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Applying For Jobs Out Of State? This Resume Tip Can Help. Your resume is extremely important in finding a job and is the biggest factor in whether you get the interview or not. Living in one state (or country) and applying for jobs out of state makes it even more vital. And one of the biggest hurdles is how to japanese essay, list your location on your resume when applying for thesis slide jobs in a different state. A question on basic essay this topic was emailed to me by a reader last week: Hi Biron. I’m living in San Francisco and trying to move to thesis, Denver. Basic? The problem I’m running into is that I’m not receiving any interviews and I’m guessing it’s because there are local applicants that are equally qualified. I believe I can interview better than them and prove myself but I need to get into the interviews.

My address and essay museum phone number on my resume are a dead giveaway that I’m living in the Bay Area. Do you recommend that I lie on my resume to get a job interview? How To List Your Address When Applying For Jobs Out Of State: At first glance there are 2 options: Tell the truth or lie about your address. Let#8217;s look at basic japanese essay, the pros and cons of both options so you know what you#8217;re up against. Then keep reading because there#8217;s a third option that works pretty well too and you won#8217;t want to thesis, miss it. When applying for jobs out of state, one strategy is to use a friend or family member#8217;s address in that city, or just list the city without a street address on your resume. Or make up an address. Lying on your resume will probably get you the initial phone interview, but there are a few problems with all of these tactics. You probably don’t have a local phone number to put on basic japanese essay your resume.

You can’t hide everything. You’re beginning the interview process with a huge lie. Even if it doesn#8217;t get uncovered, you’ll be more nervous during the process and it won’t feel as comfortable. If everything goes well on a phone interview, they’ll invite you on thesis a face to face interview and basic japanese you’ll have to cover all of the travel expenses since the company thinks you’re living locally. Some companies do multiple rounds of face to face interviews! And finally, when you#8217;re offered a job, they#8217;re probably going to mail the offer letter to the address you provided. Also if a company offers relocation assistance, you might lose out on that because they think you#8217;re a local candidate. Option #2: Tell The Truth And Put Your Out-Of-State Address. This option is essay on self books, simple, and chances are you#8217;ve already tried it. Accept that some employers won#8217;t want to interview you, but continue to list your full out-of-state address on your resume. There#8217;s one big drawback, which you probably already know#8230; Some companies only consider local candidates.

This will limit the number of opportunities you’re able to japanese essay, interview for. Not every company will be open to interviewing you, even on the phone. Still, I would try this option for poverty reduction a couple of weeks to start my job search. It#8217;s a good place to start because it#8217;s the safest, assuming you can get some companies willing to talk to you. The only risk is spending time applying for japanese jobs and finding out you#8217;re not getting enough responses or interviews. If that happens, you#8217;ll need to consider other options. That#8217;s where option #3 comes in#8230; Option #3: Tell A White Lie (I Recommend This) This option is essay synonym, great if you don#8217;t want to tell a flat out lie, but you#8217;re not getting enough interviews telling the truth on your resume. Here#8217;s what to do#8230; Put your name and phone number on your resume, but don’t list an address.

Where you’d normally put an address, instead say something like “Relocating to Denver in March 2017”. (replace #8216;Denver#8217; with whichever city the job is in). Using this approach to apply for jobs in a different city or state should get you a higher number of interviews without having to lie about japanese essay where you currently live. Policy Anaysis? This is still a bit of a lie, since you’re probably not going to relocate without a job offer, but it’s also quite true- your goal is to find a job in the new city, and your plan is to relocate to that city if you can find a suitable position. This will get you the greatest number of phone interviews and will keep your resume out japanese of the garbage pile. If you have an interview and they ask about this (they probably will), you can tell them you plan on thesis relocating either way but you are trying to secure a job beforehand. That will put their mind at ease and quickly convince them you#8217;re serious about finding a job in their city. There#8217;s one potential drawback with this option#8230;

Just like Option #1, there#8217;s a chance that you could lose out on basic relocation assistance if you say you#8217;re moving to essay synonym, their city no matter what. It#8217;s not very likely but it#8217;s possible. With most companies, they#8217;ll still offer to help if it#8217;s a part of their benefits package though. Very few companies will try to weasel out of paying relocation assistance. The ones that do, you probably don#8217;t want to work for.

So this method has a lot of potential and japanese very little risk. I recommend giving it a try. Now that you know what to do#8230; you#8217;re probably wondering how soon to policy anaysis, start applying for jobs. If so, check out basic this article on timing your job search. I wrote it after a reader who is relocating from New York to high school essays on the crucible, Texas emailed me asking this exact question.

Also, make sure to leave a comment below if you have a question or if you#8217;ve tried any of these options. If you#8217;re job searching in basic japanese a new city, I think you#8217;d love the step-by-step interview guide I just created. Each interview counts for a lot when you#8217;re relocating; I#8217;ve done it first-hand and know it#8217;s definitely harder than the typical local job search. But it#8217;s still doable! If you want to essay synonym, go into your next interview feeling 100% confident and well-prepared, you#8217;re the type of essay, person I had in mind when I created this guide. You can read about essay synonym it here.

Like this post? Pin it to basic japanese, save for next time you need it! Hey, I;m planning to move to on self help books, another state mid June of 2017.How soon should I start looking for another job? Check out this article and japanese essay let me know if it helps. I wrote it after a reader asked me the same question#8230; they were moving to a new state and wanted to know how soon to high school essays, start applying for jobs: Im Robert, from basic japanese essay, Europe. Slide? I just got my bachelor degree in MIS from Texas Tech. Because i have a 36 month employment authorization in US, I want to japanese, live and work during that time in Boston, MA (because, I want to poverty reduction, get master in one of the essay schools in boston, and also because of the life style of Boston is like Europe). My major is MIS, which means i can work either as a programmer, project manager, or system analyst.

But, my concern is: First, Competitiveness. Presentation? Because Boston has Harvard, MIT and UM, do you think it will be harder for japanese me to find an IT job in ap english synthesis essay museum Boston? Because companies are willing to hire more from prestige. Second, Cost of living: Since i got used to the cost of living of Texas, will it be harder to live in Boston, or somewhere close to japanese essay, Boston? Third, Relocation on resume: Instead of Lubbock, TX address, is essay museum, it better to write: a) #8220;Next month, Im moving to boston for grad school purpose,#8221; But the problem is, because grad school lasts only 1-2 years, what is basic essay, next? b) are companies willing to hire someone who is planning to policy anaysis, attend to essay, a school while he/she is essay synonym, working at their company? And, would it be less effective to insert “Im relocating to Boston for school reason”?

Hi, Biron! I#8217;ve read the japanese entire comment thread, and it has been very helpful. However, I#8217;m interested in your advice for my specific situation. I#8217;m 32, and my husband (of 1 year) currently commutes 60 miles toward Tampa from Orlando, and I commute about 40 minutes in the opposite direction. We have been in this arrangement for 1 year, and have decided that we want to work within 30 miles of each other (relocate to Tampa Bay area from Orlando; about school crucible a hour and 25 minutes away). I have now worked in my current field for 3.5 years and am ready for a change in basic japanese essay employer but wish to continuing to work in the same field. There is one large employer in this sector in the Tampa Bay area, with job postings from a myriad of offices within the synthesis institution. Japanese Essay? I have said #8220;relocating to Tampa Bay Area#8221; at thesis poverty reduction, the top of my resume, but think i should add #8220;from Orlando#8221; to japanese essay, that phrase so they know we are local. My question is really your thoughts on whether or not I should tell them that I am relocating due to my husband#8217;s position.

I don#8217;t want them to think I just follow my husband everywhere, or that he may not like his job (he has been there 1 year already). If we move to reduction, Tampa Bay when our lease is up in basic japanese April 2016 and while I continue my job search, then my commute to my current job will be 1.5 hours each way, 5 days a week, which is risky (unsustainable) if I am not offered a new job within a month or two. Presentation Thesis Slide? Sorry to be so long-winded, but it feels like a unique situation. Japanese? To live in Tampa Bay would mean I would be in the same location as my intended employer, and my husband would only have to commute 30 minutes. It#8217;s definitely what we want, and thesis slide where we want to #8220;settle down.#8221; Moving prior to basic, leaving my current job would be challenging, but it would update my address in the online application system to a local address#8230;. I look forward to hearing your thoughts, and thanks for your time! Happy New Year! Thanks, happy new year! I#8217;d make it clear that you#8217;re dead-set on moving to Tampa, AND that you#8217;re currently in FL too (because that makes the move easier).

That might be as easy as just making sure your latest job on your resume says #8220;Orlando#8221;. Thesis Reduction? If not, you could put something up top mentioning that you are #8220;relocating from basic japanese, Orlando to Tampa#8221;. But for your main question: No, don#8217;t tell them directly that you#8217;re relocating for essay books your husband#8217;s position. Tell them that you and basic essay your husband decided you want to on self, live and work in basic japanese the Tampa area for a number of reasons and you#8217;re both committed to making the move happen now. Thesis Poverty? Although you might want to mention that your husband has already secured a job. So that they won#8217;t worry that you#8217;re both job hunting. Basic Japanese? Let me know if this helps! I see that even years latter you are still responding to comments on this article, (which is presentation slide, great I#8217;ve read quite a few of them).

I#8217;m curious if you have any feedback for me on basic japanese my potential strategy for relocating. I#8217;m already planning a vacation to my target city and I was thinking that I would include the dates that I would be in town on my resume, while also using some of the other strategies mentioned here to indicate that I intend to relocate. My though process is that by letting them know I intend to relocate and essay synonym when they can do an in person interview it would increase my chances of the companies viewing me as a local candidate. Also if I do this what do you think would be good for timing? I was planning on basic japanese essay sending resumes a month ahead of time, is synthesis museum, that too early, too late or about right?

You can try it. Test it out. Japanese? I might put it in the cover letter instead. Putting the exact week you#8217;ll be visiting on a resume might come off a bit #8220;strong#8221;. But test it out, try it. It depends on your industry, there#8217;s no #8220;right#8221; answer unfortunately. But definitely take advantage of that vacation week.

When you talk to employers on the phone, mention the books time you plan on being in town, and that you#8217;d love to meet with them for basic essay a coffee or an interview. Essay Synonym? That#8217;s a great thing to do! For timing I#8217;d apply a bit earlier. But it depends on your industry and your level. Check out this article. I#8217;d say you should start applying 2 months ahead of time: https://careersidekick.com/timing-your-job-search-when-should-you-begin/

What if you are seeking a fresh start in a new city? Is that phrase something that will #8220;turn off#8221; possible employers? I#8217;ve been out japanese essay of the workforce, but am seeking to relocate to a new city so I#8217;ve applied for on the crucible many out of state jobs. My experience is also out of state. I was thinking of including that statement in my objective of my resume. Yes? Or big NO? example for objective statement: Web Developer seeking to relocate from San Francisco. Hi Amy, I think it#8217;s worth testing/trying. Doesn#8217;t seem like it#8217;d be a turn-off but that#8217;s just my best guess.

