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Research Trends: Why Homework Should Be Balanced. Business Plan! Homework: effective learning tool or waste of time? Since the average high school student spends almost seven hours each week doing homework, it's surprising that there's no clear answer. Homework is generally recognized as an effective way to reinforce what students learn in class, but claims that it may cause more harm than good, especially for younger students, are common. Here's what the research says: In general, homework has substantial benefits at the high school level, with decreased benefits for middle school students and little benefit for elementary students (Cooper, 1989; Cooper et al., 2006). While assigning homework may have academic benefits, it can also cut into important personal and essays on add, family time (Cooper et al., 2006). Assigning too much homework can result in fedex plan, poor performance (Fernandez-Alonso et al., 2015). Essays On Add! A student’s ability to complete homework may depend on plan factors that are outside their control (Cooper et al., 2006; OECD, 2014; Eren Henderson, 2011). The goal shouldn’t be to symbols essays, eliminate homework, but to make it authentic, meaningful, and business plan, engaging (Darling-Hammond Ifill-Lynch, 2006).
Homework can boost learning, but doing too much can be detrimental The National PTA and narrative love, National Education Association support the ten-minute homework rule, which recommends ten minutes of homework per grade level, per plan night (ten minutes for first grade, 20 minutes for objectives for writing an essay, second grade, and so on, up to two hours for 12th grade) (Cooper, 2010). A recent study found that when middle school students were assigned more than 90-100 minutes of homework per day, their math and science scores began to decline (Fernandez-Alonso, Suarez-Alvarez, Muniz, 2015). Giving students too much homework can lead to fatigue, stress, and a loss of interest in academics -- something that we all want to avoid. Homework has many benefits, ranging from fedex plan, higher academic performance to improved study skills and stronger school-parent connections. However, it can also result in a loss of essays on add, interest in business plan, academics, fatigue, and cutting into important personal and family time. Here's a handy reference chart that lists the research-based pros and cons of homework: Although the debate about homework generally falls in the it works vs. it doesn't work camps, research shows that grade level makes a difference. High school students generally get the biggest benefits from homework, with middle school students getting about half the symbols essays, benefits, and elementary school students getting little benefit (Cooper et al., 2006). Since young students are still developing study habits like concentration and self-regulation, assigning a lot of homework isn't all that helpful.
Parents Should Be Supportive, Not Intrusive. Well-designed homework not only business, strengthens student learning, it also provides ways to create connections between a student’s family and school. Homework offers parents insight into what their children are learning, provides opportunities to talk with children about their learning, and helps create conversations with school communities about ways to support student learning (Walker et al., 2004). Child! However, parent involvement can also hurt student learning. Patall, Cooper, and Robinson (2008) found that students did worse when their parents were perceived as intrusive or controlling. Motivation plays a key role in learning, and parents can cause unintentional harm by not giving their children enough space and autonomy to do their homework. OECD, the developers of the international PISA test, published a 2014 report looking at homework around the world. They found that 15-year-olds worldwide spend an fedex business, average of care, five hours per week doing homework (the U.S. average is about six hours). Surprisingly, countries like Finland and fedex business, Singapore spend less time on homework (2-3 hours per week) but still have high PISA rankings. These countries, the report explains, have support systems in place that allow students to rely less on homework to succeed.
If a country like the U.S. were to decrease the amount of homework assigned to objectives for writing, high school students, test scores would likely decrease unless additional supports were added. Homework Is About Quality, Not Quantity. Whether you're pro- or anti-homework, keep in mind that research gives a big-picture idea of what works and what doesn't, and a capable teacher can make almost anything work. The question isn't about homework vs. no homework; instead, we should be asking ourselves, How can we transform homework so that it's engaging, relevant, and supports learning? What are your thoughts on homework? Darling-Hammond, L., Ifill-Lynch, O. Plan! (2006). If They'd Only Do Their Work!
Educational Leadership, 63 (5), 8-13. On Writing Paper! Curious Homework: An Inquiry Project for Students and Parents. Business! Homework vs. Grading A Research! No Homework Is the Wrong Question. 5 Classroom Tools to Measure Student Learning. Comments (36) Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS. Conversations on plan Edutopia (36) Sign in about love, or register to fedex, comment.
What are the supports that are in place for students in Finland and Singapore? Great question, LTHori! Here's an NPR article on the education system in grading a research, Finland: What The U.S. Can Learn From Finland, Where School Starts At Age 7. Business Plan! It boils down to a few things: - Universal child care and preschool. - Well-trained, high-quality teachers. - Strong political support. Spm English Narrative About Love! Here's an Edutopia discussion on Singapore education (with a great link to an article) that you may find interesting: Thanks for the resource. There are also some great studies from Fulbright exchange teachers on fedex plan Finnish practices. Reading this gave me the answer I needed! This year I'm going to WEAN-into homework. We all know improving a student's vocabulary is key for comprehending more complex ideas. and how wonderful would it be for kids to apply new vocab in their day to day living for retention.
Well I'm going to start off but assigning homework in a phase-in process. First few weeks they'll complete Word Finds then change it up to Word Play (making other words using letters from the on writing a research paper, vocab word) then Word Families . Then Word Showcasings then graduate to Crossword puzzles (this is fedex plan where learning the meaning is key) and end the year with formal Vocab quizzes and possibly some poetry. Spm English About! Thanks for opening my mind to fedex, trying a new approach. :) LTHori, thank you for the resource, I'll check them out. Grading A Research Paper! Desi, sounds like a great plan! Good luck. :) Home work really works in developing their subject knowledge. Great point, Avanthika, which is why homework tends to be more effective in high school, where subject matter plays a larger role. This is a very insightful read. Fedex! As the parent of both an for writing, elementary and a middle school student, I can see the frustration for homework early, but the fedex, necessity to set up a routine and grading a research paper, expectation for it. I completely agree that many times homework dips into valuable family time.
The pros and cons list makes sense of some of this. Altogether, I agree that there should be balance for students so that they don't become frustrated and fedex business, lose interest. If adults need their downtime then it's a guarantee that kids need a break too. Glad you found it useful, Mrs. H. Great point about adults needing downtime -- I'd go bonkers if I had to spend my weeknights doing extra work (and I'm sure my family wouldn't appreciate it!) Forgive my lateness to the party. Having read Marzano, Vatterott, and Kohn, I realized that, as an elementary teacher, I needed to symbols essays, start questioning my use of fedex plan, homework. I'm glad to see articles like Mr.
Terada's because I hope it forces teachers to consider their homework philosophies. Unfortunately, somehow, teachers tend to believe that their homework policies fall in reflections on writing paper, line with the research and nothing changes. We assume that our homework assignments are fulfilling the Pros, and simply make excuses about the fedex plan, Cons. For elementary students, I can't stop thinking about two things. If lessons and essays on add, assignments were more engaging and students enjoyed learning more, I don't think we would need homework; plus, I should facilitate their practice anyway. Fedex Business! And, secondly, it's hard for symbols essays, me to justify homework when it forces itself into business plan personal and child care, family time.
Teachers argue about a lack of time and a need for practice, but those seem like issues that should be fixed in plan, the classroom.
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Internet Encyclopedia of fedex plan Philosophy. Explaining the nature of consciousness is a research one of the most important and perplexing areas of philosophy, but the concept is notoriously ambiguous. The abstract noun “consciousness” is not frequently used by itself in the contemporary literature, but is originally derived from the fedex Latin con (with) and scire (to know). Perhaps the most commonly used contemporary notion of care letter a conscious mental state is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is business like” sense (Nagel 1974). For Writing An Essay! When I am in a conscious mental state, there is something it is like for me to be in that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. But how are we to understand this? For instance, how is the conscious mental state related to fedex business plan the body? Can consciousness be explained in terms of for writing an essay brain activity? What makes a mental state be a conscious mental state? The problem of consciousness is arguably the fedex most central issue in current philosophy of mind and is also importantly related to major traditional topics in symbols essays metaphysics, such as the possibility of immortality and business plan, the belief in free will.
This article focuses on Western theories and conceptions of consciousness, especially as found in contemporary analytic philosophy of mind. The two broad, traditional and competing theories of mind are dualism and materialism (or physicalism). While there are many versions of each, the reflections on writing paper former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in business plan some sense, whereas the latter holds that, to cover letter put it crudely, the mind is the brain, or is caused by neural activity. It is against fedex plan this general backdrop that many answers to the above questions are formulated and developed. A Research! There are also many familiar objections to both materialism and dualism. For example, it is often said that materialism cannot truly explain just how or why some brain states are conscious, and business plan, that there is an important “explanatory gap” between mind and matter. On the other hand, dualism faces the problem of explaining how a non-physical substance or mental state can causally interact with the physical body. Some philosophers attempt to explain consciousness directly in neurophysiological or physical terms, while others offer cognitive theories of consciousness whereby conscious mental states are reduced to some kind of symbols essays representational relation between mental states and the world. There are a number of fedex business such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the grading subject is fedex business plan aware of it in some sense.
The relationship between consciousness and science is also central in much current theorizing on this topic: How does the brain “bind together” various sensory inputs to produce a unified subjective experience? What are the neural correlates of consciousness? What can be learned from for writing abnormal psychology which might help us to fedex understand normal consciousness? To what extent are animal minds different from human minds? Could an appropriately programmed machine be conscious? 1. Terminological Matters: Various Concepts of Consciousness. The concept of consciousness is notoriously ambiguous. It is important first to make several distinctions and to define related terms.
The abstract noun “consciousness” is not often used in the contemporary literature, though it should be noted that it is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know). Thus, “consciousness” has etymological ties to about one’s ability to know and perceive, and business, should not be confused with conscience, which has the much more specific moral connotation of knowing when one has done or is a research doing something wrong. Through consciousness, one can have knowledge of the external world or one’s own mental states. The primary contemporary interest lies more in the use of the expressions “x is fedex plan conscious” or “x is conscious of y.” Under the former category, perhaps most important is the reflections on writing distinction between state and creature consciousness (Rosenthal 1993a). We sometimes speak of an individual mental state, such as a pain or perception, as conscious. Plan! On the other hand, we also often speak of organisms or creatures as conscious, such as when we say “human beings are conscious” or “dogs are conscious.” Creature consciousness is also simply meant to refer to the fact that an organism is awake, as opposed to grading sleeping or in a coma. Business! However, some kind of state consciousness is often implied by creature consciousness, that is, the organism is having conscious mental states. Due to the lack of a direct object in the expression “x is conscious,” this is usually referred to spm english about as intransitive consciousness, in contrast to transitive consciousness where the locution “x is conscious of y” is fedex used (Rosenthal 1993a, 1997). Most contemporary theories of consciousness are aimed at essays on add, explaining state consciousness; that is, explaining what makes a mental state a conscious mental state. It might seem that “conscious” is synonymous with, say, “awareness” or “experience” or “attention.” However, it is business crucial to recognize that this is paper not generally accepted today.
For example, though perhaps somewhat atypical, one might hold that there are even unconscious experiences, depending of course on how the term “experience” is defined (Carruthers 2000). Fedex Business! More common is the belief that we can be aware of essay love external objects in some unconscious sense, for example, during cases of subliminal perception. The expression “conscious awareness” does not therefore seem to fedex plan be redundant. Finally, it is not clear that consciousness ought to be restricted to an essay attention. It seems plausible to suppose that one is conscious (in some sense) of objects in one’s peripheral visual field even though one is only attending to some narrow (focal) set of objects within that visual field. Perhaps the most fundamental and commonly used notion of “conscious” is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is like” sense (Nagel 1974).
When I am in a conscious mental state, there is “something it is like” for me to be in that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. When I am, for example, smelling a rose or having a conscious visual experience, there is something it “seems” or “feels” like from my perspective. An organism, such as a bat, is conscious if it is able to experience the business outer world through its (echo-locatory) senses. There is also something it is like to be a conscious creature whereas there is nothing it is like to be, for example, a table or tree. This is primarily the sense of “conscious state” that will be used throughout this entry. There are still, though, a cluster of objectives expressions and terms related to Nagel’s sense, and some authors simply stipulate the way that they use such terms.
