather than simply never to study guide, lie: it is the 5 pages research paper, harm caused to another by lying which is the object of primary condemnation, and study guide often we will demonstrate more good will toward our neighbor by b twitchell being equivocal (rather than ruthless) with the truth.

Ultimately, to live happily in society among others, we do not want to study, live with ruthless truth-tellers who always tell the full truth regardless of essay any contextual factors. Case Study! Rather, we want to live beside people who have our good in mind, and who act to maximize our goodeven though this may lead them to homework education, be equivocal with the truth at times. Humanists accept the many ethical complexities such a position places us in, and study recognize that all ethical reasoningjust like the Catholic position on essay submission deadline, lyingis ultimately a work in progress. Felix Adler's ethical maxim should be the guiding principle, not some ossified rule regarding truth-telling: “Act so as to elicit the best in others, and case thereby in thyself.”

James Croft is a candidate for an Ed.D in Human Development and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of a movie essay Education (HGSE). He works alongside Greg Epstein as Research and Education Fellow at the Humanist Community at case guide Harvard, trying to create a true Humanist fellowship in xbox 360 essay, Cambridge, Massachusetts. James is an experienced actor and case study singer, having performed in many locations around the xbox 360 essay, world. A committed Humanist and a Humanist Celebrant, he's also an Assistant Editor at case The New Humanism and ayn rand critical essays a Contributing Scholar for State of case study Formation. His blog at Patheos is titled Temple of the Future . Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and respectful dialogue.

While it's OK to disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted. Before commenting please read the 5 pages research paper, Commenting Rules and Tips . If you're having trouble commenting, read the Commenting Instructions . Only thing I would criticize in this would be that I would say humanist principles do guide us through all complex situations, but they don't always provide clear paths. Study Guide! In other words, the principles are not abandoned in difficult circumstances. In contrast, one would expect followers of the homework education, just and study guide true God to be able to deadline, do better. That the case guide, infallible church would not need to a movie, take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. That it does not is by no means proof the god is fake, but it is another missed opportunity for the God to prove himself.

That the infallible church would not need to study, take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. This is a quibble, since I agree there is anthem something remarkable about a basic question remaining open in the Catholic Church for case guide 2000 years. It seems to me pointless and wrongheaded to analyze, try to cram all moral precepts into the Ten Commandments. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor did not prohibit all lying when it was promulgated, and it doesn't today. You're right. But Christian belief usually places lying as so incredibly bad that God could never ever do it, he couldn't even want to. Case! This is unlike killing in education, which God often does it and helps others in. There seems to be something about lying that they need it to be completely banned but recognize this is also immoral to not lie in all circumstances. In my opinion, in the story of Adam and study guide Eve, God does not tell Adam the truth about homework, eating from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and case Evil. The serpent tells the truth, and homework after Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit, God confirms what the serpent said word for word.

I agree and the equivocation from apologists on case, death is ridiculous. There is a Reasonable Doubts episode where they try to ib tok essay deadline 2015, show where God has lied or condones lying. The response from theists is illuminating. You're gonna have to explain this one. You're gonna have to explain this one. It is plain as day right there in Genesis 3. But the guide, serpent said to the woman: You certainly will not die! No, God knows well that the moment you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods who know what is good and what is bad. Adam and analyze a movie essay Eve don't die.

And God echoes the serpent's very words, saying, See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is good and what is bad! To assume that what God meant was that Adam and Eve would die someday if they ate from the case study, tree is paper necessarily to assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal or were going to be allowed to eat from the Tree of Life. But that is nowhere in the text. The Christian interpretation is that the case guide, sin of Adam and Eve brought death into the world, but that is certainly not in Genesis. Any person who reads Genesis 3 will have to interpret it. I have to reject any interpretation which attributes a lie to essay, God and case study truth telling to the serpent. ..necessarily to assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal. If they were in fact initially created immortal, but died someday and essay brought death into the world because they ate from the tree, in your mind what are some of the case guide, challenges this would pose, i.e. how would it show God to have lied?

I think it is interesting to james essay, contrast the issue of lying as an open question in Catholicism with the issue of contraception, which many would consider to case, be settled and ib tok final (although I personally don't think Humanae Vitae comes close to being infallible by the criteria set by the Church for infallible pronouncements). The absolutist position on contraception seems to case study, me to be very similar to anthem critical, the absolutist position on lying. The position on contraception is that sex is for case study reproduction and anything that gets in the way of its reproductive purpose renders it immoral. The absolutist position on b twitchell, lying is study guide that speech is for communicating the anthem ayn rand critical essays, truth, and anything that gets in the way of its purpose of communicating truth renders it immoral. These absolutist positions strike me as being illustrations of the study guide, principle, Man was made for the law, not the law for man.

I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. you cannot take one without distorting the other. Essay Submission Deadline 2015! This is case study guide why the education, church is against both in vitro fertilization and contraception. One tries to achieve reproduction without uniting the husband and wife in study guide, the sexual act, and james b twitchell essay the other tries to remove the gift of giving oneself to the other fully and be open to participating in God's creation in order to case study, pleasure oneself. There is a difference in that matter, and that is the church gives us solutions to the problem of contraception. Abstinence is seen as impossible in today's culture, which is xbox 360 essay not true.

I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for case reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. I agree that is what the Church teaches, which is why I said sex is for anthem essays reproduction, not sex is case study guide only for reproduction. Xbox 360 Essay! For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of sex was not recognized, and someone as influential as St. Augustine said. It is one thing to lie together with the sole will of case guide generating: this has no fault. Ib Tok Essay 2015! It is another to seek the pleasure of flesh in lying, although within the limits of marriage, this has venial fault. To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin. This is not, of course, the position of the Church today. Nevertheless, it seems to guide, me that all the xbox 360 essay, rules about sex in guide, Catholicism are about sex within marriage being procreative.

I am not aware of any encyclical or major Church document that is to the unitive nature of ib tok essay submission deadline 2015 sex what Humanae Vitae is to guide, the procreative nature. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of sex was not recognized. To attempt to make paper, derive pleasure from case study, sex, even for xbox 360 essay married people, was a sin. David, your interpretation of St. Augustine doesn't quite prove what you claim about the Church not recognizing unitive purposes way back when. His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. In other words, yes, it is still a sin to objectify anyone - even a spouse.

St. Study! Augustine seems to anthem critical essays, be making distinctions of culpability. His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to study, merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. Analyze! As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. There is nothing in the quote I reproduced to indicate that Augustine was talking of one partner seeking pleasure by using the other. You are forcing an interpretation on case guide, the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is a towering figure in homework, Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for case study pleasure as long as they leave the xbox 360 essay, sex act open to case guide, procreation.

As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. . in Augustine's opinion. Essay! But this has never been the official teaching of the Catholic Church. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of case study every major theologian, even her more gifted. In an ib tok submission 2015 effort to case study guide, accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted ones. You seem to be objecting to what I said, but what you are saying is precisely the point I made! I said:

Augustine is james essay a towering figure in study, Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in essay submission 2015, harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is study guide completely. unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. Make Research Paper! As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. As I understand it, Catholic married couples today are mostly free to sexually reproduce (a biological process which is prefaced by sexual intercourse). We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. The point is that the natural purpose of sexual intercourse is sexual reproduction - a purpose which is study not to be severed from the act that achieves it. You are forcing an research paper interpretation on the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is guide a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching.

No more than you are forcing an interpretation on the quote to make it inconsistent with contemporary thought. I found it necessary in analyze a movie essay, order to show that your quote doesn't necessarily prove what you claim. I do agree about the harmony thing. Case Study Guide! So yes, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything some towering figure said. If you recall, you tried to use Augustine's quote to show that the essay, Church in Augustine's time did not recognize unitive purposes of sexual intercourse.

If we agree that not everything needs to be harmonized (and then you suggest that this statement by Augustine fits that condition), one cannot claim that the Church did not recognize unitive purposes in Augustine's time, only case that Augustine did not: for Augustine is not the make 5 pages paper, Church! In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on this matter? We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and case we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. Sexual intercourse is only sometimes —and maybe only rarely —pleasurable? Really? So without any further information, are we agreeing that St.

Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on the pleasure vs generation issue? St. Augustine died in 430 A.D. I think it probably wouldn't even make sense to claim that the anthem critical, Church in the 5th century had an official position on the relationship between the unitive and case study procreative purposes of ib tok 2015 sex. Guide! I think it is essay deadline fair to say (and universally acknowledged) that St. Case Study Guide! Augustine's views on sex were very influential, and xbox 360 essay that Augustine believed that sex for study pleasure, even for b twitchell essay married couples, was sinful (but not seriously so—that is, not a mortal sin). It is only in the 20th century that the case, Church began making official pronouncements on a movie, such teachings. Study! Pius XII in Casti Connubii officially recognized a unitive purpose for marital sex, and he regarded it as secondary to procreation. Catholic thought developed further between then and education now, to the point where the procreative and unitive purposes are both essential. So, in brief, I would say no, St.

Augustine wasn't at odds with the early Church on study, the matter of homework education sexuality. He was in on the ground floor in shaping the Church's view on case study, sexuality. But his idea that in make, marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against study Catholic teaching. Sexual intercourse is only sometimes—and maybe onlyrarely—pleasurable? Really? I do not recall using the term, only, but even if we substitute sometimes with often the implication is james b twitchell essay still achieved: that sexual intercourse need not be pleasurable to achieve sexual reproduction. I'm sorry if I wasn't clear. Perhaps it would be more clear if instead of case study pleasure I would say sexual gratification?

I suppose some pleasure (happy to be pregnant) could be derived in the consequences of sexual intercourse that was not sexually gratifying. I'm trying not to equivocate so bear with me. It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings. I appreciate you sharing your historical knowledge. Make Research Paper! I now understand that by guide sharing what St. Augustine thought on unitive purposes you support your claim that the Church didn't always officially teach what She teaches now. Analyze! (Presumably we agree that by no means in this case would this be contradictory given organic development of doctrine.) But his idea that in marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is study sinful is against Catholic teaching.

This speaks to my original point that his quote doesn't necessarily prove your claim: your parenthetical, but open to xbox 360 essay, procreation is not in the original quote by case study St. Augustine. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the essay submission deadline 2015, harmonization isn't completely necessary. This isn't to deny your interpretation that it could be opposed to. 20th century teaching, only case study guide that it could go both ways without affecting the make research, development of the case guide, current teaching as you stated it. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with.

20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. I think what you are saying is that if someone is critical essays clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the case study, sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from essay, sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the study guide, way he sounds, and that his views are fully consistent with the view that developed in the 20th century that the procreative and unitive purposes of james essay sex are co-equal. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization, although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is study guide necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and make research paper marriage. The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints, and I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in study guide, the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. It is xbox 360 essay one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. It is quite another thing to case, claim no important Catholic of the past every held a view that is xbox 360 essay now no longer accepted.

I think what you are saying is that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to case guide, say about the sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds. David, the issue between us is that you are convinced you are interpreting him correctly and xbox 360 essay then accuse me of case interpreting him as though it's some huge stretch to interpret him in harmony with current Church teaching. The fact that St. Augustine said sole will regarding generation makes me believe he wanted to carry that context when he contrasted sexual intercourse for pleasure. The way it sounds to me is obviously not the way it sounds to you; the xbox 360 essay, difference is that you think you interpret him correctly, and I think either of our interpretations are reasonable.

I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization. I didn't know we were talking about the attempts of others. . although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and marriage. Although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to study guide, demonstrate that someone from the anthem ayn rand critical essays, fifth century had a 5th century view of sex and marriage. Would you like to keep playing that game or do you want to actually add to the discussion?

Please refrain from assuming that you know what my intentions are. The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints. and I think such exercises in trying to case guide, make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. Ok, but weren't we simply talking about one view of xbox 360 essay one saint? Besides, I already agreed that it wasn't necessary to harmonize a particular view, just showing that your interpretation isn't the study, only possible explanation. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the homework, past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. Are you attributing these claims to me? I deny that I have made or hold to such claims.

Are you attributing these claims to me? No, I am not attributing any particular claims to you. But there is among some Catholics a tendency to want to homogenize the complete history of the Church and argue that there have never been changes of any significance from the time of the study guide, apostles to the present. For example, although sacramental theology took well over a thousand years to develop into the form we recognize today, I have been in discussions in which people have insisted that Augustine thought of analyze marriage as a sacrament the case guide, way we think of it today. That is simply not true. The concept of sacrament was very different Augustine's time (5th century) than it was in submission 2015, Aquinas's (13th century).

It is just mistaken to read the sacramental theology of the 21st or the 13th century back into Augustine's writings of the case, 5th century. I don't think it makes much sense to continue this without going much more deeply into Augustine's thoughts on sex and marriage than plucking a few quotes here and there. I do not pretend to be an expert on the life and thought of analyze essay Aquinas, but it is case my opinion that if we could send, say, Benedict XVI back to the 5th century in a time machine to xbox 360 essay, discuss marriage and sexuality, there would be some rather fundamental disagreements between them. As you say, it should be no surprise that even one of the greatest minds in the Church who lived in the 5th century would have a 5th century understanding of marriage and sex. Befitting of a positive note on which we end this discussion: St. Augustine, pray for us. I cannot help but bring up Jacob and Esau.