But honestly I tell most people not to even put an objective in their resume. I say put a career Summary instead. 99% of the japanese time your objective is to land a job of a certain type in a certain industry. And this is pretty obvious to the employers you apply to. Hopefully this answer doesn#8217;t make things MORE confusing. That#8217;s not my intention obviously. But that#8217;s my honest take on poverty reduction it. I guess the japanese essay short answer is that you could try doing what you described. However if it were me, I#8217;d put the bit about relocation up top in my contact info like the article says, and then just jump into a Summary, and presentation thesis then recent experience right after that. Basic Japanese Essay? I really want to just take my cat and got to Berkeley, CA.

There is policy anaysis, a graduate program I really want to basic japanese essay, attend. I get the whole applying and trying for a phone interview, but do you have any pointers for the unemployed and how they can go about finding suitable places to live until they can afford an apt. If you know someone i can speak with that would be great. Hi Sage, since you will be in school are you able to get student loans to high essays on the crucible, pay for your living expenses until you get a job? I went to school out of the country and had no job . I used my student loan to essay, pay my rent until I got a job on campus at ap english museum, my school. This is a long answer as I am over 35 but not yet 50. Basic Japanese Essay? My question is I lived in the Washington DC area for 7 years in poverty total. I lived there for 2 years after completing a second bachelors degree (International Relations) in another country. Japanese? My goal was to work there pay off debt for a couple of years get experience and apply for policy anaysis graduate school in the UK. Basic? When I got back to Washington DC I was not able to policy anaysis, secure a permanent job that paid enough to support myself long term AND#8230; pay enough to pay off my debt (credit card bills) after being an international student (not being able to basic japanese, work full-time while in ap english museum school) It got so bad for me financially in DC due to high rents and essay high public transit costs after 2 years and some months that I decided to move to a mid-sized city in the mid-west. Before I could move to this new city I lived with my family in Illinois and on self books worked for 2 months to have the money to move.

I did not get accepted in graduate school in the UK last summer so#8230; After living in this mid-sized city for 2 1/2 years I am more than ready to move back to Washington DC to basic, pursue my career in essay synonym international relations. I have gotten advice from friends and family not to essay, limit my search to only Washington DC for relocation. I am open to thesis poverty reduction, living other in other progressive cosmopolitan places but only have a history in the DC area. My area of basic essay, interest is immigration so I can work on high essays on the crucible either coast. I have applied for 2 jobs in Seattle and used my Brothers address. I used my old address from the basic DC area to apply for the DC area jobs. Do I make up addresses for say 4 cities that I would like to target for jobs? I don#8217;t think relocation assistance will be offered as an option for me as I am applying for an administrative assistant position in high school on the my new field as I start over.

Sorry Biron This subject is my passion now. When I moved to my mid sized mid-western city from the DC area I used a fake address from an apartment complex that I looked up on the internet in that city. Luckily I lived in Illinois with my parents so when I got a call from my temp agency who got me the job to come in an interview /fill out paper work/start working. I was able to catch the mega bus overnight and be in my targeted city early the next morning (8 hour ride). After I got to my new city I lived in japanese Air B n B for a week then moved to a hotel and essay ended up staying there for the next 2 months. It was expensive about $1,300 a month (#8220;rent#8221;) $350 a week. But I felt safe, not knowing the neighborhoods at basic essay, all my commute to work was ok and I was across the poverty street from a Walmart so I had access to basic essay, food daily as I did not have a car.

I did find a apartment for $550 a small studio and it served the help books purpose for basic essay me to pay off my debt to prepare for grad school/future career. Hi, I'm Biron. I've spent most of school essays, my career as a Recruiter. working with Fortune 100 companies down to 10-person tech startups and helping hundreds of job seekers along the way. This website is dedicated to teaching you what I learned! Thanks for being here and please let me know how I can help you. Search the site: Copyright 2016 CareerSidekick | Privacy Policy.

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Windows 7 (and Vista) - tunnel fails after resume from Sleep/Standby. I have run into basic, an issue when using OpenVPN (last tested with 2.1.4 2.2b5) on policy anaysis Windows 7. I install OpenVPN without errors and configure the service to run automatically. Basic Japanese Essay. The tunnel starts and works normally when started manually or when the computer is started. The issue occurs if I put the essay synonym, laptop into sleep/standby mode. When I wake the computer, the basic, tunnel is down. Essay. No traffic is japanese, passed, there is nothing in the openvpn log file. Essay Synonym. Once I restart the service, the tunnel works normally again. On Windows XP (as expected), the basic japanese essay, tunnel is reestablished when the computer wakes. I have attached a few files:

win7-openvpn.log includes the thesis slide, results of the basic japanese essay, following operation. I am running Windows 7 Ultimate with the latest updates. I manually started the essay synonym, OpenVPN service at 11:44:00. I tested the basic, tunnel and it was passing traffic normally. I put the machine in sleep mode at approx 11:44:20 I woke the machine right at 11:45. The tunnel was not able to pass any traffic. Essay Synonym. I let it run for approx 10 minutes (log only basic japanese goes for 3 min, but contents of log were the same from synthesis essay minute 3-10) In addition, I have included the results of japanese route print before and after sleep. (routes before sleep.txt routes after wake.txt)

Please let me know what I can do to help test/fix this bug! I was directed to another bug, but that appears to be slightly different: ? https://community.openvpn.net/openvpn/ticket/56. Download all attachments as: .zip. comment:1 Changed 7 years ago by roentgen. A comment to get notifications about this bug. comment:2 Changed 7 years ago by essay synonym, sys. Confirmed here on Win7 Professional x64. comment:3 Changed 7 years ago by adapted.cat. I had the basic, same issue on Win 7 Home Premium x64.

Here's my workaround: Create two new tasks in task scheduler, which run from a user account with elevated privileges, whether logged in essay or not, without storing the essay, password. Each of these tasks triggers on school essays crucible event System:Power-Troubleshooter:1 (this is basic, wake up from sleep). The first task has no delay and no conditions, and runs C:WindowsSystem32sc.exe with arguments stop OpenVPNService (note the lack of spaces in the service name). The second task is delayed for 10 seconds or so with no conditions (though I recommend killing it if it lasts more than a minute and retrying if it fails), and runs C:WindowsSystem32sc.exe with arguments start OpenVPNService You could of course have a single event to run a batch script, but that introduces some security concerns so running sc directly is probably the way to go.

You need the two steps because neither sc nor net have a restart command - just start and stop. Anyway, this is far from ideal, and would be better solved by thesis slide, OpenVPN itself, but it does fix the basic, immediate problem. If you have trouble getting this to work, you may need to play around at poverty reduction the command line (in a shell with administrator privileges) to get the command arguments right. comment:4 Changed 6 years ago by utkuerd. I'm having this issue for a couple of years with Vista and 7, still exists in latest 2.2.0 version on essay Windows 7 Home Premium x64.

By the way this problem does not exist if you use OpenVPN GUI instead of service. In that case sleep or hibernate does not disturb the stability of VPN. However you need to start OpenVPN GUI at start up with elevated previleges and this might be a little tricky. comment:5 Changed 6 years ago by Tenerezza. I can confirm that this does either not work in Windows 7. As for essay synonym me it's even worser then that, after put the laptop back from sleep mode ( or hybernate mode ) same effect for both, One Core of my laptop is being used up by the OpenVPN service. I have 4 but it still eat off the battery really fast. I'm not exactly sure what the service is japanese, doing at that point but it's clear it's not coded to handle sleep or hybernate.

For an laptop user with this I see this as an high school crucible, really important bug to fix. comment:6 Changed 6 years ago by Daniel S. Any update on this bug? I'm having the exact same problem as described above. comment:7 Changed 6 years ago by fkurth. Is there any progress with this bug? Having this here on basic multiple Win 7 machines. What can i do to support fixing? comment:8 Changed 5 years ago by ert. I think I found the error, could someone try my proposed fix please? comment:9 Changed 5 years ago by utkuerd.

2.3alpha3 build claims fixing bug #97. However, still routes are gone after sleep/hibernate. It means two bugs are unrelated or they are related but the bug #97 is high school essays on the crucible, still there. comment:10 Changed 5 years ago by billb3. Just want to basic essay confirm that 2.3alpha3 appears to fix this issue for me on Win7 x64. comment:11 Changed 5 years ago by samuli.

Can others confirm that this issue is essay help, gone in 2.3_alpha3 and later? comment:12 Changed 5 years ago by basic japanese, samuli. comment:13 Changed 4 years ago by samuli. Version changed from 2.1.2 / 2.1.3 to 2.3-beta / 2.3-RC. Let me rephrase my previous comment. can someone reproduce this on the latest openvpn release? comment:14 Changed 4 years ago by on the, hamzen. Sadly the error is still there, in 2.3.0, and even in 2.3.2. It happens only at Win7_64bit and basic, Win8_64bit systems. Tried EVERYTHING in poverty the last 2 years, nothing helps.

comment:15 Changed 4 years ago by billb3. OP, here! This bug has been fixed for a while for me, at least since 2.3. I am using Win7 64-bit for japanese all of my systems without issues. comment:16 Changed 4 years ago by essay, KarlBauman. Windows 8.1 64bit with the same problem. Japanese Essay. Client Daemon hangs up and uses 32% of essay on self my I5 CPU. Happens either after sleep or reconnecting to Wireless networks. Also discovered that with second one outgoing traffic is growing like crazy - 500Mb/minute, but task manager doesn't display any outgoing traffic, so probably there is some infinite outgoing traffic loop.

This happened in few minutes after connecting to japanese VPN server ? https://www.dropbox.com/s/3pha9tkkq6aht6q/Screenshot%202014-03-26%2001.41.35.png. When Disconnected, CPU goes back to 0%. Since both clients act the synthesis essay museum, same, I think that it could be because of Tap network interface driver not being compatible with 64Bits. Developers are welcome to use my PC remotely for testing, just let me know. comment:17 Changed 3 years ago by maenvam. I'm having the basic japanese essay, same issues even since I upgraded to 2.3.3-I002 because of the ssl issue. I'm on win7 x64.

The symptoms are the thesis, same: after waking up from sleep, the openvpn log says that everything is ok, but my ip is still my original ip, not the server's I'm connecting to. Essay. So I have to manually restart the service (actually, restart causes an policy anaysis, error 32, permission error. I have to stop the service, wait a few seconds and japanese essay, start it). When comparing the route print result, there are differences between before and after sleep. comment:18 Changed 3 years ago by simon.deziel. I can confirm the bug still exists on thesis Windows 7 (32bit) with OpenVPN 2.3.4-I604-i686. Japanese. The VPN routed ranges are gone after resuming from sleep.

The VPN connection remains active somehow though. This also seems to trigger a nasty behaviour on the client side where it presumably goes into an error loop that never ends. When --verb != 0, this will fill the HDD at an alarming rate. I had to thesis set --verb to 0 because the log file would take up all the free space (80GB+). comment:19 Changed 3 years ago by atze. OpenVPN 2.3.5 on Win7 32bit shows the following log directly after waking up the system: Here #110 jumps in, if the service would just be restarted (or correctly die), as it is expected from a windows service, the problem could be solved, but currently in my installation the openvpnserv.exe shim is the remaining problem because it does neither restart openvpn nor terminate itself. comment:20 Changed 3 years ago by samuli.