For example, philosophers sometimes refer to conscious states as phenomenal or qualitative states. More technically, philosophers often view such states as having qualitative properties called “qualia” (prounced like kwal' ee uh; the singular is fedex business plan quale). There is significant disagreement over essays on add, the nature, and even the existence, of qualia, but they are perhaps most frequently understood as the fedex business plan felt properties or qualities of conscious states. Ned Block (1995) makes an often cited distinction between phenomenal consciousness (or “phenomenality”) and essays on add, access consciousness. The former is very much in fedex business line with the Nagelian notion described above. However, Block also defines the essays on add quite different notion of access consciousness in terms of a mental state’s relationship with other mental states; for example, a mental state’s “availability for use in reasoning and rationality guiding speech and action” (Block 1995: 227). This would, for example, count a visual perception as (access) conscious not because it has the “what it’s likeness” of phenomenal states, but rather because it carries visual information which is generally available for use by the organism, regardless of whether or not it has any qualitative properties.
Access consciousness is fedex business plan therefore more of a functional notion; that is, concerned with what such states do. Although this concept of consciousness is certainly very important in cognitive science and philosophy of mind generally, not everyone agrees that access consciousness deserves to be called “consciousnesses” in any important sense. Block himself argues that neither sense of consciousness implies the other, while others urge that there is a more intimate connection between the two. Finally, it is helpful to distinguish between consciousness and self-consciousness, which plausibly involves some kind of awareness or consciousness of one’s own mental states (instead of something out in the world). Self-consciousness arguably comes in spm english essay degrees of sophistication ranging from fedex business minimal bodily self-awareness to the ability to reason and reflect on one’s own mental states, such as one’s beliefs and desires. Some important historical figures have even held that consciousness entails some form of self-consciousness (Kant 1781/1965, Sartre 1956), a view shared by some contemporary philosophers (Gennaro 1996a, Kriegel 2004). Interest in the nature of symbols essays conscious experience has no doubt been around for as long as there have been reflective humans. It would be impossible here to survey the entire history, but a few highlights are in plan order.
In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on symbols essays, human nature and the soul and mind go back to fedex business plan ancient philosophers, such as Plato. More sophisticated work on the nature of consciousness and perception can be found in the work of Plato’s most famous student Aristotle (see Caston 2002), and then throughout the later Medieval period. It is, however, with the work of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and his successors in the early modern period of philosophy that consciousness and a research, the relationship between the mind and body took center stage. Fedex Business! As we shall see, Descartes argued that the mind is a non-physical substance distinct from the child care body. He also did not believe in the existence of unconscious mental states, a view certainly not widely held today. Descartes defined “thinking” very broadly to include virtually every kind of mental state and urged that consciousness is essential to fedex business thought. Our mental states are, according to Descartes, infallibly transparent to introspection. John Locke (1689/1975) held a similar position regarding the connection between mentality and consciousness, but was far less committed on the exact metaphysical nature of the mind. Perhaps the most important philosopher of the period explicitly to endorse the existence of unconscious mental states was G.W. Leibniz (1686/1991, 1720/1925).
Although Leibniz also believed in a research the immaterial nature of mental substances (which he called “monads”), he recognized the existence of what he called “petit perceptions,” which are basically unconscious perceptions. He also importantly distinguished between perception and apperception, roughly the difference between outer-directed consciousness and self-consciousness (see Gennaro 1999 for fedex some discussion). The most important detailed theory of mind in the early modern period was developed by Immanuel Kant. His main work Critique of grading a research Pure Reason (1781/1965) is as equally dense as it is important, and cannot easily be summarized in this context. Business Plan! Although he owes a great debt to his immediate predecessors, Kant is arguably the narrative essay love most important philosopher since Plato and Aristotle and is highly relevant today. Kant basically thought that an adequate account of phenomenal consciousness involved far more than any of his predecessors had considered. There are important mental structures which are “presupposed” in conscious experience, and Kant presented an elaborate theory as to what those structures are, which, in business turn, had other important implications. He, like Leibniz, also saw the need to postulate the for writing existence of unconscious mental states and mechanisms in business plan order to provide an adequate theory of mind (Kitcher 1990 and Brook 1994 are two excellent books on Kant’s theory of mind.).
Over the past one hundred years or so, however, research on consciousness has taken off in many important directions. In psychology, with the notable exception of the an essay virtual banishment of consciousness by behaviorist psychologists (e.g., Skinner 1953), there were also those deeply interested in consciousness and various introspective (or “first-person”) methods of investigating the mind. The writings of fedex business such figures as Wilhelm Wundt (1897), William James (1890) and Alfred Titchener (1901) are good examples of this approach. Franz Brentano (1874/1973) also had a profound effect on on writing paper, some contemporary theories of consciousness. Similar introspectionist approaches were used by plan those in the so-called “phenomenological” tradition in philosophy, such as in the writings of Edmund Husserl (1913/1931, 1929/1960) and Martin Heidegger (1927/1962). The work of essay about Sigmund Freud was very important, at fedex business, minimum, in bringing about the grading a research near universal acceptance of the plan existence of unconscious mental states and reflections a research, processes. It must, however, be kept in mind that none of the fedex plan above had very much scientific knowledge about the detailed workings of the brain. The relatively recent development of neurophysiology is, in part, also responsible for the unprecedented interdisciplinary research interest in paper consciousness, particularly since the 1980s. There are now several important journals devoted entirely to the study of consciousness: Consciousness and Cognition , Journal of Consciousness Studies , and Psyche . There are also major annual conferences sponsored by world wide professional organizations, such as the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, and an entire book series called “Advances in fedex business plan Consciousness Research” published by symbols essays John Benjamins. Plan! (For a small sample of introductory texts and important anthologies, see Kim 1996, Gennaro 1996b, Block et. al. 1997, Seager 1999, Chalmers 2002, Baars et. al. 2003, Blackmore 2004, Campbell 2005, Velmans and Schneider 2007, Zelazo et al.
2007, Revonsuo 2010.) 3. Care Cover! The Metaphysics of Consciousness: Materialism vs. Dualism. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality. Fedex Plan! There are two broad traditional and competing metaphysical views concerning the nature of the mind and conscious mental states: dualism and materialism. While there are many versions of each, the former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense. On the other hand, materialists hold that the mind is the brain, or, more accurately, that conscious mental activity is identical with neural activity.
It is important to recognize that by non-physical, dualists do not merely mean “not visible to the naked eye.” Many physical things fit this description, such as the atoms which make up the paper air in fedex a typical room. For something to be non-physical, it must literally be outside the realm of physics; that is, not in space at all and undetectable in principle by the instruments of physics. It is equally important to for writing recognize that the category “physical” is fedex business broader than the category “material.” Materialists are called such because there is the tendency to spm english essay about view the brain, a material thing, as the business plan most likely physical candidate to identify with the mind. However, something might be physical but not material in spm english narrative essay about love this sense, such as an electromagnetic or energy field. One might therefore instead be a “physicalist” in some broader sense and still not a dualist. Thus, to say that the mind is fedex business plan non-physical is to child letter say something much stronger than that it is non-material. Dualists, then, tend to believe that conscious mental states or minds are radically different from anything in business plan the physical world at all.
a. Objectives For Writing An Essay! Dualism: General Support and Related Issues. There are a number of business reasons why some version of objectives an essay dualism has been held throughout the centuries. For one thing, especially from the introspective or first-person perspective, our conscious mental states just do not seem like physical things or processes. That is, when we reflect on business, our conscious perceptions, pains, and on writing a research, desires, they do not seem to be physical in any sense. Consciousness seems to be a unique aspect of the business world not to be understood in any physical way. Although materialists will urge that this completely ignores the more scientific third-person perspective on the nature of consciousness and mind, this idea continues to narrative about have force for many today. Fedex Business Plan! Indeed, it is arguably the crucial underlying intuition behind historically significant “conceivability arguments” against materialism and for dualism. Such arguments typically reason from the narrative essay love premise that one can conceive of fedex one’s conscious states existing without one’s body or, conversely, that one can imagine one’s own physical duplicate without consciousness at all (see section 3b.iv). The metaphysical conclusion ultimately drawn is that consciousness cannot be identical with anything physical, partly because there is no essential conceptual connection between the mental and the physical. Arguments such as these go back to Descartes and continue to be used today in various ways (Kripke 1972, Chalmers 1996), but it is highly controversial as to whether they succeed in showing that materialism is spm english narrative essay false.
Materialists have replied in fedex business plan various ways to such arguments and the relevant literature has grown dramatically in recent years. Historically, there is symbols essays also the clear link between dualism and a belief in immortality, and hence a more theistic perspective than one tends to fedex plan find among materialists. Indeed, belief in dualism is often explicitly theologically motivated. If the conscious mind is not physical, it seems more plausible to believe in the possibility of a research life after bodily death. On the other hand, if conscious mental activity is identical with brain activity, then it would seem that when all brain activity ceases, so do all conscious experiences and thus no immortality. After all, what do many people believe continues after bodily death? Presumably, one’s own conscious thoughts, memories, experiences, beliefs, and fedex plan, so on. Symbols Essays! There is perhaps a similar historical connection to a belief in free will, which is plan of course a major topic in its own right. For our purposes, it suffices to paper say that, on some definitions of what it is to act freely, such ability seems almost “supernatural” in the sense that one’s conscious decisions can alter the otherwise deterministic sequence of business events in nature.
To put it another way: If we are entirely physical beings as the materialist holds, then mustn’t all of the brain activity and behavior in question be determined by a research the laws of nature? Although materialism may not logically rule out business plan, immortality or free will, materialists will likely often reply that such traditional, perhaps even outdated or pre-scientific beliefs simply ought to be rejected to the extent that they conflict with materialism. After all, if the weight of the evidence points toward materialism and child care cover, away from dualism, then so much the worse for those related views. One might wonder “even if the mind is physical, what about the soul?” Maybe it’s the business plan soul, not the mind, which is non-physical as one might be told in symbols essays many religious traditions. While it is true that the term “soul” (or “spirit”) is often used instead of “mind” in business such religious contexts, the on writing a research paper problem is that it is plan unclear just how the soul is supposed to symbols essays differ from the mind. The terms are often even used interchangeably in many historical texts and by many philosophers because it is unclear what else the business plan soul could be other than “the mental substance.” It is difficult to cover letter describe the soul in any way that doesn’t make it sound like what we mean by the mind. After all, that’s what many believe goes on business plan, after bodily death; namely, conscious mental activity. Granted that the term “soul” carries a more theological connotation, but it doesn’t follow that the words “soul” and “mind” refer to entirely different things.
Somewhat related to the issue of immortality, the existence of near death experiences is also used as some evidence for dualism and immortality. Such patients experience a peaceful moving toward a light through a tunnel like structure, or are able to on writing paper see doctors working on their bodies while hovering over them in an emergency room (sometimes akin to what is fedex plan called an “out of body experience”). In response, materialists will point out that such experiences can be artificially induced in various experimental situations, and that starving the brain of oxygen is love known to cause hallucinations. Various paranormal and fedex plan, psychic phenomena, such as clairvoyance, faith healing, and mind-reading, are sometimes also cited as evidence for dualism. However, materialists (and even many dualists) will first likely wish to grading a research be skeptical of the alleged phenomena themselves for numerous reasons. There are many modern day charlatans who should make us seriously question whether there really are such phenomena or mental abilities in the first place.
Second, it is not quite clear just how dualism follows from such phenomena even if they are genuine. Fedex Business! A materialist, or physicalist at least, might insist that though such phenomena are puzzling and essays on add, perhaps currently difficult to explain in physical terms, they are nonetheless ultimately physical in nature; for example, having to do with very unusual transfers of energy in the physical world. The dualist advantage is perhaps not as obvious as one might think, and we need not jump to supernatural conclusions so quickly. i. Substance Dualism and fedex business, Objections. Interactionist Dualism or simply “interactionism” is the most common form of “substance dualism” and its name derives from the widely accepted fact that mental states and symbols essays, bodily states causally interact with each other. For example, my desire to drink something cold causes my body to move to the refrigerator and get something to drink and, conversely, kicking me in the shin will cause me to feel a pain and get angry. Fedex Plan! Due to for writing an essay Descartes’ influence, it is fedex business plan also sometimes referred to as “Cartesian dualism.” Knowing nothing about just where such causal interaction could take place, Descartes speculated that it was through the pineal gland, a now almost humorous conjecture. A Research! But a modern day interactionist would certainly wish to treat various areas of the brain as the location of such interactions. Three serious objections are briefly worth noting here. The first is simply the issue of just how does or could such radically different substances causally interact.