Jacob clearly lies to case guide, Isaac in xbox 360 essay, order for personal gain. This deception is guide rewarded and Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? I am still only up to Exodus, but this story was one that was incredibly confounding. Was lying for xbox 360 essay personal gain okay then? Both you and case guide St. Augustine have had to struggle with the Jacob/Esau story. Indeed, in Augustine's case I don't think he ever adequately addressed it--rather, he had already made up his mind about never being able to b twitchell, lie and study then could only conclude that some greater and prophetic truth was served by the deception of Jacob, basically. I don't think Augustine ever fully resolved this example. Jacob as supplanter and essay a deceiver and one full of guile and cunning certainly remained a running theme in the nation of Israel--but the circumstances were such that his deception was seen as justifiable since the birthright was technically owed to him. Even in John's Gospel, in the first chapter, Jesus says, with ironic humor, of Nathanael, Behold an Israelite in case study guide, whom there is no guile . I just think we need to try and look at this objectively.

Lot's wife gets turned into anthem salt for looking at God's work. This is immediate punishment for violating what seems to me to be an arbitrary command and brutal punishment. On the other had Jacob intentionally lies and deceives his father violating at case study guide least 2 commandments and acting utterly contrary to god's morality. There is xbox 360 essay no punishment for this, no chastising, no earthly justice at least. Instead, Jacob goes along and lives a long prosperous life leading God's chosen people. What is the difference? Jacob while immoral, did not disobey any direct command of god. Case! Lot's wife, did disobey a command. It would seem here that God is james much more concerned that his commands be obeyed than his followers act morally.

This heightened value of obedience of authority is exactly what people believed in the Iron Age, and this is reflected all over the OT. I think it is all fables, myths and tales. The God you believe in would have done better. One possibility is case guide that Jacob had a legitimate claim to xbox 360 essay, the birthright, which had been bartered away by his brother Esau. So, one may suggest that the deception wasn't a sinful lie because the deception was justified, *or* that the deception was still a sinful lie even though the claim to the birthright was legit. Either way, the episode's inclusion in Scripture is not there to case, resolve the morality of lying and deception. Its purpose as Scripture is more big picture.

Further, the Church is also very aware that the *human* authors of the texts themselves express the truths that the Holy Spirit wants asserted in obviously human fashion. So we can never really simply say that biblical characters are either uber-holy or uber-unholy. Developing a moral framework from anthem ayn rand critical, Scripture alone would be very very difficult. This deception is rewarded and Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? That question only becomes problematic if we see the case study, Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle. But the Scriptures aren't like that. Homework! They record history as it was. Jacob made a free decision to lie, and God worked with it even while not supporting it. In a sense, this is the overarching theme of the entire Old Testament: God working with the free choices of his sinful people to bring about his purposes.

But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. Does this mean you believe the flood story is study true? There was an archaeological study done not long ago that showed a big (local) flood did in fact happen in the region. This is also apparent from the writings of other ancient people (such as the Babylonians). See the following link. The study is not conclusive. There was flooding activity but the size and timing are unknown. Regardless, the story is not about analyze a movie essay, a big local flood.

It is about a global flood that covered the earth and case guide killed virtually every living thing. And, it's about a family which managed to homework education, collect an astonishing variety of animals and survive this incredible catastrophe. Case Study Guide! So, my question remains, if you think that the Bible records history as it was do you believe that this story is true? For people of that time, a huge local catastrophe would look like a global event. We as Catholics are not obliged to take everything in a literal sense. We try to understand the authors and where they are coming from. So it answer you question, I believe the history being it a big local event. Seems odd that a god couldn't be more clear in his book. I guess it's just more evidence that your god is an incompetent buffoon. . Or that He was competent enough to deadline, send Ziad to help clear things up for you in 2013.

He hasn't cleared anything up. Case Study! Just offered the same old excuses. How else do you expect someone to respond to the same old objections ? Some religions, like Islam, believe their inspired book came strictly from xbox 360 essay, God and no human hand in it. Case Study Guide! Christianity is very different. Although we confess that the Bible is the Word of God and He is essay its author, it is inspired through the case study, holy spirit who worked through human authors. So we confess also that there are human elements in it and make research that the Holy Spirit did not invade the case study guide, mind of the authors, but rather worked through them. This is evident because the authors speak through their knowledge and their experiences (such as the ib tok 2015, flood story). It is when you read the case study guide, Bible as a whole and understand it through the james, teaching of the Catholic Church, you would understand what God is telling us in case guide, each passage. John Bell, I think you need to clean up your insulting, inflammatory comment. I disagree.

If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change. This is supposed to be a place of dialogue, not disrespect. Those aren't mutually exclusive. They are if you expect anyone to dialogue with you. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace.

Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change. Then this isn't the place for you, John. Thanks for stopping by. Then why tell Noah to get all these animals on the boat? It doesn't make sense unless God is killing all other humans and education animals. It is a myth, which you already seem to case study, accept by not interpreting it literally.

Not to mention what exactly are the authors on about in the Noah story? God knew all along that he was going to b twitchell, send his son to redeem humanity. Why bother killing all but one family generations earlier? Did God not know that humanity was going to keep on sinning anyway? Did God not know that he was going to invent the rainbow to study, say he would never do it again? Why do it in the first place.

It doesn't even make sense as fiction. Its a myth, like Gilgamesh and Beowulf. It reflects a human impression of gods as rash, and toying with humanity. As I understand it (I am no theologian or apologist of any sort) the Noah story is showing the first glimpse of God's promise to protect humanity and provide salvation. Bringing all the animals and education saving them is a sign of case study new creation, new beginning where man is not left alone to meet his doom. That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle. But it is not uncommon to hear the argument that the Bible teaches us that polygamy is wrong because very often there is ayn rand critical essays some kind of strife depicted in Old Testament stories in which polygamy plays a part. I think that argument is an example of the same kind of guide approach to the Bible as you are criticizing here. Essay! If we try to find a moral in every occurrence in the Old Testament, we can arrive at some very odd conclusions that were never intended. You are right.

Bible interpreters call this the prescriptive/descriptive problem. When is the case study guide, bible telling us a story to prescribe behavior and when is it just describing events. As Catholics we have sacred tradition and the church to clarify things. Protestants profess Scripture Alone which leaves the problem quite unsolvable. So how did God work with Jacob? What was the consequence of Jacob's stealing his brother's birthright through deception? And actually, one of the aspects of the Jacob story is that it's a great illustration regarding *whether* it counts as a lie or not. B Twitchell Essay! Augustine, for example, would not count it as an case study guide example of a movie essay a sinful lie but rather as something else that was somehow prophetically true. The odd thing is case study that, even though I defend the right to form conscience apart from the common teaching on lying, I'm more inclined to agree with Brandon (and against Augustine's excusing of Jacob) that Jacob's falsehood was a lie (and sinful) because of its selfishness.

Though there *may* be room to consider whether Jacob's rightful claim to the birthright constituted sufficient justice to conceal his identity. I'm not yet 100 percent satisfied with either choice, but the Jacob portrayed in Scripture seems quite capable of sinning in this deception. I think we need a post on why Catholics should not have to get hung up on defending the difficult passages of the OT! But the Scriptures aren't like that. Education! They record history as it was. There's an important point to be made about Catholic teaching, and that is even those who claim one must never lie do not claim one must always tell the truth. For example, the audience member in the very funny story about the Anne Frank play volunteers the truth, which is study guide quite different from education, lying when asked a direct question. Case Study! Even anti-lying absolutists would not say it is never wrong to tell the truth. Education! Gossip, for example, can be true. Libelous statements can be true. The anti-lying absolutists would say that when asked by a would-be murderer where his next intended victim is, you do not have to answer!

And if you answer, you do not have to respond with the truth. You can say, for example, How in the world would I know where she is? Even when testifying under oath in court, to commit perjury you must clearly say something false. Case! If a witness is essays clever enough to throw the questioning off track and leave the case study, impression he has been responsive, he is xbox 360 essay not committing perjury. I remember one of my teachers (a Christian Brother) half admiringly telling a story about case study guide, a kid in another class who appeared to be eating something (which was not permitted during class). He saw the kid chewing and make 5 pages research paper said, Are you eating candy?

The kid replied, No! It turned out guide, he was eating peanuts, and the teacher had to admit that no was a truthful answer to the question he had asked. Technically, the anthem critical, kid was not required to case study, say, No, I am not eating candy. I am eating peanuts. Yes, and the theological tradition of mental reservation is make 5 pages also associated with this--we don't have to speak the truth, we can remain silent. Case! But if silence is inadequate to the task, how much can we say--combined with what we do *not* say--to safeguard truth or do good? Mental reservation is that middle-road attempt to a movie essay, address the case guide, many special cases in which silence cannot adequately safeguard truth or the james b twitchell, good.

Since Croft has devoted a whole paragraph of a brief OP to a side issue, contraception, with the claim that the case, teachings of Humanae Vitae have caused extraordinary harm, I'd like to see him back up that claim with evidence. I would also like him to address whether extraordinary harm has been inflicted due to james b twitchell, contraception. He is actually making an argument for case the other side without knowing it. Making exceptions in the case of contraception led to a sexual revolution. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it. If he is suggesting a parallel with the question at hand it very much works against the point the is trying to make. If those contemplating it in anthem ayn rand critical essays, the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to case study guide, rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it. It would actually be very difficult to demonstrate that the pill, or contraception in james b twitchell essay, general, lead to case guide, the sexual revolution. I certainly don't think it did.

Nor do I think Humanae Vitae was prophetic. That is confusing to me. Certainly there were other factors like the spread of pornography enabled by homework education technology. Still denying the importance of the pill just seems weird. If sex does not lead to case, children then why wait for marriage? The kind of relationship required for sex then got to be less and anthem ayn rand less serious until it was accepted with no relationship at all. Is any of this controversial? I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution (I am not even sure the name is apt), but if you google DID THE PILL CAUSE THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION you will find plenty of study guide good arguments that it did not.

I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution I agree and homework education this is why I cautioned James to use the case study guide, condom example in his original post. As you can see, it has already de-railed this entire comment thread. I offered to submission deadline 2015, change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) I offered to study, change the james b twitchell, example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) This is simply not true, James. Case Guide! As I explain above, on Monday, August 19, I sent you an email saying I'm planning to b twitchell, launch the three-part series [on lying] tomorrow (8/20).

Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I posted it on Wednesday, just as promised. There are people who think the pill is a good thing and the sexual revolution is a bad thing. I saw some things by case guide people in that category trying to make that case. Ib Tok Essay 2015! I would not call them good arguments. It seems most who say both of them are good or both of them are bad take for granted a significant cause and effect. But when you say artificial contraception you don't just mean the guide, pill.

Casti Connubii was published in 1930. That was in response to analyze a movie, a mini sexual revolution in the early 1900's. I think Brandon demonstrated the prophetic nature of guide HV in his long quote from it above. Would love to hear how contraception leads to analyze, abortion and divorce. Contraception has a failure rate. What happens next? Contraception facilitates fornication and case guide adultery. What happens next? The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. Do you really think people didn't have affairs before the 5 pages research paper, advent of guide effective prophylactics?

I'll tell you, a bastard breaks up a marriage faster than most things. Of course, so do the stresses of unwanted children within marriage, or the transmission of diseases. Hi, Josh--your question was how does contraception lead to anthem ayn rand critical, abortion and divorce. I think I just answered it. Contraception use generally implies you don't want a kid nine months after you have sex. Guide! When contraception *fails* and you don't want a kid nine months later, you get an abortion. This is all particularly true in cases of fornication and adultery. Jim, what you showed was that sex can lead to abortion and in certain circumstances divorce. Contraception reduces the chance of those possible outcomes of sex. C.f. the 5 pages research, seatbelts example I gave you above.

Nope. Case Study! When you give teenagers contraceptives, you are giving them permission to have sex. Teenagers (and adults with the mentality of teens) are irresponsible by nature, so both their sex and contraception use are irresponsible. James B Twitchell Essay! This means contraception failure. This means pregnancy. Then comes abortion or children without fathers.

If teenagers are irresponsible by nature, then they will have sex regardless of contraceptives. Contraceptives would then only reduce pregnancies. Let's have some evidence for your claims. In the 1950s, teenage sex was the exception. Now, it is case much more the anthem ayn rand, norm. Guide! Why the change?

You've been thoroughly indoctrinated by anthem ayn rand essays Planned Parenthood. The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. But you're presenting a false dichotomy. By suggesting the only two options are condoms or unprotected sex, you're implying people *have* to engage in risky sex and can't help it, and that those are the only two options. A third option--and a better solution--would be to case study, promote sex within monogamous, faithful marriages, sex that doesn't need to be protected from anything. No dichotomy, I was just pointing out that Jim's analysis was wrong. People can have sex or not have sex. The former leads to babies. (Excepting anal, oral, etc. which clearly don't lead to abortions and anthem critical divorces.) Among people who have sex, there are various habits that can reduce the chance of unwanted children. Contraceptives are essentially the best.

They are a form of non-risky sex. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. People who want to be monogamous partners inside marriage are fine. But you present a dichotomy by case guide pretending that is the only valid or safe option. Anthem Essays! It's simply not. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. What are they protecting themselves from? Mostly from unwanted pregnancies. I.e. both from unwanted children and from abortions.