So if I understood this correctly this bug could be fixed by having openvpnserv.exe react to basic essay suspend events (like ? this?) by shutting itself down. Essays On The Crucible. When the japanese, computer wakes up, Windows service control will then restart it. comment:21 Changed 3 years ago by B_Reiter. This is essays on the crucible, still happening with 2.3.6 (OpenVPN 2.3.6 x86_64-w64-mingw32 [SSL (OpenSSL)] [LZO] [PKCS11] [IPv6] built on Dec 1 2014) on Windows 7. At every single sleep/resume cycle, the basic, following is printed in the log and the connection stops. The OpenVPN-service keeps running, unfortunately. Is there any configuration setting that fixes this?

Currently in ap english synthesis use is basic japanese essay, this: comment:22 Changed 3 years ago by policy anaysis, B_Reiter. I have done some testing. For my setup, version 2.3.6 is the japanese, first one to cause problems. The issue also does not seem to be the policy anaysis, TAP-driver. I've tested the following OpenVPN/Tap-Driver combinations: OVPN 2.3.6 + TAP 9.21.1: Crash.

OVPN 2.3.6 + TAP 9.21.0: Crash. OVPN 2.3.4 + TAP 9.21.0: No Crash, Reconnect OK. OVPN 2.3.4 + TAP 9.21.1: No Crash, Reconnect OK. Based on basic the time stamps it also seems that the log entry. is written during suspend, not after or during resume. Can we expect an updated OpenVPN Installer soon, or should we downgrade to policy anaysis 2.3.4 until the issue is solved? comment:23 Changed 3 years ago by jeffreyt. Has anyone else tried this? I've been struggling with this problem for a while as well and this app seems to do the trick. It purports to essay take over the service part and essay synonym, run openvpn.exe under it. Basic. Getting it running was a little tricky.

I had to modify my .ovpn config file and poverty, create another OpenVPN directory in the x86 program files. I can go into more detail if people want. Sorry if this is not the right place to post this but after reading other people's comments, I wasn't sure if other people were aware of it or not. The source code is posted so maybe some smart people can figure something out. comment:24 Changed 3 years ago by samuli.

The openvpnwinsvc looks interesting. One other alternative is ? NSSM that is mentioned in the new FAQ item on this issue. I'll look into the alternatives to openvpnserv.exe and basic, see if one of them could be integrated into the official builds. comment:25 Changed 3 years ago by Dwig. I'm using OpenVPN as a client, running under OpenVPN GUI, rather than as a service; this is because the server requires credentials to policy anaysis create the connection (I'm running under Win 7, using the basic japanese, 64-bit version). Essay Synonym. As with others here, I often, but not always, find that I can't reconnect after a Hibernate (the GUI can't make a new connection). In this case, I find that there's an openvpn.exe process; killing it allows me to make the basic japanese essay, connection as usual.

I played with NSSM, but found out that doesn't work when credentials are required. Here's a possible workaround, for those willing and help, able to modify the GUI: when a timeout happens and there's an instance of openvpn.exe running, kill it and restart. comment:26 follow-up: v 27 Changed 2 years ago by samuli. We decided to basic japanese take a shot at integrating ? NSSM into OpenVPN 2.4. Essay Synonym. It will not help solve this problem for people using a GUI, but it should make OpenVPN running as a Windows Service much more robust. NSSM will be optional obviously. comment:27 in basic reply to: ^ 26 ; follow-up: v 28 Changed 2 years ago by ssamppa. We decided to take a shot at integrating ? NSSM into OpenVPN 2.4. It will not help solve this problem for people using a GUI, but it should make OpenVPN running as a Windows Service much more robust. Museum. NSSM will be optional obviously. Any news on this?

I would be happy to help testing if you have already a test build. comment:28 in reply to: ^ 27 Changed 2 years ago by samuli. We decided to take a shot at integrating ? NSSM into OpenVPN 2.4. It will not help solve this problem for people using a GUI, but it should make OpenVPN running as a Windows Service much more robust. NSSM will be optional obviously. Any news on this?

I would be happy to japanese essay help testing if you have already a test build. There are no test builds yet, but I did test manually integrating NSSM and OpenVPN and it seemed to work great. You can definitely help by high essays on the, testing nssm + openvpn according to japanese the Wiki instructions I wrote earlier. If you encounter any issues with NSSM please let me know. There is help books, also one other thing I'd need help with. Basic Japanese. The nssm.exe's configuration frontend is too complex for our use case, so we'd need a simplified GUI. It looks like a simple local HTML application (.hta) would do the trick without excessive amount of work. I'd like to avoid having to write VBScript, but to poverty be honest, that seems much easier in this case than JScript ( Javascript). Basic Japanese Essay. Anyways, I already have some very crude HTML+JScript code that does something, but which is not nearly finished. If somebody else wants to participate in this project I will gladly publish the horrible mess of a code I now have on GitHub. comment:29 Changed 2 years ago by policy anaysis, Rozi.

I had the basic japanese, same problem when upgrading from 2.3.0 to 2.3.8. Thank you for pointing me to essay synonym NSSM. Not only basic japanese essay did it solve the openvpn.exe death on sleep problem; it handles each OpenVPN connection as a separate service. I like that feature a lot: You can control each connection individually (like in OpenVPN for Linux), You can set additional service dependecies on per-connection basis (i.e. stunnel). comment:30 Changed 2 years ago by thesis slide, arrmo. Seeing the same thing here in 2.3.8, but one more symptom - when I resume, often if I restart OpenVPN and connect to the server, I am unable to basic essay get a (client) IP address. To get it working again, I have to slide kill OpenVPN, then disable the japanese, TAP adapter, re-enable it, and finally restart OpenVPN. Then it will work. So it's like the thesis poverty, TAP adapter has to be reset for some reason. Is anyone else seeing this?

comment:31 Changed 22 months ago by cron2. Owner set to samuli Status changed from new to basic japanese essay assigned. 2.3.9 has a bug fix for the openvpn abort - not perfect (as we're still not on NSSM) but this should fix the thesis, generic case. Author: Selva Nair selva.nair@… Date: Wed Nov 4 13:59:38 2015 -0500. Fix termination when windows suspends/sleeps. When TUN/TAP I/O operation is aborted, restart with a SIGHUP instead of. terminate. The abort error from TAP is often triggered by system suspend. which is japanese essay, fully recoverable on resume.

Catastrophic events will get caught. later during the restart. This solves the synthesis museum, abnormal termination during. Signed-off-by: Selva Nair selva.nair@… Acked-by: Gert Doering gert@… Assigning the ticket to Samuli now - either NSSM or close :-) comment:32 Changed 22 months ago by bvpn. 2.3.9 64bit running in server mode still has an issue for japanese essay Windows wake from suspend/sleep. All TAP-Windows adapters on this system are currently in use. Exiting due to fatal error The issue does not happen consistently (sometimes in rare cases during testing openvpn 2.3.9 resumes correctly).

comment:33 Changed 21 months ago by cron2. @bvpn: can I have a log file how that abort looks like, with --verb 3 or --verb4, please? Is this with the ndis5 or ndis6 tap driver (I00x or I60x installers)? Run from GUI or run from Service? comment:34 follow-up: v 36 Changed 20 months ago by thesis reduction, Coren42. @cron2: I have a similar problem. With the current stable client Windows 64 bits client, v 2.3.10 I602, it fails to japanese essay reconnect after 1 or 2 minutes. If I manage to be quick enough to re-activate TAP Driver, my reconnection is a success.

Otherwise it's a failure. I have attached a log with verb 4 on this ticket. On Self Help. You can see on it a successful connection at 15:02:44 ( ? https://community.openvpn.net/openvpn/attachment/ticket/71/INFRA-VPN.log#L362) And when it tries to basic essay reconnect, I have a TUN/TAP I/O operation aborted, restarting which does not manage to restart properly. The client successfully desactivate the TAP Adapter, but is ap english essay museum, unable to re-activate it.

Can you do something about basic japanese essay this ? I can provide more information if needed. comment:35 follow-up: v 37 Changed 20 months ago by simon.deziel. I'm running the client as a service (OpenVPN 2.3.10 I602 32bit) and I also noticed that after suspend/resume, the connectivity isn't re-established. If logs are needed let me know, thanks. comment:36 in reply to: ^ 34 Changed 20 months ago by selvanair. With the synthesis essay, current stable client Windows 64 bits client, v 2.3.10 I602, it fails to basic essay reconnect after 1 or 2 minutes. Reduction. If I manage to be quick enough to basic japanese re-activate TAP Driver, my reconnection is a success. Otherwise it's a failure. I have attached a log with verb 4 on this ticket.

You can see on it a successful connection at 15:02:44 ( ? https://community.openvpn.net/openvpn/attachment/ticket/71/INFRA-VPN.log#L362) And when it tries to thesis poverty reconnect, I have a TUN/TAP I/O operation aborted, restarting which does not manage to restart properly. The client successfully desactivate the TAP Adapter, but is unable to japanese re-activate it. The change from exit to presentation thesis slide restart in openvpn on TAP errors was based on the observation that TAP driver (ndis6) suspends on basic japanese essay power events but does come back up on essay synonym resume. Your logs seems to show otherwise. Is this win7? Started from GUI or service? I haven't seen such errors, but win7 + tap6 does sometimes behave strangely so there could be a bug somewhere.. When this happens, can you reconnect if you try again after a while _without_ reactivating the TAP interface?

Also could you please check for basic essay any network related errors in the event log? If this is pre win8, an school crucible, option is to revert back to the ndis5 driver. comment:37 in reply to: ^ 35 ; follow-up: v 39 Changed 20 months ago by basic japanese essay, selvanair. I'm running the thesis reduction, client as a service (OpenVPN 2.3.10 I602 32bit) and I also noticed that after suspend/resume, the connectivity isn't re-established. If logs are needed let me know, thanks. Yes, logs please. comment:38 Changed 20 months ago by Coren42. @selvanair: You're right, this is a different problem. Eventually, I've managed to find the basic japanese essay, culprit: A specific custom-made service named e-buro. Policy Anaysis. I no longer encounter the problem when I stop it.

Changed 20 months ago by basic japanese, simon.deziel. no connectivity after resume. comment:39 in ap english reply to: ^ 37 Changed 20 months ago by simon.deziel. I'm running the client as a service (OpenVPN 2.3.10 I602 32bit) and I also noticed that after suspend/resume, the connectivity isn't re-established. If logs are needed let me know, thanks. Yes, logs please. Please see the resume-no-vpn-connectivity.log? attached. Thanks. Edit: the attached log is from japanese a 64 bit client but I can reproduce with 32 bit as well. comment:40 Changed 20 months ago by selvanair.

Thanks for ap english essay the log. The disconnect happens due to route deletion error. When TAP I/O fails at suspend/sleep, and the connection restarts, its normal for route deletion to fail as the interface is no more there. In case of ipv4, route addition/deletion errors are not fatal. But, netsh route deletion failure is treated as FATAL. Japanese. I had no idea this is the case. The fix we added in commit 0d4ba25187.. will not work in this case unless that error is made not-fatal. @cron2: Can ipv6 route deletion errors be made NON_FATAL? comment:41 Changed 20 months ago by cron2. @selvanair: right you are.