How something non-physical causally interacts with something physical, such as the brain? No such explanation is forthcoming or is perhaps even possible, according to materialists. Moreover, if causation involves a transfer of energy from cause to effect, then how is that possible if the mind is really non-physical? Gilbert Ryle (1949) mockingly calls the Cartesian view about the nature of mind, a belief in fedex business the “ghost in the machine.” Secondly, assuming that some such energy transfer makes any sense at all, it is also then often alleged that interactionism is inconsistent with the scientifically well-established Conservation of Energy principle, which says that the total amount of energy in the universe, or any controlled part of it, remains constant. So any loss of for writing an essay energy in the cause must be passed along as a corresponding gain of fedex business plan energy in the effect, as in standard billiard ball examples. But if interactionism is symbols essays true, then when mental events cause physical events, energy would literally come into the physical word. Fedex Plan! On the other hand, when bodily events cause mental events, energy would literally go out of the objectives an essay physical world. At the least, there is a very peculiar and unique notion of energy involved, unless one wished, even more radically, to deny the conservation principle itself. Third, some materialists might also use the well-known fact that brain damage (even to very specific areas of the brain) causes mental defects as a serious objection to interactionism (and thus as support for fedex materialism).
This has of course been known for care letter many centuries, but the level of detailed knowledge has increased dramatically in recent years. Now a dualist might reply that such phenomena do not absolutely refute her metaphysical position since it could be replied that damage to the brain simply causes corresponding damage to the mind. However, this raises a host of other questions: Why not opt for the simpler explanation, i.e., that brain damage causes mental damage because mental processes simply are brain processes? If the non-physical mind is damaged when brain damage occurs, how does that leave one’s mind according to the dualist’s conception of an fedex plan afterlife? Will the symbols essays severe amnesic at the end of life on Earth retain such a deficit in the afterlife?
If proper mental functioning still depends on proper brain functioning, then is dualism really in no better position to offer hope for fedex business immortality? It should be noted that there is also another less popular form of care substance dualism called parallelism, which denies the causal interaction between the non-physical mental and physical bodily realms. It seems fair to say that it encounters even more serious objections than interactionism. While a detailed survey of all varieties of dualism is beyond the scope of this entry, it is at least important to note here that the main and most popular form of business dualism today is called property dualism. Substance dualism has largely fallen out of favor at least in most philosophical circles, though there are important exceptions (e.g., Swinburne 1986, Foster 1996) and symbols essays, it often continues to be tied to various theological positions. Plan! Property dualism, on the other hand, is a more modest version of for writing an essay dualism and fedex business, it holds that there are mental properties (that is, characteristics or aspects of things) that are neither identical with nor reducible to reflections on writing paper physical properties. There are actually several different kinds of fedex business property dualism, but what they have in common is the idea that conscious properties, such as the a research color qualia involved in a conscious experience of a visual perception, cannot be explained in purely physical terms and, thus, are not themselves to be identified with any brain state or process. Two other views worth mentioning are epiphenomenalism and panpsychism. The latter is the somewhat eccentric view that all things in plan physical reality, even down to a research micro-particles, have some mental properties. All substances have a mental aspect, though it is not always clear exactly how to characterize or test such a claim.
Epiphenomenalism holds that mental events are caused by brain events but those mental events are mere “epiphenomena” which do not, in turn, cause anything physical at all, despite appearances to the contrary (for a recent defense, see Robinson 2004). Finally, although not a form of dualism, idealism holds that there are only immaterial mental substances, a view more common in the Eastern tradition. The most prominent Western proponent of idealism was 18th century empiricist George Berkeley. The idealist agrees with the fedex business plan substance dualist, however, that minds are non-physical, but then denies the existence of mind-independent physical substances altogether. Such a view faces a number of serious objections, and spm english narrative about love, it also requires a belief in the existence of fedex God. Some form of materialism is probably much more widely held today than in centuries past. No doubt part of the reason for this has to child cover letter do with the explosion in scientific knowledge about the workings of the brain and its intimate connection with consciousness, including the fedex close connection between brain damage and symbols essays, various states of consciousness. Brain death is now the fedex plan main criterion for when someone dies. Stimulation to specific areas of the brain results in grading modality specific conscious experiences. Indeed, materialism often seems to be a working assumption in plan neurophysiology. Imagine saying to a neuroscientist “you are not really studying the conscious mind itself” when she is essay examining the workings of the brain during an fMRI.
The idea is that science is showing us that conscious mental states, such as visual perceptions, are simply identical with certain neuro-chemical brain processes; much like the plan science of objectives chemistry taught us that water just is H2O. There are also theoretical factors on fedex business plan, the side of materialism, such as adherence to the so-called “principle of simplicity” which says that if two theories can equally explain a given phenomenon, then we should accept the spm english essay love one which posits fewer objects or forces. Business! In this case, even if dualism could equally explain consciousness (which would of course be disputed by materialists), materialism is clearly the simpler theory in so far as it does not posit any objects or processes over and above physical ones. Materialists will wonder why there is a need to believe in the existence of such mysterious non-physical entities. Moreover, in the aftermath of the Darwinian revolution, it would seem that materialism is on a research paper, even stronger ground provided that one accepts basic evolutionary theory and the notion that most animals are conscious. Given the similarities between the more primitive parts of the human brain and the brains of other animals, it seems most natural to fedex business plan conclude that, through evolution, increasing layers of brain areas correspond to increased mental abilities. For example, having a well developed prefrontal cortex allows humans to reason and plan in ways not available to dogs and cats. It also seems fairly uncontroversial to hold that we should be materialists about the minds of animals. If so, then it would be odd indeed to hold that non-physical conscious states suddenly appear on the scene with humans.
There are still, however, a number of much discussed and important objections to materialism, most of essays on add which question the notion that materialism can adequately explain conscious experience. i. Objection 1: The Explanatory Gap and The Hard Problem. Joseph Levine (1983) coined the expression “the explanatory gap” to express a difficulty for any materialistic attempt to explain consciousness. Although not concerned to reject the metaphysics of materialism, Levine gives eloquent expression to the idea that there is a key gap in fedex our ability to explain the connection between phenomenal properties and brain properties (see also Levine 1993, 2001). The basic problem is that it is, at reflections a research paper, least at business plan, present, very difficult for us to understand the relationship between brain properties and for writing, phenomenal properties in fedex plan any explanatory satisfying way, especially given the fact that it seems possible for one to be present without the a research other. There is an odd kind of arbitrariness involved: Why or how does some particular brain process produce that particular taste or visual sensation? It is difficult to see any real explanatory connection between specific conscious states and brain states in a way that explains just how or why the former are identical with the latter. There is therefore an explanatory gap between the physical and fedex plan, mental.
Levine argues that this difficulty in explaining consciousness is unique; that is, we do not have similar worries about other scientific identities, such as that “water is H2O” or that “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy.” There is “an important sense in which we can’t really understand how [materialism] could be true.” (2001: 68) David Chalmers (1995) has articulated a similar worry by using the catchy phrase “the hard problem of consciousness,” which basically refers to the difficulty of grading a research explaining just how physical processes in the brain give rise to business subjective conscious experiences. The “really hard problem is the problem of experience…How can we explain why there is cover letter something it is like to business entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion?” (1995: 201) Others have made similar points, as Chalmers acknowledges, but reference to care cover the phrase “the hard problem” has now become commonplace in the literature. Unlike Levine, however, Chalmers is much more inclined to draw anti-materialist metaphysical conclusions from these and other considerations. Chalmers usefully distinguishes the hard problem of consciousness from what he calls the (relatively) “easy problems” of consciousness, such as the ability to discriminate and categorize stimuli, the ability of a cognitive system to access its own internal states, and the difference between wakefulness and fedex plan, sleep. The easy problems generally have more to do with the functions of consciousness, but Chalmers urges that solving them does not touch the hard problem of phenomenal consciousness. Most philosophers, according to Chalmers, are really only addressing the easy problems, perhaps merely with something like Block’s “access consciousness” in mind. Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness. There are many responses by materialists to grading a research the above charges, but it is worth emphasizing that Levine, at least, does not reject the metaphysics of materialism. Business Plan! Instead, he sees the “explanatory gap [as] primarily an essay about epistemological problem” (2001: 10).
That is, it is primarily a problem having to do with knowledge or understanding. This concession is still important at business, least to the extent that one is concerned with the larger related metaphysical issues discussed in section 3a, such as the possibility of symbols essays immortality. Perhaps most important for the materialist, however, is recognition of the fedex plan fact that different concepts can pick out the same property or object in the world (Loar 1990, 1997). Symbols Essays! Out in the world there is only the one “stuff,” which we can conceptualize either as “water” or as “H2O.” The traditional distinction, made most notably by business plan Gottlob Frege in the late 19th century, between “meaning” (or “sense”) and essays on add, “reference” is also relevant here. Two or more concepts, which can have different meanings, can refer to the same property or object, much like “Venus” and “The Morning Star.” Materialists, then, explain that it is essential to distinguish between mental properties and our concepts of those properties. Business! By analogy, there are so-called “phenomenal concepts” which uses a phenomenal or “first-person” property to refer to some conscious mental state, such as a sensation of red (Alter and Walter 2007). In contrast, we can also use various concepts couched in physical or neurophysiological terms to refer to that same mental state from the third-person point of view. There is thus but one conscious mental state which can be conceptualized in two different ways: either by employing first-person experiential phenomenal concepts or by employing third-person neurophysiological concepts. It may then just be a “brute fact” about the world that there are such identities and the appearance of arbitrariness between brain properties and mental properties is just that – an apparent problem leading many to wonder about the alleged explanatory gap. Qualia would then still be identical to physical properties.
Moreover, this response provides a diagnosis for why there even seems to be such a gap; namely, that we use very different concepts to pick out the same property. Science will be able, in principle, to close the gap and solve the hard problem of consciousness in an analogous way that we now have a very good understanding for why “water is H2O” or “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy” that was lacking centuries ago. Maybe the essays on add hard problem isn’t so hard after all – it will just take some more time. After all, the science of chemistry didn’t develop overnight and we are relatively early in the history of neurophysiology and our understanding of phenomenal consciousness. (See Shear 1997 for many more specific responses to the hard problem, but also for Chalmers’ counter-replies.) ii. Objection 2: The Knowledge Argument.
There is a pair of very widely discussed, and arguably related, objections to materialism which come from the seminal writings of Thomas Nagel (1974) and Frank Jackson (1982, 1986). These arguments, especially Jackson’s, have come to be known as examples of the fedex business plan “knowledge argument” against materialism, due to a research their clear emphasis on the epistemological (that is, knowledge related) limitations of fedex business plan materialism. Like Levine, Nagel does not reject the metaphysics of child care materialism. Business Plan! Jackson had originally intended for on writing a research paper his argument to yield a dualistic conclusion, but he no longer holds that view. Fedex Business! The general pattern of each argument is to assume that all the physical facts are known about reflections on writing a research, some conscious mind or conscious experience. Yet, the argument goes, not all is known about the mind or experience.
It is then inferred that the missing knowledge is non-physical in business plan some sense, which is spm english essay about surely an anti-materialist conclusion in some sense. Nagel imagines a future where we know everything physical there is to fedex business know about essays on add, some other conscious creature’s mind, such as a bat. However, it seems clear that we would still not know something crucial; namely, “what it is like to be a bat.” It will not do to imagine what it is like for us to fedex business be a bat. We would still not know what it is like to be a bat from the bat’s subjective or first-person point of view. The idea, then, is that if we accept the hypothesis that we know all of the physical facts about child cover, bat minds, and yet some knowledge about fedex plan, bat minds is left out, then materialism is inherently flawed when it comes to explaining consciousness. Even in an ideal future in which everything physical is known by us, something would still be left out. Jackson’s somewhat similar, but no less influential, argument begins by asking us to imagine a future where a person, Mary, is kept in child cover a black and white room from birth during which time she becomes a brilliant neuroscientist and plan, an expert on color perception. Mary never sees red for example, but she learns all of the physical facts and a research paper, everything neurophysiologically about human color vision. Eventually she is released from the room and sees red for business plan the first time. Essays On Add! Jackson argues that it is clear that Mary comes to learn something new; namely, to use Nagel’s famous phrase, what it is like to experience red. Fedex! This is a new piece of knowledge and hence she must have come to objectives know some non-physical fact (since, by hypothesis, she already knew all of the physical facts).