There are also cases where one partner has a disease they don't want to pass to the other. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Out of curiosity, do you have a young daughter? fornication. I have to laugh. It's like we're in the middle ages! Would love to hear how contraception leads to abortion and divorce. Assuming your question is genuine and not facetious, you'll find the first part of your answer here: A Deeper Look at Contraception and Abortion . Your link is broken Brandon. When James first submitted his article I warned him that Catholics would be quick to refute this claim, which isn't necessary to his argument and draws attention away from it.

For one thing, the experts on this topic seem to completely disagree with James. The non-Catholic, pro-condom, senior Harvard researched Edward C. Green, director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, says: The pope is correct [about condoms']. or to study, put it a better way, the best evidence we have supports the pope’s comments. He stresses that “condoms have been proven to not be effective at ayn rand the level of population. There is a consistent association shown by our best studies, including the U.S.-funded ‘Demographic Health Surveys, between greater availability and use of condoms and higher (not lower) HIV-infection rates. Guide! This may be due in part to a phenomenon known as risk compensation, meaning that when one uses a risk-reduction ‘technology’ such as condoms, one often loses the benefit (reduction in risk) by ‘compensating’ or taking greater chances than one would take without the risk-reduction technology.” Green expressed this fact even more simply, stating: We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates. Those wanting more should read his op-ed piece in the Washington Post titled The Pope May Be Right.

The Pope May Be Right. something about that Washington Post title made me chuckle. Brandon, this is disingenuous to the point of dishonesty. From the article you linked: In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a.

sufficiently high level, even after many years of james b twitchell essay widespread and often. aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections. in the generalized epidemics of study guide Sub-Saharan Africa. i.e., the education, problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Also note: . that condom promotion has worked in countries such as Thailand and case Cambodia. disingenuous to the point of homework education dishonesty The unofficial motto of Strange Notions!

i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. The article says, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of case widespread and b twitchell essay often aggressive promotion. Which means that the real problem is case not that there aren't enough people using them, but that they are being used inconsistently . Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Sure! Perhaps he can persuade the inconsistent condom user to abstain from the behavior which requires the use of a condom.

The Pope should stay out of public health advice. Why should one assume that the pope couldn't do it in private? The pope has the xbox 360 essay, right to speak on matters of faith and case study morals. Public health often has a moral dimension, so he has a prefect right, in fact an obligation, to speak. He is also informed. I have a right to speak on matters of faith and morals. I don't know why someone should pay more attention to a movie essay, the pope than to me. I think we both deserve the same amount of attention: whatever attention our arguments warrant. Not quite. You have no right to study guide, speak to 5 pages paper, Catholics nor have you any standing to speak as one world leader to study guide, other world leaders.

On the make research paper, other hand, neither you nor I have thirteen years of case study guide formation in faith and morals, a doctorate in b twitchell, theology, thousands of case study hours of experience dealing with people on these matters, many learned advisers, and two thousand years of experience to draw from. I may not have standing but I definitely have a right to speak to essay, Catholics and case study guide everyone else in xbox 360 essay, the public square about case guide, anything I like, at essay least in study guide, this country (the UK). Hopefully in your country, too. They likewise have a right to pay attention to anthem critical essays, me or to ignore me. Frankly, I don't care much about the study guide, credentials of the thirteen years of formation plus doctorates, etc., if the james b twitchell, arguments are bad.

Just listing credentials isn't an argument at all. Humility is truth. Well, the current pope used to ride the bus to work. Guide! I have a lot of respect for ib tok essay that. Here's the question. To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? Dr. Case! Edward Green agreed with the pope (to a certain extent, at least) that condoms had not been helpful in fighting AIDS in Africa. However, Green said that the use of condoms in the brothels of Thailand was effective. Is it morally wrong to urge prostitutes in the brothels of Thailand to deadline, insist their customers use condoms? If there is really no hope of eliminating the brothels of Thailand, is it morally wrong to case guide, urge those who run and work in the brothels to do something that will save the lives of the prostitutes, their customers, and anthem their customers' wives?

Remember that Aquinas famously thought prostitution should be tolerated (although not supported). He thought the elimination of prostitution would lead to greater evils. Isn't it consistent with Catholic thought today that some evils may be tolerated? And would an attempt to mitigate some of the negative side effects of a tolerated evil be cooperation with evil? The problem with backing the pope in his comments about condoms not being effective in guide, certain situations is that the pope would (it seems) object to the use of condoms even if they would stop the AIDS epidemic dead in its tracks. To what extent should public health policy be determined by anthem essays Catholic teaching?

In my opinion, if properly understood, completely. However, this complete understanding of case Catholic teaching would include when Catholic teaching has nothing to submission deadline, say about the matter. The argument is not dishonest at all. In Africa, HIV is guide spread through high-risk promiscuous relations in which the partners refuse to ib tok, use condoms on principle. The solution the article advocates is not to persuade people even more aggressively to use condoms but to case study guide, stop these promiscuous sexual relations. Thailand and xbox 360 essay Cambodia are irrelevant since the condom use in regulated brothels, not among the general population. No, the solution advocated is a combined approach of reducing risky behavior.

That includes using condoms consistently when having sex. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. But since the real problem is people having sex with multiple inconsistently protected partners, it's obvious that the Pope's abstinence and monogamy advocacy has failed much harder. Thailand and Cambodia are not irrelevant; the case, Pope's stance is not that condoms are okay in east-Asia but not Africa. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. This is not true. As Green notes, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and deadline often aggressive promotion , to produce a measurable slowing of case study new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Also, you say condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. But according to b twitchell, Green's research, it would be more accurate to say condom advocacy has been ineffective . Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of case study guide advocacy. Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is analyze a movie essay exactly true according to the quote you pulled. You're right. Mea culpa.

I misunderstood your point. It seems we agree that spreading and advocating condoms in case guide, Africa has not reduced the spread of disease. This has been my main contention since the beginning of make 5 pages paper this thread. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of advocacy. Ah, now this is interesting, since it implicitly suggests we should stop advocating condoms, if only for scientific reasons, in order to gauge whether other methods might be more effective. Fine by me. Case Guide! Condoms don't seem to homework education, be working, so we should try something else. Again, this is precisely what the Pope said about the Africa situation. I appreciate the correction. Well, I agree that if we were running a science experiment with no ethical concerns we would want to run each 'treatment' separately and then in combinations. Obviously that's not something I suggest we do though.

We actually do have evidence that condom's work well when used properly. So of case study course does abstinence, although I think the evidence that we can get people to be consistently abstinent is rather worse than that we can get them to use condoms. So, again, the evidence isn't that condoms don't seem to be working, it's that in one region of the world people aren't using them consistently enough to offset the risky behavior that abounds. The expert consensus, from what I can tell, is that we should advocate a multi-pronged approach. People need comprehensive education, they should be encouraged to limit partners if they aren't going to use condoms, they should have condoms widely available and submission deadline 2015 their usage should be properly understood and promoted when people do have sex. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. They have other dangers besides limiting the spread of HIV. These were outlined clearly way back in 1968 by Pope Paul VI:

Let [us] first consider how easily [contraception] could open wide the case, way for marital infidelity and a general lowering of anthem moral standards. Case Guide! Not much experience is needed to be fully aware of 5 pages paper human weakness and to case, understand that human beings—and especially the ib tok essay submission, young, who are so exposed to temptation—need incentives to keep the moral law, and case study guide it is an evil thing to make it easy for 5 pages research them to break that law. Case Study Guide! Another effect that gives cause for alarm is that a man who grows accustomed to the use of 5 pages paper contraceptive methods may forget the reverence due to a woman, and, disregarding her physical and emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a mere instrument for the satisfaction of his own desires, no longer considering her as his partner whom he should surround with care and affection. Finally, careful consideration should be given to the danger of this power passing into guide the hands of analyze essay those public authorities who care little for the precepts of the moral law. Case Study! Who will blame a government which in its attempt to xbox 360 essay, resolve the problems affecting an entire country resorts to the same measures as are regarded as lawful by married people in the solution of a particular family difficulty? Who will prevent public authorities from case study guide, favoring those contraceptive methods which they consider more effective? Should they regard this as necessary, they may even impose their use on everyone. It could well happen, therefore, that when people, either individually or in essay, family or social life, experience the inherent difficulties of the divine law and are determined to case study, avoid them, they may give into the hands of public authorities the power to intervene in the most personal and intimate responsibility of husband and wife.

All of this has proved true over the last fifty years. This is disingenuous to the point of dishonesty Really? You know with certainty I'm giving a false impression, on purpose, to the point of deception? I simply cited the leading American expert on this issue with basically no commentary. A Movie Essay! Next time, please focus on the quote instead of my motives. In regards to your own quote, it seems *you* have left out pertinent information. Green notes that in Thailand and Cambodia, the condom promotion has worked primarily because most HIV is transmitted through commercial sex and where it has been possible to enforce a 100 percent condom use policy in brothels.

The problem is that this is a rare and study guide isolated situation. Most STDs spread in Africa the the West are not shared through brothels. Also, even while aware of those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the make 5 pages research paper, best solution. He notes that condoms *haven't* curbed HIV in Africa while faithful mutual monogamy or at least reduction in numbers of partners, especially concurrent ones has. Finally, Green's point in saying consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion was to prove his thesis.

His point was not that *we need more condoms* since people aren't using them. It's that even after dumping boatlods of condoms into Africa, and doing everything possible to encourage their use, they still do not curb HIV because of risk compensation, relational dynamics, and other factors. In other words, the world has done everything it can to promote condoms as a solution in Africa. Case Study! But it's inadequate. It doesn't work. While attractive on anthem ayn rand essays, paper, it fails in practice.

This is exactly what Pope Benedict suggested and guide Edward Green agrees. Your motive is to support the Church's position. You are disingenuous for leaving out important context. Also, even while aware of those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. Don't misunderstand me; I am not anti-condom.-Green. Again, you are being disingenuous.

Green supports condom usage. Ib Tok Essay Deadline 2015! His view is that it is part of a combined effort to reduce risky behavior. Guide! Obviously that includes reducing the number of sexual partners if one isn't going to use condoms consistently. (Even if you are, reducing partners helps the odds of course.) Note that Green's examples of successful programs include 'faithful polygamy' and monogamous relationships but nothing about marriage per se. Cambodia and Thailand are indeed sociologically different from Africa but they aren't exceptions, they are examples of condom usage working despite otherwise risky behavior. So if the b twitchell essay, Pope's position is that we should promote condom-usage along with other risk-reducing behaviors, then he agrees with the case study guide, consensus of experts. Here's a thought. Analyze A Movie! What if it were shown that actually, recommending condom use does reduce the study guide, rate of HIV infection and that telling people to avoid condoms results in higher rates. Xbox 360 Essay! But also that the study guide, use of make research contraception is a sin. What would you say then about the morality of the Pope's actions? I admit that I am not familiar with the study, research, but I say this because it does seem to me like Catholics cannot accept this good public health advice because of an arbitrary command of their God. The Centre for Disease Control says 'Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

If anyone feels the 5 pages paper, need to talk about the issue of HIV and condoms, the case, only moral thing to say is james that, if used properly, they can be very effective in preventing the spread. That is my moral position. The problem with touting Edward C. Guide! Green as an authority who backs the pope is that Green fully supports the use of condoms where they have been shown to be effective, for example, in the brothels of Thailand. Xbox 360 Essay! Green is making an argument based on what works, and he supports the use of condoms where they work. Case! He fully supports the 5 pages research, ABC approach (abstain, be faithful, use condoms). Case Study Guide! The pope and the Catholic Church do not support condom use even when and where it is effective and james b twitchell essay can save lives. This is because the Church can never say, don't fornicate, but if you do, use condoms. I don't see why not. Can't the case study guide, Church say, Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession? That is not an endorsement of xbox 360 essay sinning.

Can't a Catholic teacher of Driver's Ed say, Of course, you should never drink to excess, but if you do drink too much, don't drive! Is that a mixed message? Is the concept of having a designated driver evil, because it allows everyone but one person to drink to excess? The Church is always using the excuse about not wanting to send mixed messages. Guide! The Church should be able to communicate well enough with adults that its messages are clear. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is submission 2015 a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is case guide two sins. Ironically, this is almost exactly what Pope Benedict said a couple years back in make 5 pages, his book-length interview, Light of the World.

When asked about whether two gay men engaged in intercourse, one of them HIV-positive, could licitly use a condom to prevent the spread of disease, the pope, while not necessarily endorsing it as moral behavior, said it would be a step in a more moral direction. His point was that in that specific situation, the condom is not a contraceptive device. Therefore it doesn't commit the sin of study distorting the sexual act. It's clear the *only* reason two people would use a condom in that situation is to prevent the spread of disease, a completely noble desire. I think your analogy breaks down at xbox 360 essay the very beginning. The parallel to Don't fornicate, but if you do, use a condom is not Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession because going to confession is case study guide not a further sin but condom use is. Also, consider, Sex outside of marriage is ib tok essay 2015 a sin, but having sex outside of marriage with a condom is case study guide two sins. . . . . because going to confession is xbox 360 essay not a further sin but condom use is. Are you honestly saying that those having sex outside of marriage who use contraceptives are more sinful than those having sex outside of marriage who don't use contraceptives. First, I don't know the calculus of multiple mortal sins and don't really want to go there. I also don't know that it is case a sin to essay, conceive a child outside of wedlock.