Never occured to me that route add/route del are not necessarily not a symmetric issue (what is added must be removable) because system events could be interfering here. *Normally*, an error on route DEL would not be overly harmful either (because we're exiting anyway) - but in this case where OpenVPN needs to do a full tun restart, it's a bad idea. So yes, let's change this - I'll do a patch. comment:42 Changed 19 months ago by selvanair. FWIW, looking at this again, its not route deletion but address deletion that finally throws the fatal error.

I wrongly thought it was the route error that caused the exit. comment:43 follow-up: v 45 Changed 17 months ago by leifnel. Just to keep your interest awake: The problem seem to exist on windows 10 pro 64bit too. comment:44 Changed 17 months ago by synthesis, samuli. Many of these suspend/resume problems will be solved by ? openvpnserv2. In my tests on japanese essay a Windows 7 pro laptop + openvpnserv2 OpenVPN reconnected consistently after resuming. Now that 2.4-alpha1 is only a few small bits away I will need to start integrating openvpnserv2 into the installer. The latest OpenVPN-GUI versions have suspend/resume-related changes, which might alleviate/fix this issue. Anyone experiencing these issues should try out the Git master snapshots which include the latest OpenVPN-GUI:

Use the latest openvpn-install-master snapshot you can find, because the older ones don't have updated OpenVPN-GUI. Right now the essay synonym, latest ones are these: Please let us know if the snapshot installers fix the issue for basic japanese essay you, or if they don't. comment:45 in reply to: ^ 43 Changed 17 months ago by selvanair. Just to keep your interest awake: The problem seem to slide exist on windows 10 pro 64bit too. A fix has been merged in today (May 16). It would great if you could test it.

64bit snapshot builds including this for release(2.3) and japanese essay, master are at: comment:46 Changed 15 months ago by samuli. ? This installer include fully integrated ? openvpnserv2.exe, which should handle suspend/resume gracefully. The new openvpnserv2-based service is called OpenVPN Service, whereas the presentation thesis, old (buggy) is called OpenVPN legacy service. Basic Japanese Essay. You should not have both enabled at ap english synthesis essay the same time, or things will break horribly.

You can enable the OpenVPN Service using the basic japanese essay, services manager, or with various command-line tools (sc.exe, net.exe, Set-Service Powershell CmdLet). The installer I linked to on self help books also contains properly integrated Interactive Service and basic, OpenVPN-GUI that supports it, so you don't need to run OpenVPN-GUI as admin anymore. Afaik both OpenVPN-GUI + Interactive Service and essay synonym, openvpnserv2.exe should handle suspend and resume correctly. Basic Japanese. Please test the above installer and let us know if it the high essays, problems you've been encountering are fixed. comment:47 Changed 15 months ago by atze. The linked installer resolves the basic japanese essay, issue in essay on self help my use case(*) completeley - great! (*) Win7 x64, tunnels configured as system service do not restart after hibernate/resume cycle. comment:48 Changed 15 months ago by samuli. Can someone reproduce suspend/resume issues with either openvpnserv2.exe, or with OpenVPN-GUI+Interactive Service? If not, we can close this ticket after all the required changes have been merged to basic japanese openvpn and openvpn-build.

comment:49 Changed 14 months ago by poverty reduction, samuli. Resolution set to basic fixed Status changed from essay synonym assigned to closed. All the required changes to openvpn and openvpn-build have been merged. Japanese. Apparently nobody has been able to reproduce this issue using openvpnserv2.exe or OpenVPN-GUI + Interactive Service , so I'll close this as fixed. comment:50 Changed 13 months ago by policy anaysis, hank.

Just tried this on Windows 10 x64 with the I907 installer suggested above. Works like a charm!

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Histoire des Alpes - Storia delle Alpi - Geschichte der Alpen (1998)/09. PRODUKTION, VERARBEITUNG UND VERTEILUNG. Basic Japanese Essay? [ 107 ] PRODUKTION, VERARBEITUNG UND VERTEILUNG UBERLEGUNGEN ZUR BEDEUTUNG METALLISCHER ROHSTOFFE BEI DER AUSBILDUNG POLITISCHER SYSTEME IM SUDBAYERISCHEN ALPENVORLAND WAHREND DER BRONZEZEIT. Ap English Museum? Production, transformation et distribution. Basic? Reflexions sur la signification des matieres premieres metalliques dans la formation des systemes politiques dans les prealpes bavaroises pendant l'Age du bronze. School Essays? Cette contribution s’interesse aux possibilites qu’offrent les trouvailles et les resultats des fouilles archeologiques en vue de tirer des enseignements sur les processus politiques en jeu dans la partie meridionale des Alpes bavaroises durant l’Age du bronze.

La situation bavaroise y est comparee a celle des pays de l’est de l’Europe centrale et du sud-est de l’Europe, qui sont plus faciles a caracteriser du fait de leur proximite des civilisations hautement developpees de la Mediterranee orientale. Il apparait une concordance etonnante aussi bien dans le developpement chronologique de l’occupation que dans le genre et le but des ouvrages de fortification. Basic Essay? Contrairement aux pays du Danube, le sud de la Baviere dispose d’un ensemble de sources supplementaire: les objets funeraires. On The? L’article essaie de montrer les liens existant entre les fortifications d’altitude des prealpes, les places fortifiees a la lisiere des Alpes, les lieux de stockage des metaux et les riches tombes avec leurs temoignages de l’extraction et de la transformation des metaux. Japanese? Cette demarche a ete rendue possible grace a un projet de recherche, qui doit permettre de mieux connaitre les dimensions economique et politique de la distribution du metal durant l’Age du bronze dans les prealpes orientales. Policy Anaysis? Der Forschungsstand in Suddeutschland [2] ist im Vergleich mit demjenigen des mittleren und unteren Donauraumes, unter dessen Einfluss die Kulturen der suddeutschen Bronzezeit uberwiegend stehen, [3] nicht befriedigend. Essay? Dort lassen sich immerhin die Grundzuge der historischen Entwicklung einigermassen exakt umreissen: Nach einer Phase der fruhbronzezeitlichen Belegung (2000-1600 v. Thesis Poverty? Chr.) ist ein zeitweiliges Aussetzen in basic japanese essay der Besiedlung von Hohenplatzen zu beobachten, die in Nordungarn und Siebenburgen erst mit der Stufe Bronze D, also im 13. vorchristlichen Jahrhundert wieder aufgenommen wird. In Westungarn und der Slowakei scheint der Hiatus kurzer zu sein und endet bereits in presentation der Mittelbronzezeit um 1500 v. Basic? Chr. Thesis Poverty? Fur die Auswahl des Platzes sind ausser strategischen Erwagungen auch naturliche Verkehrswege, etwa am Zusammentreffen von Flusstalern massgeblich.

In vielen Fallen sind zudem direkte Zusammenhange mit den Lagerstatten naturlicher Ressourcen auszumachen. Fur das sudbayerische Alpenvorland und die Schotterplatten, weite Ebenen, die nach dem Ruckzug der eiszeitlichen Gletscher entstanden, ist lediglich der Kenntnisstand uber offene dorfliche Siedlungen in japanese den letzten Jahren enorm gewachsen. Thesis Slide? [4] Einer relativen Dichte fruhbronzezeitlicher Graberfelder, denen erst seit neuestem zeitgleiche Siedlungen zugeordnet werden konnen, [5] folgt ein Absinken sowohl der Siedlungs- wie auch der Grab- und Hortfunde wahrend der mittleren Bronzezeit, fur das bisher keine plausible Erklarung zur Verfugung steht, das aber kaum eine tatsachliche Siedlungsleere widerspiegeln durfte. Japanese Essay? Mit der spaten Bronzezeit, also seit dem 13. Policy Anaysis? vorchristlichen Jahrhundert tritt dann der Siedlungstyp des Gehoftes mit mehreren Gebauden wohl unterschiedlicher Funktion auf, der sich ohne grossere Anderungen bis in essay die keltische Eisenzeit des 5./4. Policy Anaysis? Jahrhunderts v. Basic Essay? Chr. fortsetzt. Essays Crucible? Als bevorzugte Topographie ist wie in basic den Dona ulandern die Lage am Rand von Mooren oder Flussauen belegt und auch die Verkehrsgunst spielt eine entscheidende Rolle. High Essays? [6] Eine andere Situation begegnet bei spatbronzezeitlich belegten Hohen- [ 109 ] Siedlungen des Alpenvorlandes, die prinzipiell seit langem bekannt sind; da jedoch ihre herausragende topographische Lage bis in die jungste Zeit reprasentative Bauten anzog, fehlen gemeinhin befriedigende Aufschlusse zur Art der Befestigung und Besiedlung oder zu Zweck und Charakter. Essay? [7] Die Dauer der Belegung lasst sich zumeist nur grob umreissen. Immerhin lasst das ostliche Sudbayern mit Hohensiedlungen wie dem Freisinger Domberg [8] einheitliche Belegungsfolgen erkennen, die mit spater Fruhbronzezeit (17./16. Jahrhundert v. Essays On The? Chr.), spater Mittelbronzezeit und Spatbronzezeit (14.-10. Basic Japanese? Jahrhundert v. Chr.) Parallelen mit den Anlagen des Donauraumes zeigen. High Essays On The Crucible? Eine weitere Gruppe mittel- bis spatbronzezeitlich belegter, burgahnlicher Hohenorte, deren chronologische Entwicklung vergleichbar mit jener der grossen Hohensiedlungen des Voralpenlandes ist, kontrollierte die Ein- beziehungsweise Ausgange zu den Alpentalern mit ihren Erzlagerstatten und Passen. [9] Damit erscheint ein soziookonomischer Zusammenhang gegeben, in dem die drei Siedlungstypen des Voralpenlandes, namlich offene dorfliche Siedlungen, grosse, teilweise befestigte Hohensiedlungen im Flachland und kleinere Hohenplatze am Alpenrand unterschiedliche Funktionen besassen. Wie sahen diese Funktionen aus und in basic essay welcher Beziehung standen sie zum wichtigsten Wirtschaftsgut der Bronzezeit, dem Kupfererz der Ostalpen?

In den Landern des ostlichen Mitteleuropa und Sudosteuropa ermoglicht die grosse Anzahl von entsprechenden Funden eine statistisch nachprufbare lokale Affinitat von Metallhorten zu befestigten Hohensiedlungen. Sowenig uber die Rolle befestigter und unbefestigter Hohensiedlungen im Gefuge spatbronzezeitlicher Gesellschaften bekannt ist, so sehr legen doch Platzwahl und Art der Fortifikation den Schluss nahe, dass sie zum einen dazu dienten, geschatzte Werte vor rauberischem oder kriegerischem Zugriff zu schutzen; die stereotype Lage an essay synonym, verkehrstechnisch und strategisch wichtigen Punkten und die regelhaft wiederkehrende Sitte der Niederlegung von Bronzedepots auf oder in basic japanese der Nahe solcher Burgen belegt, dass eine zweite Aufgabe die Sicherung oder Kontrolle von Handel und Verkehr war. [10] Uber die Art der Macht, die von diesen Platzen ausging, ist allerdings ebensowenig Aufschluss zu erhalten wie uber die Rolle und Funktion der herrschenden Personen oder Gruppen. Fur die vergleichbare Entwicklung in ap english synthesis museum Suddeutschland kann die Hohensiedlung «Rachelburg» uber den nordlichsten Randhohen des Alpeninn- [ 110 ] Abb. Essay? 1: Die Lage der spatbronzezeitlichen Hohensiedlung Rachelburg im Gefuge der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder (13.-10/9. Essay On Self Help? Jahrhundert v. Essay? Chr.). Dreieck: Hohensiedlung Rachelburg; Offene Quadrate: Urnenfelder im Bereich der Rachelburg; Gefullte Quadrate: Urnenfelder des Tiroler Inntales. School Essays Crucible? [ 111 ] Abb. 2: Rohgusskuchen aus Fahlerzen des Tiroler Inntales.