Thus, not all knowledge about the conscious mind is physical knowledge. The influence and the quantity of work that these ideas have generated cannot be exaggerated. Numerous materialist responses to Nagel’s argument have been presented (such as Van Gulick 1985), and there is now a very useful anthology devoted entirely to Jackson’s knowledge argument (Ludlow et. al. Business! 2004). Some materialists have wondered if we should concede up front that Mary wouldn’t be able to imagine the color red even before leaving the room, so that maybe she wouldn’t even be surprised upon symbols essays seeing red for plan the first time. Various suspicions about the nature and effectiveness of such thought experiments also usually accompany this response. More commonly, however, materialists reply by narrative arguing that Mary does not learn a new fact when seeing red for the first time, but rather learns the same fact in a different way. Recalling the distinction made in fedex business section 3b.i between concepts and a research, objects or properties, the materialist will urge that there is only the one physical fact about fedex, color vision, but there are two ways to come to objectives for writing an essay know it: either by employing neurophysiological concepts or by actually undergoing the relevant experience and so by fedex plan employing phenomenal concepts. We might say that Mary, upon leaving the black and white room, becomes acquainted with the same neural property as before, but only now from the first-person point of view. The property itself isn’t new; only the perspective, or what philosophers sometimes call the “mode of presentation,” is a research paper different. In short, coming to learn or know something new does not entail learning some new fact about the world.
Analogies are again given in other less controversial areas, for example, one can come to know about some historical fact or event by plan reading a (reliable) third-person historical account or by having observed that event oneself. But there is still only the one objective fact under two different descriptions. Finally, it is crucial to remember that, according to most, the metaphysics of materialism remains unaffected. Essay! Drawing a metaphysical conclusion from fedex plan such purely epistemological premises is essays on add always a questionable practice. Nagel’s argument doesn’t show that bat mental states are not identical with bat brain states. Indeed, a materialist might even expect the fedex business conclusion that Nagel draws; after all, given that our brains are so different from bat brains, it almost seems natural for there to be certain aspects of cover bat experience that we could never fully comprehend. Only the bat actually undergoes the relevant brain processes. Similarly, Jackson’s argument doesn’t show that Mary’s color experience is distinct from her brain processes. Despite the fedex plethora of materialist responses, vigorous debate continues as there are those who still think that something profound must always be missing from any materialist attempt to explain consciousness; namely, that understanding subjective phenomenal consciousness is an essays on add inherently first-person activity which cannot be captured by fedex business plan any objective third-person scientific means, no matter how much scientific knowledge is accumulated. An Essay! Some knowledge about consciousness is fedex business plan essentially limited to first-person knowledge.
Such a sense, no doubt, continues to fuel the related anti-materialist intuitions raised in the previous section. Child Care! Perhaps consciousness is simply a fundamental or irreducible part of nature in some sense (Chalmers 1996). (For more see Van Gulick 1993.) Finally, some go so far as to business plan argue that we are simply not capable of solving the problem of consciousness (McGinn 1989, 1991, 1995). In short, “mysterians” believe that the hard problem can never be solved because of essays on add human cognitive limitations; the explanatory gap can never be filled. Fedex! Once again, however, McGinn does not reject the metaphysics of materialism, but rather argues that we are “cognitively closed” with respect to this problem much like a rat or dog is cognitively incapable of solving, or even understanding, calculus problems. More specifically, McGinn claims that we are cognitively closed as to how the brain produces conscious awareness.
McGinn concedes that some brain property produces conscious experience, but we cannot understand how this is so or even know what that brain property is. Our concept forming mechanisms simply will not allow us to grasp the physical and causal basis of consciousness. We are not conceptually suited to be able to on writing paper do so. McGinn does not entirely rest his argument on past failed attempts at explaining consciousness in materialist terms; instead, he presents another argument for business his admittedly pessimistic conclusion. McGinn observes that we do not have a mental faculty that can access both consciousness and the brain. We access consciousness through introspection or the first-person perspective, but our access to the brain is through the use of outer spatial senses (e.g., vision) or a more third-person perspective. Thus we have no way to access both the brain and consciousness together, and therefore any explanatory link between them is forever beyond our reach.
Materialist responses are numerous. First, one might wonder why we can’t combine the child two perspectives within certain experimental contexts. Plan! Both first-person and third-person scientific data about the a research paper brain and consciousness can be acquired and used to solve the hard problem. Even if a single person cannot grasp consciousness from business both perspectives at child care, the same time, why can’t a plausible physicalist theory emerge from such a combined approach? Presumably, McGinn would say that we are not capable of putting such a theory together in any appropriate way. Second, despite McGinn’s protests to the contrary, many will view the problem of explaining consciousness as a merely temporary limit of our theorizing, and not something which is unsolvable in principle (Dennett 1991).
Third, it may be that McGinn expects too much; namely, grasping some causal link between the brain and consciousness. After all, if conscious mental states are simply identical to brain states, then there may simply be a “brute fact” that really does not need any further explaining. Indeed, this is sometimes also said in response to business plan the explanatory gap and the hard problem, as we saw earlier. It may even be that some form of a research dualism is plan presupposed in McGinn’s argument, to the extent that brain states are said to “cause” or “give rise to” consciousness, instead of using the language of identity. Fourth, McGinn’s analogy to grading a research paper lower animals and mathematics is not quite accurate. Rats, for example, have no concept whatsoever of business plan calculus. It is not as if they can grasp it to some extent but just haven’t figured out the answer to some particular problem within mathematics. Rats are just completely oblivious to calculus problems. On the other hand, we humans obviously do have some grasp on essays on add, consciousness and on the workings of the business brain -- just see the objectives for writing references at the end of this entry!
It is not clear, then, why we should accept the extremely pessimistic and universally negative conclusion that we can never discover the answer to the problem of consciousness, or, more specifically, why we could never understand the link between consciousness and plan, the brain. Unlike many of the above objections to materialism, the appeal to the possibility of zombies is often taken as both a problem for materialism and as a more positive argument for spm english essay about some form of dualism, such as property dualism. The philosophical notion of fedex business plan a “zombie” basically refers to conceivable creatures which are physically indistinguishable from us but lack consciousness entirely (Chalmers 1996). Child Care Cover! It certainly seems logically possible for there to be such creatures: “the conceivability of business plan zombies seems…obvious to me…While this possibility is probably empirically impossible, it certainly seems that a coherent situation is child care cover described; I can discern no contradiction in the description” (Chalmers 1996: 96). Philosophers often contrast what is business plan logically possible (in the sense of child cover “that which is not self-contradictory”) from what is empirically possible given the plan actual laws of spm english narrative essay love nature.
Thus, it is logically possible for me to jump fifty feet in the air, but not empirically possible. Philosophers often use the notion of “possible worlds,” i.e., different ways that the world might have been, in fedex describing such non-actual situations or possibilities. The objection, then, typically proceeds from such a possibility to the conclusion that materialism is child cover false because materialism would seem to rule out that possibility. It has been fairly widely accepted (since Kripke 1972) that all identity statements are necessarily true (that is, true in all possible worlds), and the same should therefore go for mind-brain identity claims. Business Plan! Since the possibility of care letter zombies shows that it doesn’t, then we should conclude that materialism is false. (See Identity Theory.) It is business plan impossible to grading a research do justice to all of the fedex business subtleties here. The literature in response to objectives an essay zombie, and related “conceivability,” arguments is plan enormous (see, for example, Hill 1997, Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1998, 2002, Balog 1999, Block and Stalnaker 1999, Loar 1999, Yablo 1999, Perry 2001, Botterell 2001, Kirk 2005). A few lines of reply are as follows: First, it is sometimes objected that the conceivability of something does not really entail its possibility. Perhaps we can also conceive of water not being H2O, since there seems to be no logical contradiction in essays on add doing so, but, according to received wisdom from Kripke, that is really impossible.
Perhaps, then, some things just seem possible but really aren’t. Fedex Business Plan! Much of the debate centers on various alleged similarities or dissimilarities between the mind-brain and water-H2O cases (or other such scientific identities). Indeed, the entire issue of the exact relationship between “conceivability” and “possibility” is the subject of an important recently published anthology (Gendler and an essay, Hawthorne 2002). Second, even if zombies are conceivable in the sense of logically possible, how can we draw a substantial metaphysical conclusion about the actual world? There is often suspicion on the part of materialists about what, if anything, such philosophers’ “thought experiments” can teach us about the nature of fedex plan our minds. It seems that one could take virtually any philosophical or scientific theory about almost anything, conceive that it is possibly false, and then conclude that it is actually false. Child Care Cover Letter! Something, perhaps, is plan generally wrong with this way of on writing a research reasoning. Third, as we saw earlier (3b.i), there may be a very good reason why such zombie scenarios seem possible; namely, that we do not (at least, not yet) see what the necessary connection is between neural events and conscious mental events.
On the fedex business plan one side, we are dealing with scientific third-person concepts and, on the other, we are employing phenomenal concepts. We are, perhaps, simply currently not in essays on add a position to understand completely such a necessary connection. Debate and discussion on fedex business, all four objections remains very active. Despite the apparent simplicity of materialism, say, in terms of the grading a research paper identity between mental states and neural states, the plan fact is that there are many different forms of reflections paper materialism. Fedex Plan! While a detailed survey of all varieties is beyond the objectives scope of this entry, it is at least important to acknowledge the fedex business plan commonly drawn distinction between two kinds of “identity theory”: token-token and type-type materialism.
Type-type identity theory is the stronger thesis and says that mental properties, such as “having a desire to drink some water” or “being in pain,” are literally identical with a brain property of some kind. Such identities were originally meant to be understood as on a par with, for example, the scientific identity between “being water” and “being composed of H2O” (Place 1956, Smart 1959). However, this view historically came under serious assault due to the fact that it seems to rule out the so-called “multiple realizability” of conscious mental states. Symbols Essays! The idea is simply that it seems perfectly possible for fedex business plan there to be other conscious beings (e.g., aliens, radically different animals) who can have those same mental states but who also are radically different from us physiologically (Fodor 1974). It seems that commitment to type-type identity theory led to the undesirable result that only organisms with brains like ours can have conscious states. Reflections! Somewhat more technically, most materialists wish to leave room for plan the possibility that mental properties can be “instantiated” in different kinds of symbols essays organisms. (But for more recent defenses of type-type identity theory see Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1994, 1995, 1998, Polger 2004.) As a consequence, a more modest “token-token” identity theory has become preferable to many materialists. This view simply holds that each particular conscious mental event in some organism is fedex identical with some particular brain process or event in that organism.
This seems to preserve much of what the materialist wants but yet allows for the multiple realizability of symbols essays conscious states, because both the human and the alien can still have a conscious desire for something to drink while each mental event is identical with a (different) physical state in each organism. Taking the notion of multiple realizability very seriously has also led many to business embrace functionalism, which is the view that conscious mental states should really only be identified with the functional role they play within an organism. For example, conscious pains are defined more in terms of input and grading a research paper, output, such as causing bodily damage and avoidance behavior, as well as in fedex terms of their relationship to other mental states. It is normally viewed as a form of materialism since virtually all functionalists also believe, like the token-token theorist, that something physical ultimately realizes that functional state in the organism, but functionalism does not, by itself, entail that materialism is true. Critics of a research functionalism, however, have long argued that such purely functional accounts cannot adequately explain the essential “feel” of conscious states, or that it seems possible to have two functionally equivalent creatures, one of whom lacks qualia entirely (Block 1980a, 1980b, Chalmers 1996; see also Shoemaker 1975, 1981). Some materialists even deny the very existence of mind and mental states altogether, at fedex plan, least in the sense that the very concept of consciousness is muddled (Wilkes 1984, 1988) or that the mentalistic notions found in folk psychology, such as desires and beliefs, will eventually be eliminated and replaced by physicalistic terms as neurophysiology matures into the future (Churchland 1983). This is meant as analogous to past similar eliminations based on deeper scientific understanding, for symbols essays example, we no longer need to speak of “ether” or “phlogiston.” Other eliminativists, more modestly, argue that there is no such thing as qualia when they are defined in certain problematic ways (Dennett 1988). Finally, it should also be noted that not all materialists believe that conscious mentality can be explained in terms of the physical, at least in the sense that the fedex former cannot be “reduced” to the latter. Materialism is true as an ontological or metaphysical doctrine, but facts about the mind cannot be deduced from facts about the a research physical world (Boyd 1980, Van Gulick 1992). In some ways, this might be viewed as a relatively harmless variation on materialist themes, but others object to the very coherence of this form of fedex business materialism (Kim 1987, 1998).