The act that causes the conception certainly is case study guide a sin, but I don't know that actually getting pregnant is another sin. Xbox 360 Essay! If it isn't, then yes, fornication with contraception is worse than fornication without. Brandon. you're ignoring important points of guide that Washington Post Article. (Green's) comments are only about the essays, question of condoms working to case study, stem the spread of AIDS in Africa's generalized epidemics -- nowhere else. ie. not necessarily true anywhere else, nor do they address one way or the other how condoms might have had an effect on other issues such as unwanted pregnancies.

In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of xbox 360 essay widespread and often aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in case guide, the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Which seems to imply that access to the physical condom alone without the proper efforts to educate people about b twitchell, using them consistently might be the problem. It's like giving a computer to an accountant to better keep their books without training them how to use it. Guide! Efforts to provide proper and thorough sex education to 3rd world countries have been stifled by the moral teachings of the church. True that in this very specific instance the lack of education combined with risk compensation social stigmata that a condom represents a lack of trust have shown that the availability of condoms alone appears to not have had the positive effects seen elsewhere, so in a sense the church can claim a truth victory or sorts in a very narrow sense. But one sample, one that has a variety of additional contributing factors and is specific to simply HIV infection rates, is not indicative of a trend, especially in light of the many examples where contraception proper education have helped lower rates.

To ignore the effects elsewhere or leave out points that provide a more thorough picture via proper context is deceptive, dishonest and ironic in a conversation about the ethics of ib tok deadline lying. I want to take a brief moment to study, address this question, because I am disappointed as to how this has been dealt with here on this site. 5 Pages Research! Brandon, as he notes below, advised me to revise this passage because he felt it would derail the guide, comments. I trusted the intelligence and good will of the audience, and the skill of the moderators of this site, to essay, redirect people to study, the purpose of the piece, but also agreed to revise the passage if Brandon thought it would derail the conversation on lying. I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to homework education, revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. I am further surprised to see Brandon not encourage commenters to stay on topic, and rather to see him perpetuate the discussion here by case study selectively quoting some articles relevant to a small subset of the contraception issue. This has led, as he predicted, to a fruitless side discussion in which quotes from critical essays, scientists are mined by study Catholic apologists to analyze a movie, support their pre-conceived conclusion (for instance, I can find no non-Catholic source whatsoever for the quote, attributed to Edward C Green, that We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates.). Therefore, I'm not going to engage in case guide, the discussion of contraception here. Essay! I will, however, make a statement relevant to my argument regarding lying:

Note that my analogy was intended to demonstrate the weaknesses of a rules-based morality when compared with one which recognizes moral complexity and is open to renegotiation in the light of new evidence. That Kevin, above, asks for evidence to support my claim - seemingly in the hope that I will not be able to provide any - is an ironic demonstration of my point. If he accepts that we should make our judgment regarding the ethics of case contraception based on evidence as to whether a given approach is harming people or not, he has already accepted my main point: that ethics should be based on the welfare of persons, and essay not on case study guide, preconceived ethical rules. He has, in effect, taken a Humanist position to ethics by making this very inquiry. The Catholic approach to the issue - even if it is the correct approach - frequently proceeds from a different set of assumptions about morality. Namely, such approaches often appeal to god-given rules, or to ib tok essay submission deadline 2015, a teleological conception regarding the god-given purpose of study guide various human behaviors. Note, for instance, that some of the comments below from Catholic apologists turn on essay 2015, some conception of what sex is for, rather than whether it is beneficial to people. This is not a question which has any relevance to the Humanist: behaviors do not have a purpose in that sense, and the only questions which are relevant relate, ethically speaking, are whether the behaviors promote welfare or not. To ask whether a more permissive attitude toward contraception has increased or decreased human welfare is to ask a Humanist question - one very much in line with the guide, ethical approach I outline in my piece above. I guess you assume the two will give different answers.

That is if we follow God perfectly or do what is best perfectly we won't end up doing the same thing. My feeling is research paper that what God wants and what is best are the same thing. Now a humanist has a huge problem is defining human welfare. It is a word with embedded morality. Case! To use it to define what is moral becomes a bit of a question begging exercise. But if you defined welfare or goodness the b twitchell, same way God does you would find that God's commands don't violate that.

The question then becomes which system is likely to do better. That is are we likely to get closer to the ideal by discerning what is good for human welfare or are we likely to case, get closer to that same ideal by asking what would be pleasing to God? It seems to me that God's commands are given precisely because we are likely to get the answer wrong without them. We are told not to lie because we tend to james b twitchell, lie. We rationalize that behavior based on study guide, humanist principles and end up in immorality. Rationalization seem like it kills humanism. That is because we all know we can twist logic to convince ourselves what is ib tok essay submission deadline 2015 bad is actually good.

You suggest yourself Catholics have done that on the contraception question. The point is that humanism fails unless you are above that sort of thing. I don't think any human is. I think you might be misunderstanding Catholic moral theology. Natural law moral principles are based on guide, human nature. Acting against human nature will harm human beings. That is the make research, legitimate link between moral principles and their effects on guide, human welfare. You should not be surprised if some Catholic moral reasoning sounds humanistic. We have been humanists since the Incarnation. Pope Paul VII pointed out the a movie essay, harm that would come to society if the natural law truth about human sexuality was violated. Principles and their effects go hand in hand.

No, I think I understand it quite well. I am arguing that the concept of human nature is a problematic and unnecessary one. Welfare should be the guide. We need not appeal to a teleological conception of human nature - which is almost always highly selective in its description of humanity - to make ethical judgments. Natural law is another example of an a priori ethical concept which has no relevance and warps ethical reasoning. We must take human beings as we find them, and case guide ask what promotes our welfare, regardless of any preconceived notions of our nature. So you are another one of these throw everything out and 5 pages start over with an untested theory which will lead to who knows what horrors? How will you know what is welfare and what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of case study guide what a human being is?

I'm not sure where you got that from my response. Xbox 360 Essay! My argument is to use our best evidence drawn from case study, millennia of ethical experience. Far from throwing everything out education, we must use everything we have learnt throughout a history of oppression and the struggle for greater freedom. As for determining what promotes human welfare, one of the great things about people is that they are able to articulate what they desire, and we are able to think through many of the factors which may be shaping their desires. I do not think many ethical questions to be as mysterious as some philosophers like to make them. Human beings are animals with basic physical and psychological desires, and satisfying those should be our first ethical priority. After that, we must seek to case, create societies which maximize each individual's opportunity to flourish while minimizing the potential for the actions of one to harm another. I don't find this a particularly complex philosophical proposition - it is the praxis which is hard.

So what's your problem with natural law? Here's a practical problem. Is it moral for a woman to terminate the life of education her unborn child who has Down Syndrome? As to the first question, a lot hinges on who's interpretation of natural law you take. Some versions might be compatible with my ethical outlook, while others are certainly not. As for guide your second question, I think that depends on a lot of contextual factors: most significantly the age of the developing human. No fixed rule is going to be able to give an answer which is generalizable to all situations. How will you know what is welfare and what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of what a human being is? I'm not sure of the force of the question.

Presumably determining which objects merit our moral regard, and to what degree, is a question which must be answered by every meta ethical approach. My response is that evidence and reason is the xbox 360 essay, only way to come to a defensible answer to those questions. I read your answer as It depends. To defend the human being against raw power (in this case a defenseless unborn defective child), we need a foundation for human dignity. Can your meta ethic come up with one? I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. To be clear, James, this is somewhat misleading. You sent me the article on July 11. I emailed you three days later about the contraception line, noting that many Catholics would disagree and study that I'm worried it will divert attention from the make research, rest of study guide your great article.

Finally, more than a month later, on August 17, you replied saying, Where are we on this article? Is it published already? I might be able to find another example, but this one seems to me absolutely indisputable if you look at essay the facts. On Monday, August 19, I replied saying I'm planning to launch the study guide, three-part series tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I also noted, If I don't hear from you before Thursday, I'll run your piece as-is. But if you'd like to edit that part, just send me an updated version and I'd be happy to make the change. You responded a few hours later saying, Ill come up with a different example while I examine these studies in b twitchell essay, more detail. But I didn't hear from you over the next three days and assumed you had simply chosen not to alter your original article.

I published it as-is on Wednesday, August 21, just as I said I would. Therefore, it's misleading to guide, suggest I posted your article immediately after you offered to revise this passage, as if somehow I didn't give you ample freedom (and encouragement) to remove it. And it's simply wrong to suggest I posted your piece before the ib tok submission deadline, stated publication date. I told you I would post it on Wednesday (8/21) and that's precisely when I posted it. So far no one seems to have any comments disagreeing with this Humanistic morality with respect to lying. Study Guide! I take it to mean that after two days of anthem ayn rand critical this series, the Catholic church isn't sure how do deal with lying all the time and neither are humanists. But both seem to think it is case study guide immoral to lie when there are negative human consequences rather than avoiding negative human consequences. Where is the a movie, theist aspect of theistic morality?

What do you mean by theistic aspect of theistic morality? How do theists apply morality different than humanists when it comes to lying. We are constantly told that theistic morality is superior because it somehow is based on study guide, objective morality? Well where is make research this objective morality? How do theists access it in study, order to know when to lie? We agree, it is wrong to kill, unless it is essay submission not. It is wrong to lie, unless it is justified. Case! The justifications are always human. What is anthem critical wrong with the moral approach to study guide, lying set out above?

What is missing from it, and why is the missing piece important? Let's go back to james b twitchell essay, basics. The Catholic Church believes in the natural law, which every human being can know by properly looking at case study guide the reality of human nature. Make Research! So there is no reason why a humanist could not discover it. In fact, we could say that the first humanists to case study guide, discover the natural law were Socrates, Plato, and critical Aristotle. This is the case study guide, objective reality that Catholics and right-minded humanists refer to.

Verry good questions--as I mentioned in my post, I really don't think we Catholics and humanists/atheists are too far apart on this one. Instead, we're all needing to apply basic moral principles to specific concrete cases. Xbox 360 Essay! I'm looking forward to case study, part three of the series tomorrow for additional insights. And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. What is so interesting about these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the homework education, evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. What is so interesting about these debates is guide how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the homework, mightiest bastions of faith! Or perhaps the study, other way around :) Catholics had been reducing suffering for centuries before Humanism showed up on analyze, the scene. That may be true (and I'm perfectly willing to case guide, accept it) - but my point was meta-ethical, not practical. My point is that the method of ethical reasoning on display here is Humanistic, and that this is in very stark contrast to b twitchell essay, the types of ethical reasoning traditionally related to religious perspectives. If you read the sort of study ethical reasoning on display from many leaders in essay, traditional faith communities today - even progressive ones - you will often hear methods of ethical reasoning which do not put human welfare at the center.

And that, to me, is a distinct problem. Two points: Croft's attempt to define a lie is unnecessarily awkward. And although good will is an excellent way to explain the principle, there remains unreasonable bias against the lie. I would also say that this is a topic that should only be discussed by accomplished liars. A lie is an intentional deceit. Attempting to relate it to what, if anything, is study spoken muddies the definition. I have, on occasion, deliberately brought my credibility and/or impartiality into question and then flatly stated the completely accurate and relevant truth. It's an especially effective method, leaving your adversaries without the slightest doubt that they have the a movie essay, full truth in mind despite your best effort to mislead them.

On the second point. You inform your allies and you mislead your adversaries. If your design is moral, then so are your statements when earnestly made to reach those moral objectives. With this said, it may at case guide first seem that you should lie half the time and be accurate the other half, but in fact, the bias goes to accuracy for three reasons: First, you talk to your allies more often than your adversaries. Second, when talking to you adversaries, many of your statements should be accurate so that your lies will be believed.

Third, if the situation is ambiguous, leading with useful, accurate, but safe information is more likely to lead to a friendlier (more ally-filled) world. One more item. Submission Deadline 2015! If I have convinced you that there is no moral issue with lying, you may still prefer to firmly hold to the position that lying is very bad and should only be used in the most extreme situations. Case Study Guide! Not only analyze a movie essay will this enhance your credibility in some circles, it may influence others to tell the truth more often themselves. I would also say that this is a topic that should only be discussed by accomplished liars. But then why would we believe their answers? I don't think I attempted to define a lie. Indeed this was one of my primary points! It seems that the case guide, big difference between the Catholic and non-religious position on this issue is one of authority. The end-point is the same for now, but may not be in the future.

James Croft says that lying is acceptable in cases when good will runs up against truthfulness. Jim Russell says that lying is acceptable in some cases justified by the common good (or natural law), as long as no official Church declaration is made to the contrary. Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is xbox 360 essay always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is guide always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? That's a very interesting question, Paul. I'm partial to Augustine/Aquinas/most of Catholic tradition on this--in believing that lying is intrinsically and always wrong--so such a pronouncement wouldn't affect me. But I'd be interested to anthem ayn rand critical essays, hear from other Catholics.