Hortfund vom Fuss der Hohensiedlung «Rachelburg», Gemeinde Flintsbach, Landkreis Rosenheim, Oberbayern. Abgebildet sind ganze Gusskuchen (links oben), Halb- bis Drittelfraktionen (rechts oben), Viertelfraktionen (links unten) und Reste des Schmelzvorganges (rechts unten). tales als idealtypisch gelten, [11] ein Ensemble, dessen einzelne Bestandteile, namlich Burg oder Akropolis, geschutzte Hohensiedlung und Talsiedlung ohne Zweifel in einem Funktionszusammenhang standen (Abb. Basic? I). Thesis Poverty? [12] Einen Schlussel zur Deutung stellt ein Hortfund dar, der 1992 im Bereich der Talsiedlung bei der Erweiterung einer Sandgrube entdeckt und planmassig geborgen werden konnte. Basic Japanese? Es handelte sich dabei um Gusskuchen mit einem Gesamtgewicht von fast genau 50 kg, die in thesis slide ein Gefass geschichtet waren. Sie wiesen unterschiedliche Grossen und Gewichte auf, wobei der uberwiegende Teil aus Bruchstucken mit identifizierbaren Fraktionen bis zu einem Viertel bestand (Abb. 2). Die Datierung liegt zwischen Bz D und Ha A2 also im Zeitraum zwischen 1300 und 1000 v. Basic Japanese Essay? Chr. Nun sind Brucherzhorte in slide Suddeutschland zwar nicht gerade selten, [13] nur in japanese essay Ausnahmefallen erreichen sie allerdings das Gewicht des Flintsbacher Depots und nie sind sie mit den gewaltigen zeitgleichen Depotfunden des Donauraumes zu vergleichen, deren Brucherzmassen in thesis Einzelfallen die Tonnengrenze uberschreiten. Von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen tauchen [ 112 ] sie nie im Bereich der Lagerstatten im Salzburger, Kitzbuheler und Unter-inntaler Bereich auf, ein Phanomen, das seit der fruhen Bronzezeit registriert werden kann und auch am Alpensaum sind sie eher selten. Massiert treten sie dagegen im Voralpenland auf, wobei der chronologische Umgriff mit jenem der Hohensiedlungen des Alpenvorlandes und des Alpenrandes ebenso kongruiert wie mit den Nordtiroler und Munchner Urnenfeldern: Das Schwergewicht liegt zwischen dem 13. und dem 11. Japanese? Jahrhundert.

Die bronzezeitliche Spatphase zwischen dem 11. und dem 9. Essay Synonym? Jahrhundert ist so gut wie nicht vertreten. Es stellen sich somit verschiedene Fragen: a) Wenn das Erz offensichtlich in Rohform von den Lagerstatten weg verhandelt wurde, wo liegen die Verarbeitungsstatten? b) Existiert ein funktionales Netz zwischen Lagerstatten, Hohensiedlungen am Alpenrand und Hohensiedlungen des Voralpenlandes und wie ist es beschaffen? c) Was steckt hinter der Deponierung von Gusskuchen und Brucherz und warum werden sie nicht in den Herkunftsgebieten deponiert? d) Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Versiegen der Kupfervorrate in Tirol und Salzburg und dem Ende von Graberfeldern und Hohensiedlungen? Als Trager der spatbronzezeitlichen Kultur Sudbayerns sah man lange Zeit die Bewohner einer Region des Voralpenlandes, des Riegseegebietes, an, die in traditioneller Weise ihre Toten in japanese Grabhugeln bestattete. Die Wurzeln der Riegseegruppe reichen in die mittlere Bronzezeit und auch ihre soziale Entwicklung scheint sich eher langsam in ap english essay kleingruppenhaften Organisationsformen zu vollziehen. Basic Japanese Essay? [14] Dies verwundert, denn gerade wahrend der mittleren Bronzezeit nehmen die Fordermengen in den ostalpinen Kupferbergwerken, insbesondere im Salzburger Raum stetig zu. [15] Obwohl in policy anaysis den Grabern der Riegseegruppe ab der Stufe Bz C an basic japanese essay, den Schwertern die Entwicklung eines Hauptlingsadels mit kriegerischem Anspruch deutlich wird und ein aus den Beigaben ablesbarer, gewissermassen bauerlicher Wohlstand und einige Importstucke nahelegen, [16] dass die kriegerische Oberschicht an dem Mehrwert, der aus der Verarbeitung und Distribution des alpinen Kupfers herruhrte, partizipierte, fehlen doch ganzlich irgendwelche Hinweise, die auf direkte Verfugung uber Ressourcen, Werkstatten oder Verkehrswege hindeuteten. Poverty? Seit Beginn der 80er Jahre tauchte im Zuge grossflachiger Grabungen auf [ 113 ] den Schotterflachen um Munchen, Ingolstadt und auf dem Lechfeld bei Augsburg eine Gruppe von Flachgrabern auf, [17] die mit den Hugelbestattungen der Riegseegruppe in ihrer Anfangsphase gleichzeitig sind, in basic essay ihrer Grundidee jedoch erheblich von diesen abweichen und eher mit jenen der fruhen Stufe der Salzburger und Tiroler Urnenfelder ubereinstimmen. [18] Wie aus dem Sachgut ersichtlich, ist die Ideenwelt der in essay synonym ihnen Bestatteten vom Donau- und ostlichen Mittelmeerraum beeinflusst. Essay? [19] Die sozialen und okonomischen Unterschiede zu den Bestattungen der Riegseeleute sind deutlich, wenngleich ohne Zweifel Kontakt und Austausch bestanden. Alle bislang bekannt gewordenen Graber dieser Gruppe befinden sich an wichtigen Punkten einer naturlich vorgegebenen Verkehrsgeographie, wo sich der Handel, vornehmlich wohl jener mit Kupfererz bundelte und verzweigte und wo in Folge der Anhaufung von materiellen Gutern auch Fernbeziehungen zu sudostlichen Hochkulturen geknupft werden konnten.

Die Eliten dieser Gruppe werden wahrend der spaten Bronzezeit archaologisch in Schachtgrabern mit Wagenbeigabe sichtbar. Policy Anaysis? [20] Bezeichnend ist die Art und Zusammensetzung, in der Grabbeigaben in Flachgrabern der suddeutschen Spatbronzezeit niedergelegt wurden. Die Niederlegung von Gutern in basic essay Grabern dieses Typs weicht erheblich von jenen der Hugelgraber wie von den einfachen Brandgrabern der Urnenfelder-zeit ab. Policy Anaysis? Zwar zeichnet sich in Grosse und Anlage des Grabschachtes noch durchaus die an japanese, der Korperbestattung orientierte Vorstellungswelt der Hugelgraberbronzezeit ab, in essay der Deponierung von verbrannten Bronzen am Rande der Grabkammern tritt jedoch ein neuer gedanklicher Kontext entgegen. Essay? In der Kombination von Wagenteilen, Pferdegeschirr, Waffen, Gusskuchen, Barren, Halbbfertigprodukten, Symbolgut und Geschirr ebenso wie in essay synonym der Niederlegung auf einem Haufen scheint ein Muster auf, das auch in basic den Horten des Donauraumes begegnet. Essay Synonym? [21] Massenstatistisch ist dies bis jetzt und vermutlich auch in basic essay Zukunft nicht zu belegen, da die Exklusivitat von Grabausstattungen der beschriebenen Art dies verhindert: Nur eine dunne soziale Oberschicht konnte uber Mittel und Fernbeziehungen verfugen, die notig sind, um fremde Sachformen und neues Gedankengut aufzunehmen. Eine besondere Rolle nehmen dabei Zeugnisse der Produktion, Verarbeitung und Distribution von Metall ein. Essay On Self Help? Gusskuchen, Barren und Halbfertigprodukte belegen nicht in erster Linie Besitz, sondern symbolisieren eine entscheidende Rolle der bestatteten Personengruppe bei der Forderung [ 114 ] und Verarbeitung von Metall sowie Verfugungspotential und wirtschaftliche Potenz im Handel. Basic Essay? So zeigen die Gewichte durch ihre geringe Grosse, dass sie nicht im Giesserei- oder Schmiedeprozess Verwendung fanden, sondern dass hier Luxusguter, also Gold, Bernstein, Kosmetika, Farbstoffe oder Gewurze eingehandelt wurden. [22] Der Mehrwert, der zum Tauschgeschaft not wendig war, durfte dabei zu einem guten Teil aus der Kontrolle uber Gewinnung, Verarbeitung und Distribution von Metall hergeruhrt haben. Da sich die Verteilung dieser Graber mit der der Brucherzhorte und der der grossen Hohensiedlungen auf das offene Voralpenland konzentriert, kann in ap english Beantwortung der ersten Frage also angenommen werden, dass hier auch die Verarbeitungsstatten lagen.

Das aus alpinen Lagerstatten gewonnene Kupfer wurde also in basic essay Rohform ins Voralpenland gebracht, wo es in policy anaysis den Grabern der obersten sozialen Schicht symbolischen Niederschlag fand. [23] Der Weg von den Lager- zu den Verarbeitungsstatten musste damit zwangslaufig an essay, den oben beschriebenen burgahnlichen Platzen des Alpenrandes vorbeifuhren, wo sich aber, mit Ausnahme der Rachelburg bei Flintsbach bisher zwar einzelne Gusskuchen oder Gusskuchenbrocken, nie jedoch grossere Horte fanden. Books? Wie oben dargelegt, mussen die Bewohner der Lagerstattenreviere, der Alpenrandburgen und der Verarbeitungsgebiete in basic japanese essay einer nicht naher definierbaren Beziehung gestanden haben. Am starksten profitierte dabei zweifellos die neue Aristokratie des Alpenvorlandes, da nur hier in grosserem Umfang aus Fernbeziehungen resultierendes Luxusgut nachzuweisen ist. [24] Die Graber der Produktionsgebiete im Salzburger Land und in Nordtirol zeigen demgegenuber zwar den durchaus betrachtlichen, jedoch eher traditionellen Wohlstand der alten Schwerttragerschicht an, der vergleichbar auch in slide den Grabern der Riegseegruppe sichtbar wird. Basic Japanese Essay? Welcher Art die Beziehung der kleineren Burgen des Alpenrandes zu Lagerstatten und Verarbeitungsgebieten war, bleibt unklar. Nur in policy anaysis geringem Umfange sind aus ihrem Umkreis Graber bekannt, vornehmlich im Salzburger Becken. Japanese Essay? [25] Ob sie als Aussenposten zu den Organisationen der Bergleute und Giesser gehoren, ob sie als Dependancen, quasi Ministerialensitze der voralpinen Hocharistokratie anzusehen sind oder ob sie als Punkte von Produktion, Distribution und Verarbeitung eigenstandige Teile eines Gesamtsystems sind, kann zum gegenwartigen Zeitpunkt noch nicht beantwortet werden. Die archaologische Fragestellung konnte allerdings inzwischen so zielgenau ansetzen, dass intensive Forschungen mit internationaler und interdisziplinarer, vor allen [ 115 ] Dingen naturwissenschaftlicher Beteiligung hier in Zukunft hervorragende Ergebnisse erbringen wurden. Policy Anaysis? In Beantwortung der zweiten Frage kann also die Existenz eines uber etliche Jahrhunderte wohl funktionierenden Netzes aus Leistung und Gegenleistung postuliert werden. Basic? Hierfur war eine territoriale und politische Grundordnung notig, welche die Einhaltung wirtschaftlicher Grundregeln garantierte, uber die aber bisher so gut wie nichts bekannt ist. Zur Klarung dieses Fragenkomplexes lauft seit September 1996 am Bayer. Essay Synonym? Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege in Munchen eine von der Volkswagenstiftung geforderte Untersuchung zur metallurgischen Produktionskette in Nordtirol, im Salzburger Land und im sudbayerischen Alpenvorland von der mittleren Bronzezeit bis zum Ende der Spatbronzezeit, also aus der Zeit zwischen 1600 und 800 v. Chr. Essay? [26] Ziel des Projektes ist es, Aufschlusse uber die mittel- und vor allen Dingen spatbronzezeitliche Vertriebsorganisation des Kupfers aus dem Nordtiroler Inntal und Salzburger Land beziehungsweise dem Kitzbuheler Raum in high essays on the crucible Sudbayern zu gewinnen (Abb.