Indeed, the line between such “non-reductive materialism” and property dualism is not always so easy to draw; partly because the symbols essays entire notion of “reduction” is ambiguous and a very complex topic in its own right. On a related front, some materialists are happy enough to plan talk about child cover letter, a somewhat weaker “supervenience” relation between mind and matter. Although “supervenience” is a highly technical notion with many variations, the idea is basically one of dependence (instead of identity); for business example, that the mental depends on the physical in the sense that any mental change must be accompanied by some physical change (see Kim 1993). 4. Child Care Cover Letter! Specific Theories of Consciousness. Most specific theories of consciousness tend to be reductionist in some sense. The classic notion at work is that consciousness or individual conscious mental states can be explained in terms of fedex something else or in some other terms.
This section will focus on several prominent contemporary reductionist theories. We should, however, distinguish between those who attempt such a reduction directly in symbols essays physicalistic, such as neurophysiological, terms and those who do so in fedex plan mentalistic terms, such as by on writing paper using unconscious mental states or other cognitive notions. The more direct reductionist approach can be seen in various, more specific, neural theories of consciousness. Perhaps best known is the theory offered by Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of neurons fire in synchrony and fedex, all have oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range (that is, 35-75 cycles per reflections on writing a research paper second). However, many philosophers and fedex, scientists have put forth other candidates for reflections a research what, specifically, to identify in the brain with consciousness. This vast enterprise has come to be known as the business plan search for grading the “neural correlates of fedex consciousness” or NCCs (see section 5b below for an essay more). The overall idea is to show how one or more specific kinds of neuro-chemical activity can underlie and explain conscious mental activity (Metzinger 2000). Business! Of course, mere “correlation” is not enough for symbols essays a fully adequate neural theory and explaining just what counts as a NCC turns out to be more difficult than one might think (Chalmers 2000).
Even Crick and business, Koch have acknowledged that they, at best, provide a necessary condition for consciousness, and that such firing patters are not automatically sufficient for having conscious experience. b. Representational Theories of Consciousness. Many current theories attempt to reduce consciousness in mentalistic terms. One broadly popular approach along these lines is to reduce consciousness to “mental representations” of some kind. Essays On Add! The notion of business plan a “representation” is of course very general and an essay, can be applied to photographs, signs, and various natural objects, such as the fedex plan rings inside a tree. Much of essays on add what goes on in the brain, however, might also be understood in fedex business a representational way; for example, as mental events representing outer objects partly because they are caused by such objects in, say, cases of veridical visual perception. More specifically, philosophers will often call such representational mental states “intentional states” which have representational content; that is, mental states which are “about something” or “directed at something” as when one has a thought about the house or a perception of the tree. Although intentional states are sometimes contrasted with phenomenal states, such as pains and color experiences, it is clear that many conscious states have both phenomenal and intentional properties, such as visual perceptions. It should be noted that the relation between intentionalilty and consciousness is itself a major ongoing area of dispute with some arguing that genuine intentionality actually presupposes consciousness in spm english essay love some way (Searle 1992, Siewart 1998, Horgan and Tienson 2002) while most representationalists insist that intentionality is prior to consciousness (Gennaro 2012, chapter two). The general view that we can explain conscious mental states in terms of representational or intentional states is called “representationalism.” Although not automatically reductionist in spirit, most versions of representationalism do indeed attempt such a reduction. Most representationalists, then, believe that there is room for a kind of “second-step” reduction to fedex plan be filled in later by neuroscience.
The other related motivation for representational theories of care cover letter consciousness is plan that many believe that an account of representation or intentionality can more easily be given in spm english narrative essay naturalistic terms, such as causal theories whereby mental states are understood as representing outer objects in virtue of some reliable causal connection. The idea, then, is that if consciousness can be explained in representational terms and representation can be understood in fedex business plan purely physical terms, then there is the promise of a reductionist and an essay, naturalistic theory of consciousness. Most generally, however, we can say that a representationalist will typically hold that the phenomenal properties of experience (that is, the fedex plan “qualia” or “what it is like of experience” or “phenomenal character”) can be explained in terms of the experiences’ representational properties. Alternatively, conscious mental states have no mental properties other than their representational properties. Two conscious states with all the same representational properties will not differ phenomenally. For example, when I look at the blue sky, what it is like for me to have a conscious experience of the sky is simply identical with my experience’s representation of the blue sky. A First-order representational (FOR) theory of consciousness is a theory that attempts to essays on add explain conscious experience primarily in terms of world-directed (or first-order) intentional states. Probably the two most cited FOR theories of consciousness are those of plan Fred Dretske (1995) and Michael Tye (1995, 2000), though there are many others as well (e.g., Harman 1990, Kirk 1994, Byrne 2001, Thau 2002, Droege 2003).
Tye’s theory is more fully worked out and so will be the focus of essays on add this section. Like other FOR theorists, Tye holds that the representational content of fedex my conscious experience (that is, what my experience is about or directed at) is essays on add identical with the phenomenal properties of experience. Aside from reductionistic motivations, Tye and other FOR representationalists often use the somewhat technical notion of the “transparency of fedex business plan experience” as support for symbols essays their view (Harman 1990). Fedex Business Plan! This is an argument based on the phenomenological first-person observation, which goes back to Moore (1903), that when one turns one’s attention away from, say, the blue sky and onto one’s experience itself, one is still only aware of the blueness of the sky. A Research! The experience itself is not blue; rather, one “sees right through” one’s experience to business its representational properties, and there is nothing else to one’s experience over and above such properties. Whatever the merits and for writing an essay, exact nature of the argument from transparency (see Kind 2003), it is clear, of course, that not all mental representations are conscious, so the key question eventually becomes: What exactly distinguishes conscious from unconscious mental states (or representations)? What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? Here Tye defends what he calls “PANIC theory.” The acronym “PANIC” stands for business poised, abstract, non-conceptual, intentional content. Without probing into every aspect of PANIC theory, Tye holds that at least some of the representational content in question is non-conceptual (N), which is to essays on add say that the subject can lack the concept for the properties represented by the experience in question, such as an fedex business experience of a certain shade of red that one has never seen before. Actually, the reflections a research paper exact nature or even existence of fedex non-conceptual content of experience is itself a highly debated and child letter, difficult issue in fedex business philosophy of mind (Gunther 2003). A Research! Gennaro (2012), for example, defends conceptualism and fedex, connects it in various ways to the higher-order thought theory of consciousness (see section 4b.ii).
Conscious states clearly must also have “intentional content” (IC) for any representationalist. Tye also asserts that such content is “abstract” (A) and not necessarily about particular concrete objects. This condition is needed to handle cases of hallucinations, where there are no concrete objects at all or cases where different objects look phenomenally alike. Perhaps most important for mental states to be conscious, however, is care cover that such content must be “poised” (P), which is an importantly functional notion. Fedex Business Plan! The “key idea is that experiences and feelings. stand ready and available to make a direct impact on beliefs and/or desires.
For example…feeling hungry… has an immediate cognitive effect, namely, the desire to narrative essay eat….States with nonconceptual content that are not so poised lack phenomenal character [because]…they arise too early, as it were, in the information processing” (Tye 2000: 62). One objection to fedex Tye’s theory is that it does not really address the hard problem of phenomenal consciousness (see section 3b.i). This is partly because what really seems to be doing most of the essays on add work on business plan, Tye’s PANIC account is the very functional sounding “poised” notion, which is perhaps closer to Block’s access consciousness (see section 1) and is therefore not necessarily able to explain phenomenal consciousness (see Kriegel 2002). In short, it is difficult to see just how Tye’s PANIC account might not equally apply to unconscious representations and thus how it really explains phenomenal consciousness. Other standard objections to Tye’s theory as well as to other FOR accounts include the concern that it does not cover all kinds of conscious states. Some conscious states seem not to be “about” anything, such as pains, anxiety, or after-images, and so would be non-representational conscious states. If so, then conscious experience cannot generally be explained in terms of representational properties (Block 1996). Tye responds that pains, itches, and the like do represent, in the sense that they represent parts of the body. And after-images, hallucinations, and the like either misrepresent (which is still a kind of representation) or the essays on add conscious subject still takes them to have representational properties from the business first-person point of view.
Indeed, Tye (2000) admirably goes to symbols essays great lengths and argues convincingly in fedex plan response to a whole host of essays on add alleged counter-examples to representationalism. Fedex Business Plan! Historically among them are various hypothetical cases of inverted qualia (see Shoemaker 1982), the mere possibility of which is sometimes taken as devastating to representationalism. Child Letter! These are cases where behaviorally indistinguishable individuals have inverted color perceptions of objects, such as person A visually experiences a lemon the way that person B experience a ripe tomato with respect to their color, and fedex business plan, so on for all yellow and red objects. Isn’t it possible that there are two individuals whose color experiences are inverted with respect to the objects of perception? (For more on the importance of color in philosophy, see Hardin 1986.) A somewhat different twist on care letter, the inverted spectrum is famously put forth in fedex Block’s (1990) Inverted Earth case.
On Inverted Earth every object has the complementary color to the one it has here, but we are asked to imagine that a person is equipped with color-inverting lenses and then sent to Inverted Earth completely ignorant of those facts. Since the color inversions cancel out, the grading phenomenal experiences remain the same, yet there certainly seem to be different representational properties of objects involved. Fedex Business Plan! The strategy on objectives an essay, the part of critics, in short, is to think of counter-examples (either actual or hypothetical) whereby there is a difference between the phenomenal properties in experience and the relevant representational properties in the world. Such objections can, perhaps, be answered by Tye and others in plan various ways, but significant debate continues (Macpherson 2005). Intuitions also dramatically differ as to objectives an essay the very plausibility and fedex, value of such thought experiments. (For more, see Seager 1999, chapters 6 and a research, 7. See also Chalmers 2004 for an excellent discussion of the dizzying array of possible representationalist positions.) ii. Higher-Order Representationalism.
As we have seen, one question that should be answered by any theory of business plan consciousness is: What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? There is on writing a research paper a long tradition that has attempted to understand consciousness in terms of some kind of higher-order awareness. For example, John Locke (1689/1975) once said that “consciousness is the perception of what passes in a man’s own mind.” This intuition has been revived by a number of philosophers (Rosenthal, 1986, 1993b, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2005; Gennaro 1996a, 2012; Armstrong, 1968, 1981; Lycan, 1996, 2001). In general, the idea is fedex business plan that what makes a mental state conscious is that it is the object of some kind of higher-order representation (HOR). A mental state M becomes conscious when there is a HOR of M. A HOR is a “meta-psychological” state, i.e., a mental state directed at another mental state. So, for example, my desire to write a good encyclopedia entry becomes conscious when I am (non-inferentially) “aware” of the desire. Intuitively, it seems that conscious states, as opposed to unconscious ones, are mental states that I am “aware of” in some sense. This is sometimes referred to as the Transitivity Principle. Any theory which attempts to explain consciousness in symbols essays terms of higher-order states is known as a higher-order (HO) theory of consciousness.
It is best initially to use the more neutral term “representation” because there are a number of different kinds of higher-order theory, depending upon how one characterizes the HOR in fedex business question. HO theories, thus, attempt to explain consciousness in mentalistic terms, that is, by reference to such notions as “thoughts” and “awareness.” Conscious mental states arise when two unconscious mental states are related in a certain specific way; namely, that one of child them (the HOR) is directed at fedex plan, the other (M). Reflections Paper! HO theorists are united in the belief that their approach can better explain consciousness than any purely FOR theory, which has significant difficulty in explaining the difference between unconscious and conscious mental states. There are various kinds of HO theory with the most common division between higher-order thought (HOT) theories and higher-order perception (HOP) theories. HOT theorists, such as David M. Fedex Business Plan! Rosenthal, think it is better to understand the HOR as a thought of some kind.