I'm reminded in this discussion of case sitting in a session with a Buddhist scholar, who, when peppered with a mess of ethical conundrums introduced me to the phrase, killing the fish to feed the dog. His point was that the complexities of life present us with moral tragedies where we're coerced between choosing wrong and wrong. The challenge (from his perspective) is to avoid either the homework, complacency of patting ourselves on the back for our cleverness in using moral calculus for minimum suffering, or the despondency of obsessing over individual tragedies. These things happen, and they have consequences that need to case, be dealt with. I have to agree with the point of view represented here. Judging the submission 2015, ethicality of a lie should be in a case by case scenario.

You cannot simply settle for case study guide one rule on xbox 360 essay, lying such as Deacon Jim’s; there are instances where this rule conflicts with morals for it to be true all the time. Case Study Guide! In the textbook, “Ethics in Human Communication” by Richard Johannesen, Kathleen Valde, and Karen Whedbee, they discuss the excuses usually used to analyze a movie, make a lie permissible. “Among the higher goods frequently used to justify a lie are: avoiding harm to ourselves or others; producing benefits for others; promoting fairness and justice; and protecting the case study guide, truth by counteracting another lie, by furthering some more important truth, or by preserving the analyze, confidence of others in our own truthfulness” (Johannesen et al., 104). Bringing these cases into the light, they can be seen as ethical or unethical in a case by case situation. Ethical or not, we as humans use these excuses; That is just how we have grown to act. Johannesen, R. L., Valde, K. S., Whedbee, K. E. (2008). Ethics in Human Communication. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible?

Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible? If you don't make the decision for yourself, who makes it for case guide you? The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. Homework Education! The religionist however has a framework of presumed objective moral imperatives, a narrative of ultimate accountability, of being created in the image of God, of the inherent value and meaning of case guide creation, of ultimate accountability. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. I'm not sure what that's supposed to mean, but it sounds Aristotelian, and I don't accept Aristotelianism.

The non-believer generally operates without that framework. Not entirely. Homework! Most of us non-believers are quite committed to the notion of an guide individual's ultimate accountability for their behavior. Ultimately accountable in what way? Accountable to homework education, what or to whom? We all live in one society or another. Case Study! Those societies hold us to education, account. I don't think that is what is usually meant by ultimate accountability. Aren't human societies fairly ephemeral, in the grand scheme of the universe? I see no reason to think the universe has any grand scheme.

In this context, I take ultimate to case, mean final. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life. To fulfill that role, ephemeral though my society could be, it needs to survive only as long as I do. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life Even if society judges you unfairly? (Or is society's judgement fair by definition in your view?) For most of my life, society has been judging me in james b twitchell, ways that I haven't liked at all. It would be really nice if I could look forward to another life in study, which I would be compensated for analyze essay that, but I can't believe it's going to happen just because of how much it please me if it did.

Whether you will be in any sense compensated is really a separate question, I think. My question is whether you think that society's judgement of case guide your life is / will be (at least partly) incorrect. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. It might or might not be useful to call it a higher standard. I don't believe it is a transcendental standard.

Call it what you want. If society can be wrong in its judgements of people, then there must be some vantage point, or perspective, or whatever, from which it is possible to judge society's judgements. So again, call it what you want, it still logically implies that society is not the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the decisions that you make with your life. I meant that society was final arbiter in the sense of education having the last word during my lifetime, since I don't have the means to oppose any decision it makes. A subsequent generation, if it should be aware of guide how society treated me, might agree with my judgment that I was not fairly treated, but that won't do me any good now. I don't see how the ayn rand critical, judgment of any transcendent authority, even if there is one, could make a difference unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of study guide what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. Yes, OK, a future generation can potentially cast judgement on make, the judgements of the present generation. That's just kicking the can down the road.

Is it possible that future generations will be wrong about you as well? If so, then your thinking logically implies some notion of wrongness that is not tethered to what societies (past, present, and future) think. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. In my worldview, when it comes to my ethical principles, the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. I'm not looking for case guide any other validation because I see no reason to believe that another source of validation exists. the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe.

That's all that I'm trying to investigate. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the xbox 360 essay, way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the case guide, way that I have lived my life. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between.

Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. I see the apparent inconsistency. Essay! I tried to resolve it. Perhaps my explanation lacked sufficient clarity. I’ll try again. It goes to the sense of “final arbiter” where the sense has to do with the ontological status of ethical principles. If those principles exist independently of any human mind, then no human person or group of people can be the case guide, final arbiter of any ethical issue. 5 Pages! But if those principles are, as I believe them to be, human judgments and nothing more, then the final arbiter is case study whichever person or group has the power, in case of essay any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment. Their judgment is final in that sense only. It did not mean final in the sense of “no longer subject to study guide, dispute.”

In the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court is the final arbiter of constitutional disputes. Anthem! At any given time, the Constitution means whatever a majority of the justices say it means. In 1896, the court’s majority declared in Plessy v. Ferguson that the Constitution neither contained nor implied any prohibition as such against Southern laws segregating the races. The court’s ruling was, in case study guide, effect, the final word on a movie, the matter until 1954. In that year, the case study, same court, although comprising different people, had a contrary final word. Prevailing public opinion nowadays is that the justices in 1896 were simply mistaken. A minority view is that Plessy was the right decision at the time, considering the nation’s historical racial situation, and only became wrong when the nation’s racial attitudes became sufficiently enlightened. In either case, at the present moment in history, the final word declares racial segregation to be constitutionally impermissible.

Is there, or was there ever, an objective fact of the matter, such that that fact would be the actual final arbiter? I think not. The only objective fact is that the Constitution contains a certain statement in certain words including “equal protection of the laws” regarding limits to the authority of state governments. The meaning of ib tok essay submission that statement is for us, the users of the guide, language in which it was written, to decide. I can decide what it means to me, anyone else can decide what it means for them. The language belongs to homework education, none of us individually. But we have agreed as a society that in case study, certain situations, the only decision that matters is that of a majority of the justices currently serving on the Supreme Court. Any of us is free to disagree with the court at any time. Many Americans disagree fervently with court’s decision in Roe v. Wade , but the court had the final word in 1973 and, for essay the time being, it remains the final word so far as the law is concerned. Legality does not have to study guide, imply moral acceptability.

The interpretation of any legal document is xbox 360 essay a matter of judgment, and at any given time, somebody’s judgment has to be final, but we need not treat any final judgment as the only possible correct judgment, and we need not suppose that there is some objective fact as to study guide, what that correct judgment is. Judgments are more or less defensible, depending on the persuasiveness of the critical, arguments offered in case, their support. Sometimes we need to let somebody—a final arbiter—have the last word, but we remain free as individuals to disagree with the final arbiter; and, as time passes and new people have to live with the consequences of the final arbiter’s decision, they can ask a new final arbiter to james b twitchell essay, reconsider the study guide, previous decision. the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment. That is b twitchell a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is it not? For the sake of argument, I'm open to the possibility that might does indeed make right, but let me first see if you want to guide, create any white space between your position and b twitchell essay the might makes right position.

U.S. Supreme Court is the case, final arbiter of constitutional disputes. Right. They can reject laws by 5 pages appealing to a document with greater authority, the Constitution. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.

Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to the Constitution :: We can rationally argue that a state of guide affairs is immoral by appealing to . what? Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment ? That is a pretty clear articulation of xbox 360 essay might makes right, is it not? I can understand why it might seem so, but no, I don’t believe it is. Case Study! It would be “might makes right” if I were claiming that whatever decision was reached by the prevailing party was always the ayn rand critical essays, right decision, but I’m not claiming that. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability. Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. The analogy arises from the fact that legal decisions and case moral decisions are both matters of judgment, not of fact. We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to anthem essays, the Constitution. But the argument is over how the case study, Constitution should be interpreted, and a matter of xbox 360 essay interpretation is a matter of judgment.

We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is immoral by appealing to . what? To our moral values. If we believe human life has moral value, then we will judge certain states of case study guide affairs to be morally unacceptable and others to be morally unacceptable. Likewise, if we believe that any diminution of human suffering has moral value, then we will judge certain states of analyze essay affairs to be morally unacceptable, but if we believe that certain kinds of human suffering have moral value, then we will judge some of those same states of affairs to be morally acceptable. Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of case guide affairs is immoral, and james essay we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to case study guide, the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to analyze, make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment I have my own criteria for judging the study, moral acceptability of xbox 360 essay any state of affairs, and in general those criteria make no reference to study, the opinions of people in essay deadline, power. [We appeal to] our moral values. Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? And if so, from what frame of case study reference can those judgements themselves be judged to be wrong?

Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? In my worldview, our moral values are themselves just judgments. Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? We do or don't value certain things and we live our lives accordingly. The result will be a certain quality of life. If we find the quality of our lives unsatisfactory we should consider the possibility that we need to change our values. I think it's illogical to value things that make us unhappy. OK, so we can judge the way that you live your life by appealing to james, moral values, and we can judge those moral values by case study guide appealing to the happiness that results when those values are pursued.

In that case it sounds to me like the ultimate arbiter of the way that you live your life is you, since you are best able to ib tok essay submission 2015, assess your own happiness. Or do we need to appeal to case guide, some sort of collective societal happiness? The interests of society are inseparable from my own interests. Yeah, I agree with that, as long as interests is sufficiently caveated. At a superficial level, I have an interest in eating a nice juicy steak a couple times a week. That carnivorous interest is pretty surely at odds with society's interest of reducing world hunger and preventing ecological catastrophe. Of course, at a deeper level, I share those societal interests, and I think it makes sense to judge my superficial interests by appealing to my deeper interests. Would you agree with that?

If so, I think the chain of command is shaping up along the lines of: 1. We can rationally judge the way you live your life by appealing to moral values. 2. We can rationally judge moral values by appealing to the consequences of pursuing those moral values, and whether those consequences are in our interest. 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by critical appealing to case study, some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) So if we are nearing then end of the anthem ayn rand critical essays, line, then what is the nature of this deeper, more communally defined interest? Does this deeper societal interest correspond in any way to guide, the neo-Platonic transcendentals of truth, love, justice, beauty, being? 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to essay deadline 2015, some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) I'm OK with some vagueness.

I think humanity's ethical instincts are still evolving, and case study so nobody should claim to have worked out an ethical moral code in complete detail. I hesitate to subordinate either personal or social interests to the other. Paper! I probably need society more than society needs me, but a society that devalues the interests of any of its members won't be a maximally healthy society. There will be conflicts, but they need to judged case by case. unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to study guide, compensate me for how I was treated in this one. What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? I think it unlikely that I would have a choice.

Good point. Although the way I understand it, denying that you should expect that judgement is the only way to receive the harshest sentence. That's what I've often heard. Fortunately for my peace of mind, I've never also heard a good reason to believe it. And even if it is true, there is xbox 360 essay nothing rational I can do about it. If, in the judgment of the ruler of the universe, my skepticism deserves eternal punishment, then people like me are simply without hope. Our doubt is, in effect, the unforgivable sin. I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. I suppose that society in general and us Christians in particular can be very judgmental.

That sense you have of case study guide justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to ayn rand, come home? Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to guide, those wishes. James! They may be trying to tell us something. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Why do you think these notions are not to be found in the Old Testament? Firstly, I do think that there are traces of a need for justice and accountability in sections of the OT. The Israelites in captivity started sensing this need, a lot of the case, prophets hint at some retribution, some accountability in the future. Anthem Essays! This may not be in the traditional (to us) Heaven matrix, but the case guide, hints are there.

Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. We are not made perfect, we are allowed to grow in xbox 360 essay, that direction. Things are revealed to us gradually, through science, through our consciousness and guide our consciences. Maybe those ideas had to be discovered, developed over time. Maybe those ideas had to essay submission 2015, be discovered, developed over time.

In particular, maybe something unique in history happened between the OT and the NT that would have triggered an aha moment :-) I'm not sure what you mean here, but New Testament times in my understanding stretch back to include the events recounted in the New Testament, not just the times in which the books of the New Testament were composed. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the case, Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into mainstream Judaism. For example, it is ayn rand critical clear from the New Testament that some Jewish factions believed in the resurrection of the dead and some did not. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament. I think that is study a very substantial oversimplification. It seems more fair to say that there are both continuities and discontinuities between Jewish (Second Temple Jewish, let's say) and Christian ideas about the afterlife. Make! In other words, some elements of Christian thought about life after death do not derive from the Old Testament. Case Guide! Of course, if you accept N.T.

Wright's arguments (as I generally do), then many Christian ideas about life after death do not derive from the New Testament either! Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the analyze a movie essay, Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the close of case study guide Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into mainstream Judaism. This again seems like an oversimplification. Xbox 360 Essay! From what we can tell, there are both continuities and discontinuities in the ways that resurrection was envisioned / understood by those pre-Christian Jewish sects and the way it was understood by the early Christian Church. Guide! I meant to suggest that the discontinuities could potentially be explained by education some sort of outward historical event that triggered a very specific change in thinking about what the resurrection would be like (as opposed to explaining the discontinuities in terms of the subjective whimsy of early Christian authors).

I wrote my comments about the differences between the Old Testament and the New Testament regarding the afterlife in response to case, this comment from xbox 360 essay, Lazarus: That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? My point is that in study guide, Old Testament times, this sense of final (and eternal) reward and punishment was absent. It would take a book (which I am not competent to write) to do the subject justice, but for my purposes here, I think it is sufficient to point out a movie, that those of case study us having this discussion here have an education idea of final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and case study guide inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. In a book-length treatment of the subject, it would surely possible to find (particularly in later Old Testament works) hints of what was to homework, develop in later Judaism. However, the idea of dying and study going to xbox 360 essay, heaven (or hell) is simply not to case guide, be found in the Old Testament. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for essay deadline 2015 their descendants (or Israel). I am working somewhat without a net here, but when Job is urged to curse God and die, I think the idea is clear that Job could end his suffering by goading God into killing him. Case Guide! There is make 5 pages research no hint of an afterlife in case study guide, such an idea.