3). Essay? Dabei sollen Aufschlusse uber die Gesamtdauer des bronzezeitlichen Kupferbergbaus im Nordtiroler Unterinntal und seine Hochkonjunkturphasen und Anhaltspunkte zu Konstanz und Wandel bronzezeitlicher Metallegierungen gewonnen werden. High Essays Crucible? Erster Kernpunkt des Vorhabens ist das metallanalytische Programm. Japanese? Es umfasst samtliche Zeugnisse der primaren Metallurgie in school essays on the Sudbayern. Essay? Damit sind vor allen Dingen eine Vielzahl von Neufunden von Rohkupfer-gusskuchen aus oder in thesis der Nahe von spatbronzezeitlichen Hohensiedlungen des Alpenrandes und des Vorlandes gemeint. Als Referenz wird eine reprasentative Serie von Fertigprodukten untersucht. Japanese? Dabei werden sechs regionale Gruppen unterschieden. Nordtiroler Unterinntal, Salzburger Land und Raum Kitzbuhel, sudwestliches Oberbayern bis zum Inntal, ostliches Oberbayern, ferner der Donauraum, unterschieden in Ingolstadter und Kelheimer Donauraum einerseits und Regensburger Donauraum und ostliches Niederbayern andererseits. Von besonderem Interesse sind dabei wegen der darin enthaltenen Gusskuchen und Barren die Bronzen aus den spatbronzezeitlichen Wagengrabern. Wir legen Wert darauf, dass die Beprobung der Kupfervorkommen in Bereichen erfolgt, die auch in der Bronzezeit fur die Ausbeutung erreichbar waren. In der Regel wird dies die Ausbisszone des Erzkorpers sein.

Am Mitterberg und im Gebiet Schwaz-Brixlegg konnen die Proben direkt aus bronzezeitlich datierten Abbauen entnommen werden. [ 116 ] Die Erzproben werden auf bestimmte Elementkombinationen hin untersucht, die auch noch im Fertigprodukt nachweisbar sind. Essay Synonym? Neben den in jedem Fall zu bestimmenden Gehalten an essay, Zinn, Wismut, Arsen, Nickel und Silber sollen dabei auch Spurenelemente wie Gold, Uran oder Blei analysiert werden. Sinnvolle Erganzung zu den chemischen Erzanalysen sind erzmikroskopische Untersuchungen, da nur so die Erzmineralparagenese bestimmt werden kann. Essay Synonym? Das unterschiedliche Austreten von akzessorischen Erzmineralien (zum Beispiel Kupfernickelerzen) beeinflusst nicht nur den Pauschalchemismus der Erze, sondern ist oft auch eine charakteristische Eigenheit einzelner Vorkommen. Essay? Grundlage der bronzezeitlichen Kupferproduktion im Nordtiroler Inntal sind die Fahlerze des Unterinntals, die sich durch hohe Anteile an essay synonym, Antimon, Arsen, Silber und Wismut pragnant charakterisieren lassen. Innerhalb des Untersuchungsgebietes sollte deswegen die Verbreitung Nordtiroler Fahlerzkupfers sowohl in japanese den Rohkupfergusskuchen als auch in den Fertigprodukten direkt fassbar sein. Presentation? Die Kupfersorten aus den Erzen des Salzburger Landes und die Kupferkiese des Raumes Kitzbuhel sind zwar durch ihre relative Armut an Spurenelementen eher uncharakteristisch, kontrastieren aber insgesamt scharf mit dem Tiroler Fahlerzkupfer. Japanese? Aus diesem Kontrast erwarten wir jedenfalls im engeren Vorfeld der Bergbaugebiete auch die Verbreitung des Salzburger/Kitzbuheler Kupfers umreissen zu konnen. High School On The Crucible? Ausgehend von der naturlichen Verkehrsgeographie folgen wir dabei der Arbeitshypothese, dass Nordtiroler Fahlerzkupfer hauptsachlich uber das westliche Oberbayern verhandelt und verarbeitet wurde, wahrend Salzburger und Kitzbuheler Kupfer uber Salzach und Alz nach Norden gelangte.

Das erstere dieser Gebiete wird definiert durch das Wagengrab des spaten 13. Japanese Essay? vorchristlichen Jahrhunderts von Poing bei Munchen, das zweite durch jenes des fruhen 12. Policy Anaysis? Jahrhunderts von Hart an essay, der Alz. [27] Erstmals sind damit Ergebnisse zur politischen und territorialen Organisation der Bronzezeit in Sudbayern zu erwarten. Die dritte Frage lautete: Was steckt hinter der Deponierung von Gusskuchen und warum wurden sie nicht in presentation den Herkunftsgebieten deponiert? Wenn im vorhergehenden festgestellt wurde, dass in den Herkunftsgebieten des Kupfers kaum Brucherzhorte nachweisbar sind, so kann dies nicht bedeuten, dass das Kupfer den dort ansassigen Gruppen nicht zur Verfugung gestanden hatte. Wie die Graber der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder oder des Salzburger Raumes zeigen, wurde hier sogar betrachtlicher Wohlstand akkumuliert. Basic? [ 117 ] Abb. Presentation Slide? 3: Ubersichtskarte zu dem von der Volkswagenstiftung geforderten Forschungsprojekt des bayerischen Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege, Abt fur Archaologische Denkmalpflege. Umrandet sind die geographisch-kulturell umrissenen Beprobungsbezirke (1A Tiroler Inntal, 1B Salzburger und Kitzbuheler Bereich, 2A westliches Oberbayern mit Munchner Schotter ebene, 2B ostliches Oberbayern, 3A Ingol-stadter Donaubereich, 3B Oberpfalzer Senke, Gauboden und niederbayerisches Hugelland) und schraffiert die Lagerstattenreviere dargestellt Punkte: Fundorte der beprobten Stucke; Dreiecke: Hohensiedlungen am Alpenrand; Radkreuze: Fundorte von Wagengrabern der Spatbronze- und Urnenfelder zeit. Basic? [ 118 ] zu dessen Reprasentation jedoch nicht die Niederlegung von Horten gehorte.

Die mit den neuen Bestattungssitten verbundene Vorstellungswelt blieb der Bergbau treibenden, alpinen Bevolkerung im Gegensatz zu den Eliten des Voralpenlandes fremd. Nur bei jenen deckt sich die Verbreitung von Horten, grabschatzfuhrenden Grabern mit danubisch-agaischem Einfluss und befestigten Hohensiedlungen der Spatbronze grossraumig ebenso wie die jenige von Horten und Burgen der Donaulander. School Essays On The Crucible? Aus den Donaulandern gelangten Vorstellungen, die mit der Deponierung grosser Bronzehorte gemischten Inhalts verbunden sind, im Zuge verstarkter Fernkontakte zusammen mit zahlreichen Sachgutern nach Suddeutschland, wo sie von einem progressiven Teil der einheimischen Eliten in basic japanese uberkommene Bestattungsmuster ubernommen wurde. Der Lebensstil und die soziologische Basis dieser Eliten ist in slide den Landern entlang der Donau durchaus vergleichbar, wie Art und Topographie der Befestigungen verraten, und resultiert zum uberwiegenden Teil aus der Verarbeitung und Verteilung von bergmannisch gewonnenem Kupfer. Japanese? Die spezielle Ausstattung der nord-alpinen Wagengraber ware als direkte Ubernahme ostmitteleuropaischer Deponierungssitten in presentation thesis das im Umbruch befindliche traditionelle Totenritual der westlichen Hugelgraberkultur zu sehen, eine Ubernahme, die wahrscheinlich auch von neuen religiosen Vorstellungen begleitet war. Basic Japanese? [28] Die letzte Frage lautete: Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Versiegen der Kupfervorrate in policy anaysis Tirol und Salzburg und dem Ende von Graberfeldern und Hohensiedlungen dort und in basic essay Sudbayern? Die Nordtiroler Urnenfelder, die Urnenfelder des Munchener Bereiches ostlich der Isar sowie die Hohensiedlungen des Alpenvorlandes und des Alpenrandes brechen nach gegenwartigem Kenntnisstand in essay einem fruhen Abschnitt der Urnenfelderstufe B, als kurz nach dem Jahr 1000 v. Essay? Chr. Essay Books? ab.

Man nimmt dafur ein Versiegen der leicht ausbeutbaren Kupfervorkommen der Ostalpen insgesamt an. Basic Japanese Essay? Einzelne, sehr wohlhabende Graberfelder zeigen jedoch, dass auch nach der Erschopfung der Kupfervorkommen wohlhabende Gemeinwesen am Alpenrand existierten, deren Wirtschaftsgrundlage unklar ist (vielleicht gelang es ihnen vom Kupferhandel auf denjenigen mit Hallstatter Salz umzusteigen). Thesis Poverty? [29] Aufschlusse zu diesem Fragenkomplex sind vornehmlich uber die Metallanalytik zu erwarten: Ist beispielsweise das Abbrechen der Nordtiroler Urnenfelder tatsachlich auf einen schweren Einbruch des Kupferbergbaus im Nordtiroler Unterinntal zuruck zufuhren, so musste synchron dazu oder mit einer gewissen Verzogerung in basic essay [ 119 ] Sudbayern ein massiver Ruckgang im Gebrauch des Fahlerzkupfers festzustellen sein. Noch nicht abgeklart ist ferner die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Kupferbergbaues im Nordtiroler Unterinntal. Sollte er lediglich regionale Bedeutung fur Nordtirol und das sudliche Oberbayern besessen haben, musste der Fahlerzkupfers trom bereits in essay synonym der Donauregion versickern. Zeichnet er sich aber dort noch massiv ab, reichte er sicherlich auch daruber hinaus und signalisiert die uberregionale Bedeutung der Unterinntaler Kupferproduktion, die aufgrund der bisherigen Indizien fur die spate Bronze- und fruhe Urnen-felderzeit auch wahrscheinlich ist. Japanese Essay? Hangen aber die Hohensiedlungen des sudbayerischen Raumes von der Produktion, Distribution und Verarbeitung von Kupfer ab, so musste ihre wirtschaftliche und politische Rolle fur ganz Suddeutschland parallel verlaufen. Mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit bedingte die Ausbeutung und Verarbeitung der ostalpinen Lagerstatten politisch-okonomische Systeme mit ahnlich uberregional wirksamer Rolle wie weiter im Westen diejenigen der Schweiz und Vorarlbergs. Essay On Self Help Books? 1 Der hier publizierte Vortrag wurde in basic essay ahnlicher Form auf dem Niederbayerischen Archaologentag 1997 in on self help books Deggendorf gehalten und ist weitgehend gleichlautend veroffentlicht in: K. Basic Essay? Schmotz (Flg.), Vortrage des 16.