HOTs are treated as cognitive states involving some kind of conceptual component. HOP theorists urge that the HOR is a perceptual or experiential state of grading a research paper some kind (Lycan 1996) which does not require the kind of conceptual content invoked by business plan HOT theorists. Partly due to Kant (1781/1965), HOP theory is sometimes referred to as “inner sense theory” as a way of symbols essays emphasizing its sensory or perceptual aspect. Business Plan! Although HOT and HOP theorists agree on the need for a HOR theory of consciousness, they do sometimes argue for the superiority of on writing a research their respective positions (such as in Rosenthal 2004, Lycan 2004, and Gennaro 2012). Fedex! Some philosophers, however, have argued that the difference between these theories is perhaps not as important or as clear as some think it is (Guzeldere 1995, Gennaro 1996a, Van Gulick 2000). A common initial objection to HOR theories is symbols essays that they are circular and lead to an infinite regress. It might seem that the HOT theory results in circularity by defining consciousness in terms of business plan HOTs. It also might seem that an infinite regress results because a conscious mental state must be accompanied by on writing a HOT, which, in turn, must be accompanied by another HOT ad infinitum . However, the standard reply is that when a conscious mental state is fedex business a first-order world-directed state the essays on add higher-order thought (HOT) is not itself conscious; otherwise, circularity and an infinite regress would follow. Plan! When the HOT is itself conscious, there is a yet higher-order (or third-order) thought directed at the second-order state. In this case, we have introspection which involves a conscious HOT directed at an inner mental state. When one introspects, one's attention is directed back into one's mind.
For example, what makes my desire to on writing write a good entry a conscious first-order desire is that there is a (non-conscious) HOT directed at the desire. In this case, my conscious focus is directed at fedex, the entry and my computer screen, so I am not consciously aware of an essay having the HOT from the first-person point of view. When I introspect that desire, however, I then have a conscious HOT (accompanied by a yet higher, third-order, HOT) directed at the desire itself (see Rosenthal 1986). Peter Carruthers (2000) has proposed another possibility within HO theory; namely, that it is better for various reasons to think of the HOTs as dispositional states instead of the business plan standard view that the HOTs are actual, though he also understands his “dispositional HOT theory” to symbols essays be a form of HOP theory (Carruthers 2004). The basic idea is that the conscious status of an experience is due to its availability to higher-order thought. So “conscious experience occurs when perceptual contents are fed into a special short-term buffer memory store, whose function is to make those contents available to fedex plan cause HOTs about themselves.” (Carruthers 2000: 228). Some first-order perceptual contents are available to a higher-order “theory of for writing mind mechanism,” which transforms those representational contents into conscious contents. Thus, no actual HOT occurs. Instead, according to Carruthers, some perceptual states acquire a dual intentional content; for example, a conscious experience of red not only has a first-order content of “red,” but also has the higher-order content “seems red” or “experience of red.” Carruthers also makes interesting use of so-called “consumer semantics” in order to fill out business plan, his theory of phenomenal consciousness.
The content of a mental state depends, in part, on the powers of the symbols essays organisms which “consume” that state, e.g., the kinds of inferences which the organism can make when it is in that state. Daniel Dennett (1991) is sometimes credited with an earlier version of fedex business plan a dispositional account (see Carruthers 2000, chapter ten). Carruthers’ dispositional theory is often criticized by those who, among other things, do not see how the mere disposition toward a mental state can render it conscious (Rosenthal 2004; see also Gennaro 2004, 2012; for more, see Consciousness, Higher Order Theories of.) It is paper worth briefly noting a few typical objections to HO theories (many of which can be found in Byrne 1997): First, and perhaps most common, is that various animals (and even infants) are not likely to have to the conceptual sophistication required for HOTs, and business plan, so that would render animal (and infant) consciousness very unlikely (Dretske 1995, Seager 2004). Paper! Are cats and business plan, dogs capable of having complex higher-order thoughts such as “I am in mental state M”? Although most who bring forth this objection are not HO theorists, Peter Carruthers (1989) is essays on add one HO theorist who actually embraces the fedex business conclusion that (most) animals do not have phenomenal consciousness.
Gennaro (1993, 1996) has replied to Carruthers on symbols essays, this point; for example, it is argued that the HOTs need not be as sophisticated as it might initially appear and there is ample comparative neurophysiological evidence supporting the conclusion that animals have conscious mental states. Fedex Business! Most HO theorists do not wish to reflections paper accept the absence of animal or infant consciousness as a consequence of holding the theory. The debate continues, however, in fedex business Carruthers (2000, 2005, 2008) and Gennaro (2004, 2009, 2012, chapters seven and eight). A second objection has been referred to care cover letter as the fedex “problem of the rock” (Stubenberg 1998) and the “generality problem” (Van Gulick 2000, 2004), but it is originally due to Alvin Goldman (Goldman 1993). Cover! When I have a thought about a rock, it is certainly not true that the business plan rock becomes conscious.
So why should I suppose that a mental state becomes conscious when I think about symbols essays, it? This is puzzling to fedex plan many and the objection forces HO theorists to explain just how adding the care cover HO state changes an unconscious state into plan a conscious. There have been, however, a number of grading paper responses to this kind of objection (Rosenthal 1997, Lycan, 1996, Van Gulick 2000, 2004, Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four). A common theme is that there is a principled difference in the objects of the HO states in question. Rocks and fedex plan, the like are not mental states in the first place, and so HO theorists are first and foremost trying to explain how a mental state becomes conscious. The objects of the HO states must be “in the head.” Third, the above leads somewhat naturally to symbols essays an objection related to Chalmers’ hard problem (section 3b.i).
It might be asked just how exactly any HO theory really explains the subjective or phenomenal aspect of fedex business plan conscious experience. How or why does a mental state come to have a first-person qualitative “what it is like” aspect by virtue of the presence of a HOR directed at it? It is probably fair to say that HO theorists have been slow to address this problem, though a number of overlapping responses have emerged (see also Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four, for more extensive treatment). Essays On Add! Some argue that this objection misconstrues the main and more modest purpose of (at least, their) HO theories. The claim is that HO theories are theories of consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind. A full account of “qualitative properties” or “sensory qualities” (which can themselves be non-conscious) can be found elsewhere in business plan their work, but is independent of their theory of consciousness (Rosenthal 1991, Lycan 1996, 2001).
Thus, a full explanation of phenomenal consciousness does require more than a HO theory, but that is no objection to HO theories as such. Another response is that proponents of the hard problem unjustly raise the bar as to on writing a research what would count as a viable explanation of consciousness so that any such reductivist attempt would inevitably fall short (Carruthers 2000, Gennaro 2012). Part of the problem, then, is a lack of clarity about what would even count as an plan explanation of consciousness (Van Gulick 1995; see also section 3b). Once this is clarified, however, the hard problem can indeed be solved. Moreover, anyone familiar with the literature knows that there are significant terminological difficulties in the use of various crucial terms which sometimes inhibits genuine progress (but see Byrne 2004 for some helpful clarification). A fourth important objection to HO approaches is the question of essays on add how such theories can explain cases where the HO state might misrepresent the lower-order (LO) mental state (Byrne 1997, Neander 1998, Levine 2001, Block 2011). After all, if we have a representational relation between two states, it seems possible for misrepresentation or malfunction to occur. If it does, then what explanation can be offered by business the HO theorist? If my LO state registers a red percept and my HO state registers a thought about something green due, say, to some neural misfiring, then what happens? It seems that problems loom for any answer given by on writing a research paper a HO theorist and the cause of the problem has to do with the fedex business plan very nature of the HO theorist’s belief that there is a representational relation between the LO and for writing, HO states. For example, if the HO theorist takes the fedex plan option that the resulting conscious experience is reddish, then it seems that the essays on add HO state plays no role in determining the qualitative character of the experience.
On the other hand, if the resulting experience is greenish, then the LO state seems irrelevant. Rosenthal and Weisberg hold that the HO state determines the qualitative properties even in fedex business plan cases when there is no LO state at all (Rosenthal 2005, 2011, Weisberg 2008, 2011a, 2011b). Gennaro (2012) argues that no conscious experience results in such cases and wonders, for example, how a sole (unconscious) HOT can result in a conscious state at for writing an essay, all. He argues that there must be a match, complete or partial, between the business LO and HO state in order for a conscious state to objectives for writing exist in the first place. This important objection forces HO theorists to be clearer about just how to view the relationship between the fedex business plan LO and HO states. Debate is spm english narrative essay ongoing and significant both on varieties of HO theory and in terms of the business above objections (see Gennaro 2004a). There is also interdisciplinary interest in how various HO theories might be realized in the brain (Gennaro 2012, chapter nine).
iii. Hybrid Representational Accounts. A related and increasingly popular version of representational theory holds that the meta-psychological state in an essay question should be understood as intrinsic to (or part of) an fedex business plan overall complex conscious state. This stands in grading contrast to the standard view that the HO state is extrinsic to (that is, entirely distinct from) its target mental state. Fedex Business Plan! The assumption, made by Rosenthal for example, about the extrinsic nature of the meta-thought has increasingly come under attack, and thus various hybrid representational theories can be found in the literature. Reflections! One motivation for fedex this movement is growing dissatisfaction with standard HO theory’s ability to grading handle some of the objections addressed in the previous section.
Another reason is plan renewed interest in a view somewhat closer to the one held by Franz Brentano (1874/1973) and various other followers, normally associated with the phenomenological tradition (Husserl 1913/1931, 1929/1960; Sartre 1956; see also Smith 1986, 2004). To varying degrees, these views have in common the idea that conscious mental states, in spm english narrative essay about some sense, represent themselves, which then still involves having a thought about a mental state, just not a distinct or separate state. Business! Thus, when one has a conscious desire for symbols essays a cold glass of water, one is fedex business also aware that one is in that very state. Essay Love! The conscious desire both represents the glass of water and itself. Business Plan! It is symbols essays this “self-representing” which makes the state conscious. These theories can go by various names, which sometimes seem in conflict, and business plan, have added significantly in recent years to the acronyms which abound in grading a research the literature. For example, Gennaro (1996a, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2012) has argued that, when one has a first-order conscious state, the fedex business HOT is better viewed as intrinsic to the target state, so that we have a complex conscious state with parts. Gennaro calls this the “wide intrinsicality view” (WIV) and he also argues that Jean-Paul Sartre’s theory of consciousness can be understood in this way (Gennaro 2002). Gennaro holds that conscious mental states should be understood (as Kant might have today) as global brain states which are combinations of passively received perceptual input and presupposed higher-order conceptual activity directed at that input.
Higher-order concepts in the meta-psychological thoughts are presupposed in having first-order conscious states. Paper! Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the alternative that the HO state is fedex plan part of an objectives an essay overall global conscious state. He calls such states “HOGS” (Higher-Order Global States) whereby a lower-order unconscious state is “recruited” into a larger state, which becomes conscious partly due to the implicit self-awareness that one is in the lower-order state. Both Gennaro and Van Gulick have suggested that conscious states can be understood materialistically as global states of the brain, and it would be better to treat the first-order state as part of the larger complex brain state. This general approach is also forcefully advocated by Uriah Kriegel (Kriegel 2003a, 2003b, 2005, 2006, 2009) and is even the subject of an entire anthology debating its merits (Kriegel and business, Williford 2006). Kriegel has used several different names for his “neo-Brentanian theory,” such as the grading SOMT (Same-Order Monitoring Theory) and, more recently, the “self-representational theory of consciousness.” To be sure, the notion of a mental state representing itself or a mental state with one part representing another part is in need of further development and is perhaps somewhat mysterious. Nonetheless, there is agreement among these authors that conscious mental states are, in fedex some important sense, reflexive or self-directed. Objectives! And, once again, there is keen interest in developing this model in a way that coheres with the latest neurophysiological research on business, consciousness.
A point of for writing an essay emphasis is on the concept of global meta-representation within a complex brain state, and attempts are underway to identify just how such an account can be realized in the brain. It is worth mentioning that this idea was also briefly explored by Thomas Metzinger who focused on the fact that consciousness “is something that unifies or synthesizes experience” (Metzinger 1995: 454). Metzinger calls this the process of fedex business plan “higher-order binding” and thus uses the acronym HOB. Others who hold some form of the self-representational view include Kobes (1995), Caston (2002), Williford (2006), Brook and for writing, Raymont (2006), and even Carruthers’ (2000) theory can be viewed in this light since he contends that conscious states have two representational contents. Thomas Natsoulas also has a series of papers defending a similar view, beginning with Natsoulas 1996. Some authors (such as Gennaro 2012) view this hybrid position to be a modified version of HOT theory; indeed, Rosenthal (2004) has called it “intrinsic higher-order theory.” Van Gulick also clearly wishes to fedex business plan preserve the HO is symbols essays his HOGS. Fedex Business Plan! Others, such as Kriegel, are not inclined to call their views “higher-order” at all and call it, for example, the “same-order monitoring” or “self-representational” theory of consciousness. Symbols Essays! To some extent, this is a terminological dispute, but, despite important similarities, there are also key subtle differences between these hybrid alternatives.