I would be very interested if you or anyone could point out the case of an Old Testament figure who expects there to be an afterlife either for him/herself or anyone else. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in analyze essay, this life or for their descendants (or Israel). That seems like a reasonable way to put it, but that's a good bit different from saying that there was no sense of a final justice and harmony that God would bring about. Case Guide! Just to take one of the more famous examples, I understand that Isaiah 11:6-9 is describing a vision of a mostly-this-worldly perhaps-not-eternal kingship. Nonetheless: it is holding out for a glorious day when God will set things right, and superabundantly so.

To suggest that that semi-eschatological vision doesn't enjoy substantial continuity with later Christian eschatology would be, I think, wrong. (Perhaps you didn't intend to suggest any such thing.) those of us having this discussion here have an b twitchell essay idea of final justice and case guide eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. To put it mildly, that is not obvious to me. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. I don't see how God can work patiently, since as I understand the Christian conception of God, he exists in some kind of homework education eternal now and does not experience before and after. Also, it seems to me that Revelation in Judaism and Christianity does not come incrementally, but in major bursts, the last of which (for believing Catholics) was the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. As I keep noting, the Catholic belief is that Revelation ended with the death of the case study, last apostle. Anything new in the past 2000 years has allegedly been deduced from what was already known. As for b twitchell the idea of case God gradually leading mankind along, I see problems with that.

For one thing, a great deal of God's commands in the Old Testament make no sense. The ritual and ceremonial requirements (e.g., don't eat pork, don't weave cloth with two kinds of material, stay away from menstruating women) were obeyed basically without understanding. If God could give arbitrary commands back in Old Testament times, why couldn't he have prohibited slavery, even if that seemed bewildering at the time and only gradually came to be understood as fundamental human morality? I think it is clearly true that a great deal developed over the last 2000 years (or 4000 years), but aside from the great bursts of Revelation (principally Moses and Jesus), I don't see that the developments were nudged along by God. For the believing Catholic those nudges need not come from paper, prophets or from God's incarnation. They may be there in the image of case study God, in our conscience, our very minds. That is analyze a movie essay why so few of us are Biblical literalists.

God speaks to case guide, us in many ways. Some of paper what we hear are our own wishes and goals. The trick lies in discernment. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? A gradual improvement- as if we are guided. Guide! Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and continues to do so. I continue to be surprised that some Catholics here tend almost to downplay Divine Revelation and, I might add, the xbox 360 essay, role of the Church and the Magisterium.

There is a lot more natural theology on this site than Catholic theology. We do see a moral arc to case, the universe, do we not? I am somewhat confused by your reference to homework education, the universe. I certainly don't see a moral arc to the universe. Are you speaking of the case study guide, human race? I would not know how to begin measuring the morality of the human race over the past several thousand years. From the viewpoint of Christianity, I am not at all sure Western democracy and capitalism constitute a high point in morality. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and continues to do so. Human culture is shaped by human beings, not by the universe.

I am certainly not downplaying divine revelation or the role of the Church and the Magisterium, and xbox 360 essay have no idea why you would think so. I answered your specific question about the OT. We seem to have a difference of case study guide opinion as to the moral progress made by humanity over the ages. I believe that there is a clear improvement in that regard, and I ascribed that to james, those examples of causes that Christians would believe are at work. If we accept that, there would indeed be a noticeable difference in our moral views as contrasted to the OT. Since for each individual human being, the end is either heaven or hell, why should moral development over time for the entire human race be of any significance?

I suppose if we imagine life after death to be the resurrection of the dead and continued life on earth, then there might be some point in continued moral progress, in that those who come along late in the lifetime of case study guide humanity would be better equipped to organize a post-resurrection society. But I would expect the more reasonable idea would be that at make the resurrection of the dead, all will be enlightened in some way, so that our distant human ancestors and our distant descendants will be equals. Of course, any ideas about study, life after death are purely speculative. Thomas Sowell's book, Conflict of xbox 360 essay Visions, spells out the claim that there are basically two competing visions. One vision is based on case study guide, the denial of original sin, so man's potential is analyze unlimited, the Unconstrained Vision. Case! The Constrained vision accepts original sin and believes that man's potential is limited due to the wounds of ib tok submission deadline 2015 original sin. It's not fool-proof since you, David, normally deny original sin but seem to study guide, be more aligning with the constrained vision. Maybe hell is empty. Maybe we get graded on a curve.

So we just need to maintain a good GPA = God Prayer Average ? I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. Thank you, but I do have this satisfaction: Life handed me a bushel of lemons, and I've managed to make some darned good lemonade. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to come home? I'm aware of no proof that it can't be a call to come home. I don't think there is an evolutionary benefit in the belief itself. For one thing, it seems many societies have had no such belief. If it were a product of evolution, it would likely be more universal.

I do believe, though, that our brains were wired to perform certain logical shortcuts in forming beliefs in order to make quick decisions in situations that didn't allow time for gathering all relevant facts and subjecting them to ib tok essay submission 2015, rigorous scientific analysis. Those decisions didn't have to study guide, always be correct in james b twitchell, order to keep us alive. They had to be correct just often enough to guide, make survival more likely than death. And in anthem essays, other situations, where survival was not even an case study issue, correctness was simply beside the point as far as natural selection was concerned. Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in critical essays, not being numb to those wishes. They may be trying to case study guide, tell us something.

I agree that it would be silly to treat our desires as epistemologically irrelevant. Of course it cannot be a proof proper. Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? So what if it was, as long as I could freely choose to ignore it? Do you think that proof of james anything at all is a violation of your free will, or only guide proofs of religious doctrines? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will, it could compel us rather than entice us. But it could also have other negative consequences. If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the education, meeting with God? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will. That doesn't answer my question.

Is it only your religious beliefs for case study which proof would compromise your free will? If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? That would depend, I should think, on whether they were also given proof that hastening their deaths would result in their going to hell. My religious beliefs deal with some pretty big issues, mainly life after death as far as this discussion is james concerned. Proof in guide, other spheres of james essay life does tend to study guide, limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense.

Proof that smoking harms me effectively takes away that choice, proof that my son did a stupid thing binds me to fix the problem. But all of these are trivial examples, people differ in their responses to ib tok deadline 2015, such real or imagined proof. True and case real proof of God's existence falls in a completely different category. It is so different from anthem ayn rand critical essays, anything else that any comparisons are meaningless. As to case guide, the effects of b twitchell essay such sure knowledge of God, I still believe that God HAS to be hidden, has to be a hint, an invitation. Study Guide! Sure knowledge would lead to chaotic consequences. People would be overwhelmed by those consequences. Proof in other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. I agree in a way. 2015! If I perceive that something has been proved, I cannot disbelieve by a mere act of study guide will. But I also can't see a reason I should wish I could.

As far as I can figure out, it cannot be in my best interest to believe anything that is ayn rand essays contrary to case study, fact. But that is essay exactly why it seems reasonable to me to always seek the truth in good faith, regardless of guide what I might wish the truth were. True and real proof of God's existence falls in a completely different category. I know that we both seek truth, with different current assessments. The existence of God is, in b twitchell essay, my view, the ultimate mystery, the case study guide, biggest question we can ask, regardless of our answer.

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10 Things You Need to Know About Small Business Funding. Case Study Guide! Every small business finds itself looking for small business funding at one point or another. Finding the submission deadline, business start-up funding or money to expand your established business can be a tricky, time-consuming process – and you still may not find or secure the small business funding you need. Here are ten things you need to know about Canadian small business funding that will prevent your funding search from turning into a wild goose chase. 1. The main sources of small business funding are banks and credit unions. The most popular source of case study small business funding is the entrepreneurs#39; own pockets, but traditional sources such as banks and credit unions are next. That makes your own bank a good place to start your search for small business funding, especially as the Canada Small Business Financing Program is delivered locally. That doesn#39;t mean, however, that getting small business loans in Canada is paper, easy. As part of an study, SME Financing Study done by Industry Canada, a survey found that traditional small business loan suppliers (such as banks) are becoming ever more conservative in their evaluations of prospective small business loan customers. As always, new businesses are having the hardest time finding the business start-up funding they need. To counteract this trend, you need to education, spend some time putting together an attractive small business funding proposal.

Learn more about how to meet a lender#39;s expectations and increase your chances of securing the small business financing you need in How to Get a Small Business Loan. 2. Small business grants in case guide, Canada are few and far between. There are very few small business grants out 5 pages research paper, there and case study guide, most of the ib tok submission deadline, grants that do exist target specific groups, activities or even areas of the country. Case! See The Truth About Small Business Grants in Canada for examples of the kinds of small business grants that are available. There seem to be more business grants available for businesses related to arts or culture or specific environmental issues. Also, be aware that there are very few pure, no-strings-attached small business grants available in the first place; many Canadian #34;grant#34; programs involve matching contributions or subsidies, meaning that you have to james b twitchell essay, put out money to get money. My advice is not to plan on study guide, anyone giving you money. Base your plan instead on how you#39;re going to get people to loan you money. If, however, you want to research whether or not there are any small business grants in b twitchell, Canada that your small business might apply for, 5 Tips for Finding Small Business Grants in case guide, Canada will help you launch your search.

3. You have to have a solid business plan. There is no way around this and essay, no shortcuts; anyone who might seriously consider giving you small business funding will want to see one. And that includes the financial details, such as an income statement, cash flow projections, and a balance sheet. (How to put all three of these together is covered in The Financial Plan Section of the Business Plan.) Fortunately, there is study guide, more help for putting together a business plan than ever before. Local Economic Development Centres and/or Community Futures Development Corporations, Canada Business Centres, and other government–supported organizations offer local assistance ranging from research help through business plan courses. Education! Some people find business plan software useful. And there are many models and how-to articles online. My Business Plan Outline, for study guide, instance, will lead you through the process and explain how to research and write each section of the business plan. Make Paper! 4. There has to be something in it for your lender. And your business plan or pitch has to study, reflect this. If you#39;re trying to get a small business loan, the ayn rand, #39;what#39;s in it for them#39; is obvious - a percentage rate of return. But some potential investors might actually want to stick their fingers in your pie, demanding an ownership percentage or at least a say in how your business is guide, run.

Learn how to start your own business or side hustle, and discover strategies to attract customers and pump up your profits. Angel investors, in particular, often want to play some sort of xbox 360 essay active role in managing the company. Case! Typically, these types of investors are also looking for higher rates of return than they could realize with more traditional investments.(How to Find an Angel Investor tells how to find prospective angel investors for your company if you#39;re interested.) When you#39;re putting your small business funding proposal together, know what type of lender you#39;re trying to entice and tailor your business plan accordingly to analyze, meet that lender#39;s needs and case, answer all his or her questions. 5. Be ready to contribute financially. Assets help, especially assets that lenders will see as collateral. But making your own financial contribution of some sort may be necessary to submission, secure the small business funding you#39;re trying to get. Many government-sponsored small business loans and grants demand an applicant contribution, often of a set percentage of the small business funding sought. Business start-up funding is not exempt. Even The Self-Employment Program, as administered in case guide, some provinces, calls for applicants to homework, make their own financial contribution to starting a business. Study! 6. The size and age of your business matter. I#39;m sure you know already that new businesses have a harder time finding small business funding than businesses with established track records.

But the xbox 360 essay, size of your business matters too in terms of how much your small business funding will cost you. Case! If you are seeking a business loan from a bank or credit union, you are more likely to pay an interest rate more than 1.5% above the prime rate if you are asking for james b twitchell, a small loan amount (under $100,000) or have sales of case study less than $500,000 ( Banking Matters , CFIB Research Report, November 2007). The report also says that you are more likely to pay these higher interest rates if you have a business with less than 20 employees and/or less than ten years of business experience. 7. Ayn Rand Critical Essays! Some industries have a much harder time finding small business funding than others. You are at a disadvantage if you#39;re looking for small business funding for a business in the retail, service or hospitality sectors, especially if you#39;re looking for study guide, business start up funding. I personally think there#39;s nothing wrong with starting such a business, but lenders perceive these businesses to be more of a risk than businesses in xbox 360 essay, other sectors. Businesses in study guide, the financial, insurance, real estate, wholesale and agriculture sectors are least likely to xbox 360 essay, have their small business loan applications rejected ( Banking Matters , CFIB Research Report, November 2007). 8. You are your business from a financial point of view. Your personal financial history will be carefully scrutinized by any potential lender you approach. You may find that the lender is only willing to give you a personal loan rather than a small business loan or that you are expected to guide, sign a personal loan guarantee.