Niederbayerischen Archaologentages . Deggendorf 1997, S. School Essays? 99-113. 2 Ansatze der 50er Jahre, u. a. Flans-Jurgen Flundt, «Der Bogenberg bei Bogen (Niederbayern) in vor- und fruhgeschichtlicher Zeit», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 21,1955, S. 31-46 und Fiermann Muller-Karpe, «Funde von bayerischen Hohensiedlungen», in: Kataloge der Prahistorischen Staatssammlung Munchen 3, Kallmunz 1954, wurden nicht konsequent weiterverfolgt und erst in den letzten Jahren wieder in basic verstarktem Umfang auf gegriffen: Jorg Biel, Vorgeschichtliche Hohensiedlungen in essay synonym Sudwurttemberg-Hohenzollern . Essay? Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte in poverty Baden-Wurttemberg 24, Stuttgart 1987. Essay? Albrecht Jockenhovel, «Jungerbronzezeitlicher Burgenbau in Suddeutschland», in: Beitrage zum bronzezeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa. Synthesis? Berlin 1984, S. Basic Japanese? 253-272. Ders., «Bronzezeitlicher Burgenbau in policy anaysis Mitteleuropa. Untersuchungen zur Struktur fruhmetallzeitlicher Gesellschaften», in: Orientalisch-agaische Einflusse in der europaischen Bronzezeit . Basic Essay? Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, Mainz 1990, S. School Essays? 209-228. Basic Japanese Essay? Peter Schauer, «Befestigte Hohen der Urnenfelderzeit und der alteren Eisenzeit in essay on self books Suddeutschland», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Mainz 1993, S. Japanese? 62-74. Ders., Folke Damminger, «Der Bogenberg im Landkreis Straubing-Bogen, Niederbayern. Vorbericht uber die archaologischen Untersuchungen der Jahre 1995-1996», in: Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 27,1997, S. 423-442. Thesis Reduction? Ubergreifend zum Thema der donaulandischen und suddeutschen Burgen: Stefan Winghart, «Sudbayern und der Donauraum - Aspekte zum Thema der spatbronze - und fruhurnenfelderzeitlichen Hohensiedlungen entlang der Donau», in: The Early Hall- [ 120 ] statt Period (1200-700 B. Basic Japanese? C.) in South-Eastern Europe . On The Crucible? Bibliotheca Musei Apulensis, Alba Iulia 1994, S. Basic Japanese Essay? 241-253.

3 Zusammenfassend fur den siebenburgischen Raum:Tiberiu Bader, «Die befestigten bronzezeitlichen Siedlungen in thesis Nordwestrumanien» in: Beitrage zum bronze zeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa , Berlin 1984, S. 47-70. Basic? Fur Ungarn: Gabor Bandi, «Bronzezeitliche befestigte Siedlungen in Westungarn» in: Ebd. Synthesis Museum? , S. 81-95. Basic Japanese Essay? Tibor Kemenczei, «Der spatbronzezeitliche Burgenbau in essay Nordungarn», in: Ebd. , S. 273-278. Japanese? Fur die Slowakei: Vaclav Furmanek, Ladislav Veliacik, Peter Romsauer, «Jungbronzezeitliche befestigte Siedlungen in policy anaysis der Slowakei», in: Ebd ., S. Japanese Essay? 159-175. Thesis Poverty Reduction? Fur dieses Thema von besonderer Bedeutung: Kurt Floredt, «Befestigte Siedlungen der Spatbronzezeit im innerkarpatischen Raum», in: Symposium zu Problemen der jungeren Hallstattzeit in essay Mitteleuropa. Bratislava 1974, S. 205-228. Ap English Essay? 4 Bis in japanese essay die 70er Jahre lediglich: Fritz-Rudolf Flerrmann, «Die urnenfelderzeitliche Siedlung von Kunzing», in: Jahresberichte der bayerischen Bodendenkmalpflege 15/16, 1974/75, S. Presentation Thesis Slide? 58-107. Basic? Seitdem ist eine nahezu unubersehbare Menge metallzeitlicher Flausgrundrisse und Siedlungskontexte erschlossen worden, die derzeit im Rahmen zweier Munchner Dissertationen aufgearbeitet werden. Vorberichte fur das Schotterfeld um Munchen: Stefan Winghart, «Eine Siedlung der Urnenfelder- oder Flallstattzeit von Eching, Lkr.

Freising, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in on self help books Bayern 1983, S. Basic Japanese? 65-67. Ingeborg von Quillfeldt, «Eine Siedlung der Spatbronzezeit in synthesis essay Gauting, Lkr. Starnberg, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in basic Bayern 1988, S. 53-56. Fur das Schotterfeld um Ingolstadt: Marc Bankus, «Fruhe und mittlere Bronzezeit», in: Karl-Heinz Rieder, Andreas Tillmann (Hg.), Archaologie um Ingolstadt, Kipfenberg 1995, S. 53-88. Cornelia Schutz-Tillmann, «Spate Bronzezeit und Urnenfelderzeit», in: Ebd. Essay Synonym? , S. 89-112. Fur das Lechfeld um Augsburg: Stefan Wirth, «Die Urnenfelderzeit», in: Walter Potzl, Otto Schneider (Hg.), V or- und Fruhgeschichte-Archaologie einer Landschaft. Basic? Der Landkreis Augsburg, Bd. Essay Synonym? 2, Augsburg 1996, S. Basic? 11-139. Policy Anaysis? 5 Michael Schefzik, «Neuartige Funde und Befunde endneolithisch-alterfruhbronzezeitlicher Zeitstellung von Eching, Lkr.

Freising», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 60,1995, S. 273-287. Michael Schefzik und Robert Ganslmeier, «Freiham - Siedlung und Graberfeld der fruhen Bronzezeit, Landeshauptstadt Munchen, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in basic Bayern 1996, S. 61-63. Im weiteren vergleiche Bankus (wie Anm. Thesis? 4). Basic Japanese Essay? 6 Stefan Winghart, «Bemerkungen zu Genese und Struktur fruhmittelalterlicher Siedlung im Munchner Raum», in: Lothar Kollmer, Peter Segl (Hg.), Regensburg, Bayern und Europa. Poverty? Festschrift fur Kurt Reindel zu seinem 70. Japanese? Geburtstag, Regensburg 1995, S. 7-49. Presentation? 7 Vgl. Muller-Karpe (wie Anm. Basic? 2). 8 Muller-Karpe (wie Anm.

2), S. 7, 14 Taf. Help? 1, S. 12-15, 20-27, 30-39. 9 Zum Nachweis vgl., Winghart 1994 (wie Anm. Basic Japanese Essay? 2), S. Essay On Self? 242 mit Anm. Basic Japanese Essay? 13-18. Presentation Thesis? 10 Tudor Soroceanu, «Hortfunde und befestigte Anlagen in essay Transsilvanien», in: Beitrage zum bronzezeitlichen Burgenbau in Mitteleuropa , Berlin 1984, S. 363-376. Furmanek/Veliacik/Romsauer (wie Anm. Policy Anaysis? 3). Maria Novotna, Die Bronzehortfunde in basic japanese der Slowakei. Spatbronzezeit. Bratislava 1970, S. Policy Anaysis? 18, Karte 1. Basic Japanese? 11 Hansjorg Kuster et al., «Beitrage zur vor- und fruhgeschichtliche Hohensiedlung Rachel-burg uber dem nordlichen Alpeninntal bei Flintsbach, Lkr.

Rosenheim, Oberbayern», in: Berichte der Bayerischen Bodendenkmalpflege 38/39, 1997/98 im Druck. Synthesis Essay? Vorbericht: Stefan Winghart, «Halsschmuck der fruhen Mittelbronzezeit von der Hohensiedlung Rachelburg bei Flintsbach am Inn, Lkr. Japanese Essay? Rosenheim, Oberbayern» in: Das archaologische Jahr in essay synonym Bayern 1993, S. Essay? 62-65. Museum? 12 Vgl. Japanese? Christin Osterwalder-Maier, «Bronzezeitliche Gesellschaft - Ein homerisches Modell», in: Gesellschaft und Bevolkerung. Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur Ur- und Fruhgeschichte , Bern 1990, S. Museum? 85-92, bes. S. Japanese? 88. Essay? 13 Frauke Stein, «Bronzezeitliche Hortfunde in essay Suddeutschland», in: Saarbrucker Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 23, Bonn 1976, S. 66-70. Presentation? [ 121 ] 14 Harald Koschik, Die Bronzezeit im sudwestlichen Oberbayern . Japanese? Materialhefte zur bayerischen Vorgeschichte 50, Kallmunz 1981, S. Essay Synonym? 133-143. Basic Japanese Essay? 15 Fritz Moosleitner, «Vier Spangenbarrendepots aus Obereching, Land Salzburg», in: Germania 66,1988, S. Thesis Poverty Reduction? 29-67. Japanese Essay? 16 Rudolf Albert Maier, «Sicherungsgrabungen in Hugelgrabern der Mittleren Bronzezeit im Alztal», in: Neue Ausgrabungen in museum Bayern («Probleme der Zeit»), Munchen 1970, S. Basic? 14-17ff.

Harald Koschik, «Das bronzezeitliche Graberfeld von Unterbrunnham», in: Fuhrer zu vor- und fruhgeschichtlichen Denkmalern 19, Mainz 1971, S. Poverty? 64-68. Stephan Moslein, Bronze- und Urnenfelderzeit im ostlichen Oberbayern. Ungedr. Basic Japanese? Diss., Munchen 1996 passim. 17 Stefan Winghart, «Flachgraber der spaten Bronzezeit aus Eching und Geisenfeld-Ilmendorf, Landkreise Freising und Pfaffenhofen a. Essay On Self Help Books? d. Basic? Ilm, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in essay synonym Bayern 1992, S. Japanese Essay? 54-56. Essay Synonym? Ders., «Das Wagengrab von Poing und der Beginn der Urnenfelderzeit in Sudbayern», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend. Mainz 1993, S. Japanese Essay? 88-93. 18 Karl-Heinz Wagner, Nordtiroler Urnenfelder.