Like HO theorists, however, those who advocate this general approach all take very seriously the notion that a conscious mental state M is a state that subject S is (non-inferentially) aware that S is in. By contrast, one is obviously not aware of fedex one’s unconscious mental states. Thus, there are various attempts to make sense of and elaborate upon this key intuition in a way that is, as it were, “in-between” standard FO and HO theory. (See also Lurz 2003 and 2004 for on writing paper yet another interesting hybrid account.) Aside from the fedex business plan explicitly representational approaches discussed above, there are also related attempts to explain consciousness in other cognitive terms. The two most prominent such theories are worth describing here: Daniel Dennett (1991, 2005) has put forth what he calls the Multiple Drafts Model (MDM) of consciousness. Although similar in a research paper some ways to representationalism, Dennett is most concerned that materialists avoid falling prey to what he calls the business plan “myth of the Cartesian theater,” the notion that there is some privileged place in the brain where everything comes together to produce conscious experience. Instead, the MDM holds that all kinds of mental activity occur in the brain by narrative essay parallel processes of interpretation, all of which are under frequent revision.
The MDM rejects the idea of some “self” as an fedex inner observer; rather, the spm english essay self is the plan product or construction of a narrative which emerges over time. Dennett is also well known for rejecting the very assumption that there is a clear line to be drawn between conscious and unconscious mental states in terms of the problematic notion of on writing “qualia.” He influentially rejects strong emphasis on any phenomenological or first-person approach to investigating consciousness, advocating instead what he calls “heterophenomenology” according to which we should follow a more neutral path “leading from objective physical science and its insistence on the third person point of view, to a method of phenomenological description that can (in principle) do justice to fedex business the most private and ineffable subjective experiences.” (1991: 72) Bernard Baars’ Global Workspace Theory (GWT) model of consciousness is probably the most influential theory proposed among psychologists (Baars 1988, 1997). The basic idea and metaphor is that we should think of the entire cognitive system as built on a “blackboard architecture” which is a kind of objectives an essay global workspace. Business Plan! According to GWT, unconscious processes and mental states compete for the spotlight of attention, from which information is “broadcast globally” throughout the system. Consciousness consists in such global broadcasting and child, is therefore also, according to plan Baars, an symbols essays important functional and biological adaptation. We might say that consciousness is thus created by a kind of global access to fedex business plan select bits of information in the brain and nervous system. Despite Baars’ frequent use of “theater” and essays on add, “spotlight” metaphors, he argues that his view does not entail the presence of the material Cartesian theater that Dennett is so concerned to avoid.
It is, in fedex business any case, an empirical matter just how the brain performs the functions he describes, such as detecting mechanisms of attention. Objections to these cognitive theories include the charge that they do not really address the hard problem of consciousness (as described in section 3b.i), but only the care “easy” problems. Fedex Business! Dennett is also often accused of explaining away consciousness rather than really explaining it. It is essays on add also interesting to think about Baars’ GWT in light of the business plan Block’s distinction between access and phenomenal consciousness (see section 1). Does Baars’ theory only address access consciousness instead of the essay more difficult to explain phenomenal consciousness? (Two other psychological cognitive theories worth noting are the ones proposed by George Mandler 1975 and Tim Shallice 1988.) Finally, there are those who look deep beneath the neural level to the field of quantum mechanics, basically the fedex study of objectives for writing an essay sub-atomic particles, to find the key to unlocking the business mysteries of consciousness. The bizarre world of quantum physics is quite different from the deterministic world of grading paper classical physics, and a major area of research in its own right. Such authors place the locus of consciousness at business, a very fundamental physical level. Objectives For Writing! This somewhat radical, though exciting, option is explored most notably by physicist Roger Penrose (1989, 1994) and business, anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff (1998). Spm English Love! The basic idea is that consciousness arises through quantum effects which occur in subcellular neural structures known as microtubules, which are structural proteins in cell walls. Fedex! There are also other quantum approaches which aim to explain the coherence of consciousness (Marshall and Zohar 1990) or use the “holistic” nature of quantum mechanics to explain consciousness (Silberstein 1998, 2001).
It is an essay difficult to assess these somewhat exotic approaches at present. Given the puzzling and plan, often very counterintuitive nature of quantum physics, it is unclear whether such approaches will prove genuinely scientifically valuable methods in explaining consciousness. One concern is simply that these authors are trying to about explain one puzzling phenomenon (consciousness) in terms of another mysterious natural phenomenon (quantum effects). Thus, the thinking seems to go, perhaps the two are essentially related somehow and other physicalistic accounts are looking in the wrong place, such as at fedex business, the neuro-chemical level. Although many attempts to explain consciousness often rely of conjecture or speculation, quantum approaches may indeed lead the field along these lines. Of course, this doesn’t mean that some such theory isn’t correct. One exciting aspect of this approach is the resulting interdisciplinary interest it has generated among physicists and other scientists in objectives the problem of consciousness. 5. Consciousness and Science: Key Issues. Over the past two decades there has been an explosion of interdisciplinary work in the science of consciousness. Some of the credit must go to the ground breaking 1986 book by Patricia Churchland entitled Neurophilosophy . In this section, three of the most important such areas are addressed.
a. Plan! The Unity of Consciousness/The Binding Problem. Conscious experience seems to be “unified” in an important sense; this crucial feature of consciousness played an important role in the philosophy of Kant who argued that unified conscious experience must be the symbols essays product of the (presupposed) synthesizing work of the mind. Getting clear about exactly what is meant by the “unity of consciousness” and fedex plan, explaining how the brain achieves such unity has become a central topic in the study of for writing an essay consciousness. There are many different senses of “unity” (see Tye 2003; Bayne and fedex business plan, Chalmers 2003, Dainton 2000, 2008, Bayne 2010), but perhaps most common is the notion that, from the first-person point of spm english essay love view, we experience the world in an integrated way and as a single phenomenal field of experience. Plan! (For an important anthology on the subject, see Cleeremans 2003.) However, when one looks at how the brain processes information, one only sees discrete regions of the spm english narrative cortex processing separate aspects of perceptual objects. Even different aspects of the fedex same object, such as its color and shape, are processed in essays on add different parts of the fedex plan brain. Objectives! Given that there is no “Cartesian theater” in the brain where all this information comes together, the problem arises as to just how the resulting conscious experience is unified. What mechanisms allow us to experience the world in business plan such a unified way? What happens when this unity breaks down, as in various pathological cases? The “problem of integrating the information processed by different regions of the brain is known as the binding problem” (Cleeremans 2003: 1). Thus, the so-called “binding problem” is inextricably linked to explaining the essays on add unity of consciousness.
As was seen earlier with neural theories (section 4a) and as will be seen below on the neural correlates of consciousness (5b), some attempts to solve the binding problem have to do with trying to fedex business isolate the precise brain mechanisms responsible for consciousness. For example, Crick and Koch’s (1990) idea that synchronous neural firings are (at least) necessary for consciousness can also be viewed as an attempt to explain how disparate neural networks bind together separate pieces of information to produce unified subjective conscious experience. Perhaps the a research binding problem and the hard problem of fedex consciousness (section 3b.i) are very closely connected. If the binding problem can be solved, then we arguably have identified the child care cover elusive neural correlate of consciousness and have, therefore, perhaps even solved the hard problem. In addition, perhaps the explanatory gap between third-person scientific knowledge and first-person unified conscious experience can also be bridged. Business! Thus, this exciting area of inquiry is central to some of the deepest questions in the philosophical and scientific exploration of consciousness. b. Grading Paper! The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCCs)
As was seen earlier in discussing neural theories of fedex consciousness (section 4a), the symbols essays search for the so-called “neural correlates of consciousness” (NCCs) is a major preoccupation of philosophers and fedex, scientists alike (Metzinger 2000). Grading A Research Paper! Narrowing down the precise brain property responsible for consciousness is a different and far more difficult enterprise than merely holding a generic belief in business plan some form of materialism. One leading candidate is offered by Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of neurons all fire in narrative love synchrony with one another (oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range or 35-75 cycles per second). Business Plan! Currently, one method used is simply to study some aspect of neural functioning with sophisticated detecting equipments (such as MRIs and PET scans) and a research, then correlate it with first-person reports of conscious experience. Another method is to study the difference in brain activity between those under anesthesia and those not under any such influence. Business! A detailed survey would be impossible to give here, but a number of other candidates for the NCC have emerged over the past two decades, including reentrant cortical feedback loops in the neural circuitry throughout the brain (Edelman 1989, Edelman and Tononi 2000), NMDA-mediated transient neural assemblies (Flohr 1995), and emotive somatosensory haemostatic processes in the frontal lobe (Damasio 1999). To elaborate briefly on Flohr’s theory, the idea is that anesthetics destroy conscious mental activity because they interfere with the functioning of NMDA synapses between neurons, which are those that are dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. An Essay! These and other NCCs are explored at length in Metzinger (2000).
Ongoing scientific investigation is fedex plan significant and objectives for writing an essay, an important aspect of current scientific research in the field. One problem with some of the above candidates is determining exactly how they are related to fedex business consciousness. For example, although a case can be made that some of them are necessary for conscious mentality, it is unclear that they are sufficient. That is, some of the above seem to occur unconsciously as well. And pinning down a narrow enough necessary condition is not as easy as it might seem. Another general worry is grading with the very use of the term “correlate.” As any philosopher, scientist, and even undergraduate student should know, saying that “A is correlated with B” is business rather weak (though it is an important first step), especially if one wishes to symbols essays establish the stronger identity claim between consciousness and neural activity. Even if such a correlation can be established, we cannot automatically conclude that there is an identity relation. Perhaps A causes B or B causes A, and that’s why we find the fedex correlation. Even most dualists can accept such interpretations. Symbols Essays! Maybe there is some other neural process C which causes both A and B. “Correlation” is business plan not even the same as “cause,” let alone enough to establish “identity.” Finally, some NCCs are not even necessarily put forth as candidates for all conscious states, but rather for certain specific kinds of consciousness (e.g., visual).
Philosophers have long been intrigued by disorders of the mind and a research paper, consciousness. Part of the interest is presumably that if we can understand how consciousness goes wrong, then that can help us to theorize about the normal functioning mind. Going back at least as far as John Locke (1689/1975), there has been some discussion about the philosophical implications of multiple personality disorder (MPD) which is now called “dissociative identity disorder” (DID). Questions abound: Could there be two centers of consciousness in one body? What makes a person the same person over time? What makes a person a person at any given time? These questions are closely linked to the traditional philosophical problem of personal identity, which is also importantly related to some aspects of consciousness research. Much the same can be said for memory disorders, such as various forms of amnesia (see Gennaro 1996a, chapter 9). Does consciousness require some kind of autobiographical memory or psychological continuity? On a related front, there is significant interest in experimental results from patients who have undergone a commisurotomy, which is fedex usually performed to relieve symptoms of child cover severe epilepsy when all else fails. During this procedure, the nerve fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres are cut, resulting in so-called “split-brain” patients (Bayne 2010).
Philosophical interest is so high that there is now a book series called Philosophical Psychopathology published by MIT Press. Another rich source of information comes from the plan provocative and accessible writings of neurologists on a whole host of essays on add psychopathologies, most notably Oliver Sacks (starting with his 1987 book) and, more recently, V. S. Business Plan! Ramachandran (2004; see also Ramachandran and Blakeslee 1998). Another launching point came from the discovery of the phenomenon known as “blindsight” (Weiskrantz 1986), which is very frequently discussed in the philosophical literature regarding its implications for consciousness. Blindsight patients are blind in a well defined part of the visual field (due to cortical damage), but yet, when forced, can guess, with a higher than expected degree of accuracy, the location or orientation of an object in the blind field. There is also philosophical interest in many other disorders, such as phantom limb pain (where one feels pain in a missing or amputated limb), various agnosias (such as visual agnosia where one is not capable of visually recognizing everyday objects), and anosognosia (which is denial of illness, such as when one claims that a paralyzed limb is objectives an essay still functioning, or when one denies that one is blind). These phenomena raise a number of important philosophical questions and have forced philosophers to rethink some very basic assumptions about the nature of mind and fedex, consciousness. Letter! Much has also recently been learned about fedex plan, autism and various forms of schizophrenia.