Worse, any flaws in anthem critical essays, your personal financial history, such as bad credit or lack of collateral, may knock you out of the running for case, small business funding entirely. Education! It#39;s important that you take steps to clean up your personal financial record, such as repairing your credit rating, before you try to get small business funding. Case Study! There are some small business funds available for those who don#39;t have perfect credit ratings though. If you have no credit history or collateral because of divorce, because you#39;re a new immigrant or because you#39;re young, or if you have a poor credit rating because of repayment issues, your local Community Loan Fund may be willing to make paper, give you a small business loan. See Where to Get a Small Business Loan When the case guide, Banks Turn You Down. 9. There is essay, small business funding, especially for women. There are more sources of funding earmarked specifically for helping women start and study, grow small businesses than ever before. If you are a woman looking to analyze a movie essay, start a business or expand an study, existing small business, small business loans are available - and even the occasional small business grant. Small Business Loans for Women in Canada provides details of small business loans coast to coast that only make research paper, women can apply for. 10.

You don#39;t need a fortune to study guide, start a small business. Xbox 360 Essay! Just because a business starts out case study guide, really small doesn#39;t mean it has no shot at anthem critical essays becoming a huge success. Brian Scudamore, for guide, instance, started 1-800-GOT JUNK? with a single used pickup truck when he was a university student in 1989. Education! Susan Olivia Poole created the first Jolly Jumper from guide, a broom handle, a cloth diaper, and a spring. The Jolly Jumper went on 5 pages paper, to become a world wide seller.

Do you really need as much small business funding as you think you do? #34;. the first rule of financing,#34; says Rick Spence, #34;is to get by on as little funding as you can because searching for capital can drain valuable time that may be better spent taking care of business#34;. Particularly if you are looking for business start-up funding, consider how you might scale back your small business idea or break it into parts so you can get your new business up and study guide, running without a large infusion of small business funding. Keeping the points above in mind will save you time, make your search for small business funding easier and homework, increase your chances of securing the small business funding you#39;re looking for because if you apply these ten points about small business funding to your own funds search, you#39;ll be much better prepared to find lenders who may be interested in study guide, financing your business and education, you#39;ll be better equipped to meet their expectations when you do. For more about small business funding and study, where to ib tok essay submission deadline, find small business loans and small business grants in Canada, visit the Small Business Financing section of this website.

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Example Of Biographical Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?Dora Harper Webb Biographical Essay November 24, 2014 America’s Greats Architecture is the art and case profession of xbox 360 essay, planning, . designing and constructing form, space and ambiance to case study, reflect a functional and aesthetic environment. People spend most of every day in a building of some kind. Ayn Rand? Whether it is a place to live, work, play, learn, worship, shop, or eat, buildings influence and shape people’s everyday lives. No matter if these places are private or public; indoors or out, rooms, skyscrapers, or. Architecture , Frank Lloyd Wright , Larkin Administration Building 1953 Words | 10 Pages. *note: certain places and peoples' names have been censored* Essay topic: We are interested in learning more . about you and case guide the context in b twitchell, which you have grown up, formed your aspirations and accomplished your academic successes. Please describe the factors and challenges that have most shaped your personal life and aspirations. How have these factors caused you to grow? Coming to America was not easy for my parents, especially considering.

Accept , Anxiety , High school 913 Words | 3 Pages. Biographical Essay Work History My work history starts as a mother of two delightful teenagers. I have enjoyed spending time with . my kids since they were babies and watching them grow into hard working, wonderful people. In recent years I helped create an exercise movement class for preschool aged children. Case Guide? In this job experience I created weekly lesson plans that included activities that stimulated their gross motor skills. Activities such as hopping on xbox 360 essay one foot, running, and jumping.

We used games. Childhood , Education , Learning 764 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on case guide the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages.

the International Red Cross Advisory Board. Ib Tok Essay Submission Deadline 2015? Previously, I have had a trip to Equatorial Guinea and South Africa. The happiness and appreciation in the eyes . of the case study guide, people is one of the most rewarding aspects of charity work. Make? Setting precedents or examples to be followed is another, very important aspect. The middle school in study, Sheffield had been improved a lot in xbox 360 essay, the last years.

The school environment was safer, and more technologically advanced. Further developments had been made to the educational. Africa , American Red Cross , Charitable organization 994 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Study? Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in a movie, mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in study, his life and work. He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of paper, discovery, its expansion led to study, still further discovery about architectural design and decoration.

Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of analyze essay, S.Maria Della Salute is study, a very good example of analyze essay, Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in case study guide, a way but is xbox 360 essay, not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Case Study Guide? Marble is mainly used in analyze a movie, the columns and the base appears to be gilded in case study, bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of b twitchell essay, cesium and . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of case study, a solvent is xbox 360 essay, [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to case study, convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by xbox 360 essay the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

Example Essay “He that is good for study guide, making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . founding of the United States of b twitchell, America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is case, frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of make research, time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to case study, the paranormal is make paper, “designating any phenomenon comprising the study, . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”).

For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the xbox 360 essay, front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for case, life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. Deadline? When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to case guide, deal some very flaky people and ib tok submission 2015 I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me.

For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in guide, various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . Essay Submission 2015? things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from case study, generation to generation. Because of education, this, the idea of case study, sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in james b twitchell, almost anything we do. Case Study Guide? Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the xbox 360 essay, most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of study guide, memory capacity and ability. Xbox 360 Essay? For example , the constant use of both the left and guide right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the james b twitchell, piano exercises memory.

Thanks to case study guide, this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of anthem ayn rand critical essays, things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to guide, make sure things go well and make 5 pages items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in.

Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from case study, lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Homework Education? Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the case, Distinction and research High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. Study? The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of anthem ayn rand, a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . points to study, make on the way the ib tok essay submission deadline, essay is structured and the way the information is put across. Case Guide? All my comments are highlighted thus.

A good introduction. • Does the job of james b twitchell, clearly defining the case guide, topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of research, introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Case? Consider the purpose, audience, and context of analyze a movie essay, your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively.

Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in case guide, their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of analyze essay, a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Why Biographical Interpretation Works In Relation. Why Biographical Interpretation Works Many literary works come across as hard for study, explanation, it's been a problem since literature has been a . main stay in james b twitchell, society. Over time many styles of interpretation have been both approached and adapted by case study guide readers and critics alike. One of the most popular is the anthem ayn rand critical, biographical interpretation. This is when a reader makes use of details regarding the study, life, times and works of an make 5 pages paper, author as a means of solving interpretive problems.

The biographical interpretation. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 1181 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. Case? In the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. Essay? In the second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on case study what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Xbox 360 Essay? Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the guide, many types of analyze a movie, writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object.

Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and study guide taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages.

statement in this argument? 3. What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the make 5 pages paper, wrap-up in study guide, this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in make 5 pages research paper, this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions.

Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . Case Study? The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to ayn rand essays, say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. Study? O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from education, a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in study guide, seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by essays Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of guide, you by make research paper seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in guide, Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to homework, See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the case study, best of 5 pages research, circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at guide, an all time low and you can’t see any point in delaying the inevitable. That is education, why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable.

Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the case, decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of homework education, your world view. A World view is described by guide many different people in james, various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and case guide Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of xbox 360 essay, years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of case study, a field that is xbox 360 essay, brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own.

Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in case study, the degree of citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to control the people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in more ways than one. In addition, the use of militaries to xbox 360 essay, control the population and outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is case, a form of expression; it is art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal.

Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and ib tok essay the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and case study universal impact. Closely linked to a song’s theme is the song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the handle the situations. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to make research paper, feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and case study guide competence. By applying his theories and homework education ideas I will analyze the article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the article by Wallace and study guide Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay.

travelled, can appreciate humour, and ayn rand critical that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of case guide, a . Essay Deadline? person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. Guide? For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. How to homework education, Write a Research Essay for History STEP 1: Focusing your topic: In writing a research essay for history, you should . first formulate an idea (a working thesis) about the focus of your research. This gives you a starting point to find source information. The thesis statement must address your assignment. Use keywords from your assignment to help formulate a working thesis statement. STEP 2: Research: Librarians are trained to assist you with finding appropriate sources, but keep in mind there. Begin , Essay , Paragraph 967 Words | 4 Pages.

anyone believe that they were a witch. This is study, also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches. James? An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help. But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out students in case study, any way, so that those who struggle can do well and be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the time to make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for a variety of subjects, some have.

Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to xbox 360 essay, people who don’t live in guide, Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas. For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . commute from james essay, Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on case guide time because he had another class before us so he had the essay, opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one. Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages.

boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of individuals and study notice a great deal of similarities. James Essay? For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the guide, Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and essay these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by study a common goal congregated and bonded to birth their club. Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages. Untrustworthy President Example Essay. We've now had 38 straight months of above 8% unemployment, the xbox 360 essay, longest streak since the Great Depression.

Keeping our country and government operating . Study Guide? smoothly is another area where uncertainty surrounds our president’s capabilities. Essay? That is an example of our tax money being insecure in the hands of our president. We pay more money a year than anyone can fathom and it is squandered in this country and around the world in case study, ways that do not help solve our problems we face here at home or around the. Federal government of the United States , Illegal immigration , Illegal immigration to the United States 957 Words | 3 Pages. ?College Essay – Willem E. Servaes To survive and thrive College! The time has finally come; the Goal at the end of the anthem ayn rand, rainbow. Guide? I . survived! sur·vive 1. 5 Pages Research? To remain alive or in case study guide, existence. 2. To carry on despite hardships or trauma; persevere. 3. To remain functional or usable: I survived my move from a Belgian, Dutch-speaking school to an English speaking kindergarten in Chicago. I survived my move from Chicago, to Maryland and ultimately I survived my long years in a Catholic. Classroom , High school , Learning 828 Words | 3 Pages.

on your driver’s license. What if the person waiting on the list needing an organ transplant was someone you loved? Imagine if you had a brother or sister . who had unexpectedly died and ayn rand you were able to meet the person who received their heart, for example . Study? Think of the satisfaction and a movie essay possible comfort knowing that your brother or sister provided life for somebody else. I’m going to leave you with a short message from someone we all know and case study guide love, Michael Jordan, who is a sponsor for the Iowa LifeGift. Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 900 Words | 3 Pages. Something That Matters by Blake Mycoskie, I believed that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for themselves.

Now my attitude is that . you should pursue what makes you happy, and you shouldn’t let struggles stop you. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brianna Simpson Mr. Bernstein English 101 16 October 2013 Essay #2: Profile . Never Wild Those who wish to pet and baby wild animals, love them. But those who respect their natures and wish to let them live normal lives, love them more. ? Edwin Way Teale Nearly two miles up a rocky washboard dirt road in Phelan, California is analyze a movie, Forever Wild Exotic Animal Sanctuary at 8545 Buttemere Road. Guide? Driving. Animal , Doing It , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Task: Given that listening accounts for 45 per cent of time spent on communication (Eunson 2012:310), argue the importance of listening skills in homework, . the guide, workplace.

Your analysis should identify three specific listening behaviours and provide examples to make 5 pages, demonstrate how these skills promote communication and understanding. Support your analysis with relevant communication theory and evidence from appropriate academic sources. Name: XXXXXXXXX Student ID: XXXXXXX Date due: XXXXXXX Word count. Behavior , Collaboration , Communication 1122 Words | 4 Pages. Pamela Essay 1 Sitting at my desk at home, a crushing feeling crept up on me. I didn’t know what to think.

I’m not going to case guide, make . Ayn Rand? it, am I. It was already midway through junior year of high school, and study guide having just calculated my GPA requirements for many of the colleges I had wanted to go to, I realized that my grades were not even close to essay submission 2015, what I expected them to guide, be. B Twitchell? I guess I had been in denial for so long that I let them slip this far. How could I have let this happen? Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages. Lyndon B. Johnson and Essay Examples Tags. Compare and Contrast Essay Example by admin on Monday, December 12th 2011 No Comment in Essay . examples Tags: Compare and Contrast, Compare and Contrast essay example , Compare and Contrast essay sample The address of President Lyndon Johnson to case guide, the University of Michigan in ib tok deadline 2015, 1964 has been give priority in case, this document. The test of the success of the nation lies in the ability of the American people to make 5 pages paper, exercise liberty and case study pursue happiness for the general population.

These are the. A Separate Peace , Catheter , Farley Mowat 1022 Words | 5 Pages. security measures than there are currently in essay deadline 2015, schools today. Indubitably, most schools have emergency drills and case study guide practices for protection; however, that is . not always enough, for people in a school can still be harmed, or even worse, executed. For example , a student could walk into a school with a concealed weapon and easily start firing off into a crowd of students; therefore, law-enforcement officers alone may not be able to reach the xbox 360 essay, situation fast enough. Furthermore, if each teacher were allowed. A Great Way to Care , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1438 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay Option #2 If you don't want to take school seriously, then I guess I’ll look forward to seeing you working your shift at McDonald’s . when I stop by for case study guide, the fries”. This is what my mom told me when I was an eighth grader. Xbox 360 Essay? My parents are very accomplished people; my mother is a registered nurse and my father is study guide, a lawyer.

So her words cut deep and xbox 360 essay hit me where it hurt. Why was she telling me this? Because I deserved every bit of it. I was at a point in case study guide, my life when I was very immature. Homework? I was.

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The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Case Study? Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. In this project we are going to discuss the subject ‘light pollution’. Case? We will discuss the following topics: What is homework light pollution Causes light pollution Effects of light pollution on case study guide, individual organisms Types of light pollution Effect on astronomy What will happen if all dark places would be gone Solutions. We weren’t familiar with the education, topic, which made it exciting for us to do. We could actually learn something new, which is the purpose of the project.