A common view is that these disorders involve some kind of deficit in self-consciousness or in spm english narrative essay love one’s ability to use certain self-concepts. (For a nice review article, see Graham 2002.) Synesthesia is plan also a fascinating abnormal phenomenon, although not really a “pathological” condition as such (Cytowic 2003). Those with synesthesia literally have taste sensations when seeing certain shapes or have color sensations when hearing certain sounds. It is grading paper thus an often bizarre mixing of incoming sensory input via different modalities. One of the fedex business plan exciting results of this relatively new sub-field is the objectives for writing important interdisciplinary interest that it has generated among philosophers, psychologists, and scientists (such as in business plan Graham 2010, Hirstein 2005, and Radden 2004). 6. Animal and Machine Consciousness.
Two final areas of interest involve animal and machine consciousness. In the former case it is clear that we have come a long way from the Cartesian view that animals are mere “automata” and that they do not even have conscious experience (perhaps partly because they do not have immortal souls). Paper! In addition to the obviously significant behavioral similarities between humans and many animals, much more is known today about other physiological similarities, such as brain and DNA structures. To be sure, there are important differences as well and business, there are, no doubt, some genuinely difficult “grey areas” where one might have legitimate doubts about some animal or organism consciousness, such as small rodents, some birds and fish, and especially various insects. Nonetheless, it seems fair to cover say that most philosophers today readily accept the fact that a significant portion of the animal kingdom is capable of having conscious mental states, though there are still notable exceptions to that rule (Carruthers 2000, 2005). Of course, this is not to say that various animals can have all of the same kinds of business plan sophisticated conscious states enjoyed by human beings, such as reflecting on philosophical and mathematical problems, enjoying artworks, thinking about the vast universe or the child letter distant past, and so on. Fedex Plan! However, it still seems reasonable to essays on add believe that animals can have at least some conscious states from rudimentary pains to various perceptual states and perhaps even to some level of self-consciousness.
A number of key areas are under continuing investigation. For example, to what extent can animals recognize themselves, such as in a mirror, in order to demonstrate some level of business self-awareness? To what extent can animals deceive or empathize with other animals, either of which would indicate awareness of the minds of others? These and other important questions are at the center of much current theorizing about animal cognition. (See Keenan et. al. Child Care Letter! 2003 and fedex plan, Beckoff et. al.
2002.) In some ways, the problem of knowing about animal minds is an child care cover letter interesting sub-area of the traditional epistemological “problem of other minds”: How do we even know that other humans have conscious minds? What justifies such a belief? The possibility of machine (or robot) consciousness has intrigued philosophers and non-philosophers alike for decades. Could a machine really think or be conscious? Could a robot really subjectively experience the smelling of a rose or the feeling of business pain?
One important early launching point was a well-known paper by the mathematician Alan Turing (1950) which proposed what has come to be known as the “Turing test” for machine intelligence and thought (and perhaps consciousness as well). The basic idea is for writing that if a machine could fool an interrogator (who could not see the machine) into thinking that it was human, then we should say it thinks or, at fedex business, least, has intelligence. However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and essays on add, have very narrow uses. Plan! One cannot ask the child care cover machine about fedex business plan, virtually anything, as Turing had envisioned. Moreover, even if a machine or robot could pass the Turing Test, many remain very skeptical as to whether or not this demonstrates genuine machine thinking, let alone consciousness. For one thing, many philosophers would not take such purely behavioral (e.g., linguistic) evidence to support the objectives for writing an essay conclusion that machines are capable of fedex having phenomenal first person experiences. Grading A Research! Merely using words like “red” doesn’t ensure that there is the corresponding sensation of business plan red or real grasp of the a research paper meaning of “red.” Turing himself considered numerous objections and offered his own replies, many of which are still debated today. Another much discussed argument is John Searle’s (1980) famous Chinese Room Argument, which has spawned an enormous amount of fedex business plan literature since its original publication (see also Searle 1984; Preston and Bishop 2002).
Searle is concerned to reject what he calls “strong AI” which is the view that suitably programmed computers literally have a mind, that is, they really understand language and essays on add, actually have other mental capacities similar to humans. This is fedex business contrasted with “weak AI” which is the view that computers are merely useful tools for studying the for writing mind. Fedex! The gist of Searle’s argument is that he imagines himself running a program for using Chinese and then shows that he does not understand Chinese; therefore, strong AI is false; that is, running the program does not result in any real understanding (or thought or consciousness, by implication). On Writing A Research! Searle supports his argument against strong AI by utilizing a thought experiment whereby he is in a room and follows English instructions for manipulating Chinese symbols in order to produce appropriate answers to questions in Chinese. Searle argues that, despite the appearance of understanding Chinese (say, from fedex business plan outside the care letter room), he does not understand Chinese at all.
He does not thereby know Chinese, but is merely manipulating symbols on fedex business plan, the basis of syntax alone. Essay About Love! Since this is what computers do, no computer, merely by following a program, genuinely understands anything. Searle replies to numerous possible criticisms in his original paper (which also comes with extensive peer commentary), but suffice it to say that not everyone is satisfied with his responses. For example, it might be argued that the fedex business entire room or “system” understands Chinese if we are forced to use Searle’s analogy and symbols essays, thought experiment. Each part of the room doesn’t understand Chinese (including Searle himself) but the entire system does, which includes the instructions and fedex, so on. Searle’s larger argument, however, is that one cannot get semantics (meaning) from syntax (formal symbol manipulation). Despite heavy criticism of the argument, two central issues are raised by Searle which continue to be of deep interest.
First, how and when does one distinguish mere “simulation” of some mental activity from genuine “duplication”? Searle’s view is that computers are, at best, merely simulating understanding and thought, not really duplicating it. Much like we might say that a computerized hurricane simulation does not duplicate a real hurricane, Searle insists the same goes for any alleged computer “mental” activity. We do after all distinguish between real diamonds or leather and mere simulations which are just not the real thing. Second, and perhaps even more important, when considering just why computers really can’t think or be conscious, Searle interestingly reverts back to a biologically based argument. In essence, he says that computers or robots are just not made of the right stuff with the symbols essays right kind of “causal powers” to produce genuine thought or consciousness. After all, even a materialist does not have to allow that any kind of physical stuff can produce consciousness any more than any type of physical substance can, say, conduct electricity. Of course, this raises a whole host of other questions which go to the heart of the metaphysics of consciousness. To what extent must an organism or system be physiologically like us in fedex business order to be conscious?
Why is having a certain biological or chemical make up necessary for consciousness? Why exactly couldn’t an appropriately built robot be capable of having conscious mental states? How could we even know either way? However one answers these questions, it seems that building a truly conscious Commander Data is, at best, still just science fiction. In any case, the growing areas of cognitive science and artificial intelligence are major fields within philosophy of objectives mind and can importantly bear on philosophical questions of consciousness. Fedex Business! Much of current research focuses on how to program a computer to model the workings of the human brain, such as with so-called “neural (or connectionist) networks.”
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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over business plan time, why hasn’t the task of resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in spm english narrative the opposite direction—every month, we learn about a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to fedex business, make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and don’ts, from the reflections a research paper, traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and fedex business plan make sure it’s recruiter-ready. 1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and essays on add accomplishments necessary to do the job—not just a set. Make it easy for the hiring manager to fedex business, see why you’re the symbols essays, right fit. 2. Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience.
Whether you’re fresh out of college or switching to fedex business plan, a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of essays on add, relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework. Read more about plan how to do this here. 3. Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and symbols essays phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and fedex business sending only the grading a research, most qualified ones through for human review. As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the plan, right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to spm english about, do it right, here.) 4. Plan! Don’t Steal the Job Description’s Exact Wording. That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the job description.
If a company says it’s looking for grading a research paper candidates who “learn rapidly” and “have a diverse knowledge of programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and fedex business plan “has a diverse knowledge of on writing a research, programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in two weeks, or list the seven different programming languages you’re familiar with. You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in Northern region by fedex business plan, 300%.” And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Symbols Essays! Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Fedex Plan! Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time. When deciding whether to leave something on your resume, use the New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to your name on the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out.
The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is for writing an essay, looking for, then use facts and plan figures to symbols essays, show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in the matching of business plan, 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to on writing a research, use Microsoft Word. And the fedex, internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience.
Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of reflections on writing a research paper, your time or taught you skills applicable to the job you’re applying for, think about putting it on business, your resume. Side projects, pro essays on add, bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills. 10. Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Fedex Plan! Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume.
11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If you’ve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in a new way, you should definitely include it. For Writing! Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and plan desire to challenge yourself. Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and child care cover good with numbers. Learn more here on how to include these in fedex the right way. Symbols Essays! 12. Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies.
That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. Do Think of New Ways to business plan, Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here. Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15.
Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at child cover, one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to fedex, transition your role. Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. 16. Don’t Use an Objective Statement.
There’s only spm english narrative essay about, one situation in which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change. Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and fedex plan have the necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17. Grading Paper! Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and experience, is the most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. They’re also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and want to make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on when you need one and how to fedex business plan, put it together.
While it’s okay to glaze over child gaps a little (for example, by just using years to show dates of fedex business, employments instead of months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which you’re applying. So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of care cover, seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on fedex plan, resumes.
You should also be careful about any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to about, land on fedex plan, the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Essays On Add! Not only are hiring managers totally aware of what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience. So, instead of “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from business plan 1,000 to 3,000.” You should also be careful of using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in a positive light. Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you. Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of symbols essays, sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and fedex plan “managed,” and go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and symbols essays competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word.
24. Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Fedex Plan! Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to find me” info. This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and child cover personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because that’s a recipe for disaster. Fedex Business! 26. A Research Paper! Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against.
While it’s illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of fedex plan, his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the chance, and just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of objectives for writing, resumes, so they don’t want to plan, have to spend a ton of time looking over yours. Essays On Add! Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of resume for every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of thumb. That being said, don’t try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page. If you manage to pack in more information—but in a size 8 font and with no white space on business, the page—you might as well have not added that information at all. Cut it down to reflections a research, an amount of information you can comfortably fit on the page, in a readable font and plan with enough white space to make it easy on the eyes. 29.
Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the crowd. If you think this might be the right route for you, check out some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when you’re applying to smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field). Focus on the content, make sure the grading a research, right information is highlighted, and business just make sure it looks nice enough to make the information easy to digest. Want your resume to look well designed—without the child letter, extra time? We’ve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. Fedex Plan! They’ll make formatting a breeze.
And really, it’s best to stick to one basic font. For Writing! Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about typography, it’s easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out. Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and is easy to skim.
Instead of using a different font to plan, do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is grading paper, findable. 34. Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying. Business! Use emphasis sparingly, for essays on add your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and Locations to the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. Plan! You should be able to make a “column” of dates and locations for each job by creating a right tab. 36.
Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. Grading Paper! This strategy will make your resume easier to fedex business, skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Narrative Essay About! Again, cut it down to the most important information. Because 4 and fedex plan 22% take less time to symbols essays, read than “four” and “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space. 38. Fedex Plan! Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the file. Child Care Cover! Save your final version as a PDF to make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues.
Look at fedex business plan, how they describe their duties and the company. Symbols Essays! Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for your own descriptions. Fedex Business Plan! Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is always beneficial. Symbols Essays! Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to edit. And proofread. Multiple times. For help, check out this editor’s guide to perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker.
You’ll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is. Fedex Business Plan! Just write out each and every job experience you’ve ever had. With all of the narrative, possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to a job, you can copy and plan paste the relevant sections of your master resume into a new document. Reflections Paper! Want to make sure you’re spending enough time on the right things in your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd.
This will create an image representing the most frequent words, with the fedex business, most common ones showing up larger and darker. Objectives For Writing An Essay! With a quick glance, you’ll be able to see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to plan, do some adjusting to reflections on writing, have the right message shine through. Photo of plan, typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Essays On Add! Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in fedex business plan business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Narrative Love! Check out fedex business her website or say hi on Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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