We spent a lot of guide, time in the mediatheek looking for information. When we knew something about analyze a movie, light pollution, we could start writing. Study? We have spent a lot of time working on our project. Education? We think that we did a good job at doing the project. Guide? We do believe that there is a solution to the problem, as long as we all try. Everything can help, even the smaller things. We hope that you enjoy reading our project and maybe even learned something new. A basic evolutionary fact is anthem critical essays that we humans are diurnal (active mainly during the day) species. Humans have eyes that are adapted to living in the sun’s light. We have engineered the night to receive us by filling it with artificial light.This engineering is almost the same like damming a river. It has benefits, but also consequences.

These consequences are light pollution. Light pollution (aka: photopollution or luminous pollution) occurs at night and is obtrusive (bothering), misdirected, inappropriate, or excessive artificial light. Components of light pollution are: Urban Sky Glow, which is the case study, brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas; Light Trespass, when light falls where it is anthem not intended or needed to case guide, fall; Glare, visual discomfort caused by homework education, excessive brightness and high levels can decrease visibility.; Clutter, light sources which are bright and excessive. These light sources can be found in over-lit urban areas. It is the brightening of the night sky and it diminishes the view of stars and planets.

Light pollution is pollution caused by misplaced artificial light and reflections such as outdoor light which scatters in case study, the atmosphere and reflects back to the ground. The light allows a fraction of light to go up in the sky. This leads to sky glow. The particles in the atmosphere, which cause air pollution, accentuate light pollution by increasing the amount of light scatter. It has been proven that around one-third of the energy used for 5 pages paper the outdoor lighting is reflected into guide, the outer space, where it is a movie essay wasted, because it doesn’t serve any useful purpose. Case Guide? The rate at which urban areas are expanding also plays a big part to the increase of light pollution. Effects of xbox 360 essay, light pollution on individual organisms. The most common effect of light pollution is that it interferes with biological cycles and activities. With all our artificial light we disrupt our own and other organisms sleeping cycles. This is mainly a big problem with nocturnal species, that wake up at sundown. Because of the artificial lighting, the are more exposed to predators so they have less time to case, find food.

Organisms depend on their genes which tell them when they need to james b twitchell essay, wake up or sleep, but with all our artificial lighting this gets mixed up. Study Guide? Humans can experience this when they travel to different time zones, everything is different and your mind and body are confused. A lot of different animals are affected by light pollution. For example, sea turtles are also affected by anthem ayn rand critical, light pollution from artificial lighting. Lights that are turned on at night confuse the unhatched turtles, they may think it’s time to hatch when they shouldn’t. If they hatch to early, or during the wrong part of the study, day, the chances of survival will become a lot smaller.

With the artificial lighting by the beaches or on the roads, instead of crawling to the sea they might crawl to the roads. Not only reptiles are affected by light pollution, also insects, amphibians, mammals and birds. Insects that are attracted to homework education, light like flies will fly around street lights during the case study guide, night and they will stay in one place, this makes them vulnerable to nocturnal predators. Since they fly around the lights the opportunities to mate are reduced which leads to population reduction. Overall the research paper, number of insects will be reduced over the years. Amphibians are also affected by light pollution, even if they don’t live in an urban city, because light pollution isn’t only causing problem in the areas with a large amount of guide, light, areas around it are also affected. Amphibians get really confused by b twitchell, light pollution because they don’t know when it’s nighttime with all the case study, artificial lighting. Deadline? Since they eat at case guide, night to avoid predators, they become an easier prey because they don’t know when they need to get food.

Also mammals are affected by light pollution, especially nocturnal mammals like bats, coyotes and bats. They are so affected by light pollution because there is too much light at b twitchell essay, night to find food. Case? It becomes more difficult to find a breeding site, which leads to less reproduction opportunities, and the population of the xbox 360 essay, species will shrink. Birds that migrate at night rely on the light that is reflected by the moon and stars to case guide, find their way through the dark. They get confused and could get stuck in homework education, an urban area, because they were caught off their guard by all the lights. Case Study? When birds end up in cities there is usually little food and they are more vulnerable to predators or human inventions like cars or trains. Besides all the organisms that are affected by light pollution, us humans who invented artificial lighting that causes this light pollution are also affected by it. Since we are so advances with technology and b twitchell essay, other things like that we have found ways so we don’t suffer from light pollution.

But we can’t completely solve it with our inventions like curtains. Guide? Even our sleeping patterns get mixed up when we travel across time zones. Our natural sleep rhythm get’s affected by light pollution too. Us humans have a hormone called melatonin. This hormone helps us sleep and creates a natural rhythm for sleep. Light pollution and artificial lighting disturbs the natural rhythm and decreases the amount of melatonin in our body. Which leads to broken nights and a bad sleeping patterns. If you look at a bigger picture of how light pollution affects organisms, you will see that different organisms are affected in make 5 pages, the same ways. They’re biological cycles get mixed up, they have trouble finding out when it’s nighttime.

Also they have a smaller chance of survival because of the light pollution. Case Study? All the consequences to ib tok submission deadline 2015, these organisms are bad and case study guide, disrupt the homework, natural rhythms. Types of light pollution. Urban Sky-glow: Sky glow exists in large cities. It is the ‘glow’ which you can see over case, many cities and towns in homework education, the evening. Urban Sky Glow is the brightening of the night sky. It is caused when artificial light escapes from misdirected and badly designed light sources into the atmosphere.

It is scattered by particles (pollen, bacteria, dust, spores, mineral particles) or by case, water droplets while it travels through the xbox 360 essay, atmosphere. Case Study Guide? The light gets reflected and masks the background stars and cases a hazy glow over 5 pages paper, the night sky. This type of light pollution is a concern to astronomers, because it creates a hazy glow over case study, the night sky. Skyglow makes it hard for anthem essays astronomers to see anything besides the most luminous stars and planets. Skyglow also caused behavioral disorders in study, many species of animals. for example; sea turtles and birds, who rely on homework education, the night sky for breeding and to find their way. In heavily polluted areas Urban Sky-glow is worse. Case Study Guide? It will always exist if the air quality is make poor.

“Empire State Building Night” – an example of sky glow. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. Clutter: Light clutter is the excessive groupings of light. These groupings of light may cause confusion, distraction from objects, and study guide, possibly cause accidents. Clutter light pollution is anthem critical caused by things like street lights, these can be dangerous to the people driving since the drivers can be distracted by these lights.

“Las Vegas Strip” by BrendelSignature at English Wikipedia – an example of Clutter – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Common Good using CommonsHelper.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. Glare: Glare is a visual sensation that is cause by excessive and uncontrolled brightness. Glare from guide street-lights, car-yard and security lights can shine directly into the eyes and cause discomfort. This makes it hard for the eye to adjust effectively to changing levels of illumination, so compromising night vision. there are three forms of glare: Discomfort glare: The sensation of annoyance or pain induced by overly bright sources. This can be caused by any light source that’s bright enough to cause glare. Disability glare: The reduction in visibility caused by intense light sources in the field of view.

This can be caused by any light source that’s bright enough to cause glare. Blinding glare: When there is a light source that’s so bright that it can cause a moment of blindness, the amount of time the blindness lasts depends on the brightness of the ib tok deadline, light source. Light trespass: Light trespass is unwanted and uncontrolled light that shines outside the area that it is designated to illuminate. It causes discomfort, distraction, annoyance, or a reduction in visibility, and wastes energy and money. These are several characteristics of nighttime lighting that can cause Light trespass: Spill light: The light that illuminates surfaces beyond the property line. Brightness: The presence of bright sources which are in study guide, a person’s field of view which can cause discomfort glare, disability glare or blinding glare. Astronomy is very sensitive to light pollution. Light pollution interferes with our visibility due to sky glow. Sky glow is unshielded light that is send in all directions. Make 5 Pages Paper? Sky glow, mostly caused by big cities, makes it hard to see dim objects in the sky at night, such as nebulae, stars and galaxies.

Sky glow reduces the case, contrast between the a movie essay, sky and between the stars and galaxies, which makes it even harder to see dim objects. Astronomers use a broad-band light filters, which reduce the effects of light pollution on case, astronomy. The broad-band light filters do that by filtering out spectral lines and so alter the view of dim objects. The filters help by blocking light from some wavelengths, which modify the colors of the objects. Homework Education? But the broad-band filters can only affect certain object types. Study Guide? They affect nebulae, but have little effect on galaxies and stars. Essay? The visibility of case, objects such as nebulae and analyze a movie, galaxies is case guide affected more than stars, due to their. Critical Essays? Of course, these broad-band filters can’t stop light pollution affecting astronomy, but they sure help to see even better during the night time. What will happen if all dark places are gone? Most of us live in case guide, an area where it is not dark enough for our brains to recognize it as night. Humans and essay, other species have evolved to be in tune with cycles of day and night, so if we would destroy our night, the following problems will occur everywhere.

Light pollution is bad for our health, it can cause cancer, so if all the dark places would be gone there would be higher nighttime lighting levels, which will cause a big increase of cancer patients. Light pollution is a disturbance to animals, animals are, just like we are, evolved to be in tune with cycles of study, day and night. Xbox 360 Essay? If all dark places would be gone, animals would be confused, which can cause their death, for example, a sea turtle hatches her eggs, when the hatchlings go swimming, they use light in the reflected water to find their way home, and because of light pollution on the beach, they will lose their way. Also birds are affected by light pollution, they can get captured by the artificial lightning, fly in circles until they die from exhaustion. Many more animals are affected by light pollution, they become an easy prey for case predators which has an ib tok deadline 2015, unknown effect on case guide, the ecosystem. Astronauts and astronomers have already complained that the streetlight interferes with their equipment. If all the dark places would be gone, we could not see anything in space which will stop us from discovering and learning more from space. Light pollution also alters our view of the sky and stars. It is ayn rand critical essays a waste of energy, about study, 30 percent of the nightlight is a waste. The total amount of electrical energy can illuminate over 11 million homes and power over 777.000 cars.

It is bad for the environment, this is because out nightlight causes 12 million tons of submission deadline 2015, carbon dioxide to case study guide, go into the atmosphere which ruins it. Light pollution suppresses a natural occurring radical that cleans the air in essay deadline, the night. Guide? Light pollution increases the deadline, chemicals for ozone pollution by 5 percent. How can we reduce light pollution? (solutions): We can reduce the light pollution by, for example save more energy at home, turn off the light that’s not needed, by doing this, we can reduce the light pollution together.

Also we can reduce light pollution in bigger amounts, we can cut off a few streetlights and embrace the night. We also can use smarter lighting by, for example using dimmer or timer light, we can also use wavelength light with a red or yellow tint to minimize the impact. We can also reduce excessive lighting, for case study example the billboards in Las Vegas can be turned off or can be made smaller, we can also turn off lights of big buildings, while nobody is doing something, for example a football stadium or the Eiffel Tower. We can also make a special day, when people can use candles instead of electricity. We can shield our outdoor lightning too. One of the most effective solutions would be to ib tok essay, shine lights down instead of upwards on streets. In that way we could efficiently use the light, and case study guide, shine it at the place where it is xbox 360 essay most needed, which is the ground. We should also replace small and poor quality fixtures and get better lighting, so we could use as less as possible but still see enough to walk down the street. We could also use efficient sources around businesses and houses. Most of the case guide, spaces we are in, have enough light from a movie a low wattage light bulb. And when you do need higher wattage light bulbs,you should make sure that the bulb is shielded, so that no light is wasted.

Of course not for everyone making a change is easy, mostly because we all have our personal habits, for example, most people like to have a late night snack or some people have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the case guide, night. Even those people can make a change by installing a dimmer so they can use as little light as possible, or they can install a light sensor, so that the light will only go on james essay, when you walk passed the sensor. As you can see, there are a lot of solutions to these problems, but almost nobody does something against light pollution. If we work harder and case, together, we can reduce light pollution and get the night back. We can make the change together, as long as you are aware of the fact that we are ruining our environment and as long as we keep talking about it and spreading the word, we can work towards a safe and healthy environment. There is already a movement called The Dark-Side Movement, which consists of research, astronomers who try to show people that light pollution is bad and want it to decrease. On this picture you can see how we can reduce light pollution of the streetlights, if we make all the streetlights like this, light pollution would decrease in a large amount.

Beside this, there are many more ways to use light in a better way. Street light schematic. Study Guide? Source: Street lamp design. Source: So, light pollution is the artificial light which is wasted. There are a lot of bad consequences, but most people have never heard of it and some of the people who do know it, don’t think it’s a big problem, we think this has to essay submission deadline 2015, change because it is a very bad thing even though some people say it isn’t. But there are a lot of people that are trying to fight light pollution. They want to protect human health and study guide, wildlife. Make 5 Pages Research Paper? Countries are starting to realize the big effects and case guide, problems light pollution is causing. They are starting to 5 pages, look for solutions that will make a big difference.

Many scientists are trying to find good solutions to this problem. If everybody helps to fight light pollution, we can make a big difference together. We think that it’s not that hard to turn off some lights and case study guide, use better lightning. Ib Tok Deadline 2015? People who care about study guide, themselves should care more. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Ib Tok Essay Submission Deadline? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and case study, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in analyze a movie, as little as 3 hours.

This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Light pollution . Available from: [03-10-17]. If you are the case guide, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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