Romisch-Germanische Forschungen 15, Berlin 1943. Zum Thema zuletzt mit alterer Literatur Peter Hoglinger, «Die Bronzezeit im Salzburger Flachgau», in: Archaologie beiderseits der Salzach. Policy Anaysis? Salzburg 1996, S. Basic Japanese? 34 -48. Poverty? 19 Stefan Winghart, «Die Wagengraber von Poing und Hart a. Japanese Essay? d. Policy Anaysis? Alz - Evidenz und Ursachen spatbronzezeitlicher Elitenbildung in der Zone nordwarts der Alpen», in: Eliten in essay der Bronzezeit. Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz , Mainz 1998 (im Druck). 20 Zuletzt ubergreifend: Christopher F. Thesis Poverty? E. Pare, Wagons and Wagon Graves of the japanese essay Early Iron Age in thesis Central Europe . Oxford Monographs 35, Oxford 1992, S. Basic Japanese Essay? 19-42. 21 Winghart 1994 (wie Anm. 2), S. Poverty? 248 ff.

22 Eine ubergreifende Behandlung des Themas durch Christopher F. Basic? E. Synthesis Essay Museum? Pare ist in essay Vorbereitung. Essay Synonym? Fur Sudbayern ein diesbezuglicher Neufund: Stefan Winghart, «Totenfolge am Lechrain? Ein reiches Doppelgrab der spaten Bronzezeit im neu entdeckten Graberfeld von Hurlach, Lkr. Landsberg am Lech, Oberbayern», in: Das archaologische Jahr in Bayern 1996, S. 69-72. Bisher unpubliziert sind zwei Gewichte aus der spatbronzezeitlichen Adelsnekropole von Poing. Basic Japanese Essay? Lkr.

Ebersberg, Bayern (vgl. Winghart 1993, Anm. 17). 23 Winghart 1993 (wie Anm. 17). Albrecht Jockenhovel, «Urnenfelderzeitliche Barren als Grabbeigabe», in: Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 3, 1973, S. Thesis? 23-28. Ders., «Zeugnisse primarer Metallurgie in basic japanese Grabern der Bronze- und Alteisenzeit Mitteleuropas», in: Archaeologia Polski 27, 1982, 293-301. Thesis Poverty Reduction? 24 Nur am Rande soll in diesem Zusammenhang auf den uberaus komplizierten Komplex des Zinnhandels verwiesen werden: Zinn, das zur Legierung der Bronze notwendig ist, kommt nicht in basic selben Lagerstattenrevieren wie Kupfer vor und musste demzufolge eingehandelt werden. Nach dem aufgefuhrten Modell trafen die Kupfer- und Zinnstrome in Suddeutschland in den Wohnsitzen der voralpinen Aristokratie zusammen. School On The Crucible? 25 Hoglinger (wie Anm. Basic? 18).

26 Das von Dr. L. Policy Anaysis? Sperber, Historisches Museum der Pfalz, Speyer und dem Verfasser for basic japanese essay mulierte und beantragte Projekt wurde 1996 im Rahmen des Forschungsschwerpunktes «Archaeometallurgie» der Volkswagenstiftung genehmigt. Reduction? Die Durchfuhrung im Bayerischen Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege, Abt. fur Archaologische Denkmalpflege, Munchen erfolgt durch Dr. Stephan Moslein, die Metallanalytik durch Prof. Dr. Japanese Essay? Ernst Pernicka, Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg und die lagerstattenkundlichen Unter-suchungen durch Dipl. Min. Klaus-Peter Martinek, Zwiesel. Thesis Slide? Die Publikation der Ergebnisse ist fur die Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege vorgesehen. Basic Essay? 27 Hermann Muller-Karpe, «Das urnenfelderzeitliche Wagengrab von Hart a. Books? d. Essay? Alz», in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 21, 1955, S. 46-75.

28 Vgl. Poverty Reduction? hierzu etwa Walter Janssen, «Der Bullenheimer Berg», in: Hermann Dannheimer, Rupert Gebhard (Hg.), Das keltische Jahrtausend . Japanese Essay? Munchen 1993, S. 75-82, wo Hortfunde [ 122 ] innerhalb einer befestigten Hohensiedlung als Tempelschatze angesprochen werden. Ubergreifend zum Thema: Joachim Werner, «Mykenae - Siebenburgen - Skandinavien», in: Atti del primo congresso internazionale di preistoria e protostoria mediterranea . On The Crucible? Firenze, Napoli, Roma 1950, S. Japanese Essay? 293-308. Kurt Horedt, «Siebenburgen und Mykena», in: Nouvelles Etudes d’Histoire, publiees a l’occasion du Xle congres des sciences historiques . Presentation Thesis? Stockholm 1969, S. Japanese? 31-44. Essay On Self Help? 29 Fritz Moosleitner, «Rettungsgrabung in basic japanese essay Salzburg-Maxglan», in: Archaologie Osterreichs 4/2, 1993, S. Thesis Poverty? 10-20: Ders., «Kelten in Flachgau», in: Archaologie beiderseits der Salzach , Salzburg 1996, S. Basic Japanese? 60-74.

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Regular Council Meeting April 1, 2010 Mayor Thomas L. School On The. Hardesty called the regular council meeting . to order at basic 6:30 p.m. with the following council members present: Alan Matthews, Mike Zoeller, Donna Eaton, and George Best. Absent: Shane Suttor and Jon Swindler. City Employees Present: Jennifer Herrell, Judy Smith, Kevin Calvert, Tom Doyle, Inez Harris, and Jeff Tennill. Poverty. City Attorney: Frank Chuppe. Councilmember Best gave the invocation.

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the neighborhood lifestyle. Also, the neighborhood doesn’t believe it is suitable for a facility of that size. On the other side the Sikhs are raising a . fight for prejudice, a nearby city had the same thing happen to them and the Sikhish people thought they were an “undesirable neighbor”. As a member of the basic, City Council , I will conduct a situation analysis, also known as SWOT to review and conclude this debate. A situation analysis is, an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses in an organization’s.

City council , City of London , Gurdwara 1372 Words | 4 Pages. BREDELL MUNICIPAL COUNCIL MEMORANDUM To From The Honourable CZ Fakude Mr S Mlangeni The Mayor Councillor: Zone 11 . BRIGHTSIDE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL Your Ref 001/ELEC/2012 My Ref ELEC/Z1/8/1 Date 10 September 2012 REPORT ON PROGRESS MADE IN THE ELECTRIFICATION OF ZONE 11, BRIGHTSIDE MUNICIPALITY 1. Background On 21 November 2011 the Brightside Municipal Council approved electrification of Zone 11, based on the applications received from households. 1968 , City council , Councillor 596 Words | 3 Pages. you got there/what you clicked). Books. The link or url. 1.A picture of the mayor of your town or city . . http://valleyvision.org/sites/files/styles/page-image/public/images/body-images/city_of_roseville _mayor_susan_rohan-113.jpg?itok=94HRuUtE Used google images. 2.A bus schedule. http://www.sacrt.com/schedules/current/routes/R533.htm Googled bus schedules. Basic Japanese Essay. 3.The address of the Chamber of Commerce for your town or city . http://www.google.com/search?q=roseville+ca+chamber+of+commerceoq=roseville+ca+chamberaqs.

City , City council , Google 619 Words | 3 Pages. important for commissioners and city councils to understand the importance of forensics. When the commissioners and . city council understand forensics they will have a clear idea of what the thesis reduction, cost and what it takes for basic the forensic team. Having an idea and high school essays on the understanding gives you knowledge of the basic, forensics. It’s very important that commissioners and city council member to appreciate the policy anaysis, value and the hard work of a forensic team. Japanese. It is very important for essays the city council and basic japanese commissioners to understand. City council , Cognition , Councillor 344 Words | 2 Pages. expansion of (2x – y)7. C- 5 8. Policy Anaysis. Expand (x + 3y)5. K 6 Problem 9. Essay. There are 10 councillors and 12 planning department staff available to serve on a . budget committee for the new city council . If the committee will consist of school on the, 3 councillors and either 1 or 2 planning staff, how many different committees could the council choose?

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?Rajvind Gill, 10, Jalan Jujur, Taman Jayadiri, 68000 Ampang, Selangor The Director, Ampang Jaya Municipal Council , Bangunan Mentari, . Ampang Jaya, 68000 SELANGOR. 15 SEPTEMBER 2009 Dear Sir, Poor Maintenance of Taman Jayadiri I am writing this letter on behalf of the residents of essay synonym, Taman Jayadiri to complain about the dismal conditions we have been putting up with for the past three. City council , Recycling 1058 Words | 4 Pages. Rob Ford and Toronto City Council. ? Rob Ford Toronto City Council MacEwan University November 24, 2013 Table of . Contents Introduction Rob Ford, the current mayor of japanese essay, Toronto, has caused an ongoing fiasco in the Toronto city council . Allegations of policy anaysis, drug abuse as well as other scandalous behavior have caused Mr.

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An Overview of the Events Industry in Ni. surrounding St. Patrick’s Day on-going every year in local towns, and local sporting events taking place all the japanese essay, time, NI has proved its capability to create . and synthesis museum sustain events. This then allowed for events like the Continental Market to be held at Belfast City Hall every year, which became a very popular attraction around Christmas time and still is basic japanese essay, every year. Larger events like the Tall Ships coming to Belfast in 2009, gave NI the coverage it needed for it to be considered for on self help many more prestigious events. Belfast , Belfast City Council , Belfast City Hall 888 Words | 3 Pages. Liverpool CBD (Part 1) Stage 1: Liverpool is suburb located 32 km south-west of the Sydney central business district in the state of New . South Wales, Australia.

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Also, that the council didn’t do due-diligence. Case study , City , City council 621 Words | 3 Pages. the Fairburn City Council meeting . It took place at the Fairburn City Hall around 7 in the evening. . The meeting wasn’t anything like I expected. I thought I was going to presentation, be the only extra person in the room besides the councilmen. The meeting went by pretty quick. It last no more than thirty minutes. Everything went as stated on the programs that were given to all of us that attended. Basic Essay. When the meeting began, the Fairburn police chief passed out policy anaysis a weekly report sheet to basic, the council . They gave an. City council , Constable , Council of the European Union 604 Words | 2 Pages.

Lesson 04.07: Summary and Assessment. a Great Speech, write and deliver a speech presenting your Personal Brand Statement to essay synonym, a City Council . 1. Complete the Speech . Essay. Planning Guide 2. Write a two- to three-minute speech using the notes you organized in essay synonym, the Speech Planning Guide. 3. Basic Essay. Submit your notes and thesis your written speech (two to three paragraphs) to essay, your instructor. 4. Rehearse your speech. Speech Planning Guide Your local city council wants a student to share something he or she has learned in policy anaysis, school. They want you to essay, give.

City council , Councillor , Management 319 Words | 2 Pages. ILM ASSESSMENT understanding mgt role. Centre: Newport City Council Assessment: M4:01 Understanding the Management Role Submission date: 5th October 2012 . High Essays Crucible. 1. The Organisation in Relation to its Purpose and its Stakeholders 1.1 Organisations Purpose Newport City Council is a Unitary Authority. Unitary Authorities are responsible for the administration of all areas of japanese, local government within a single tier for a given area. The Council was formed initially as a County Borough in 1996, and policy anaysis obtained City Status in 2002. It. City council , Communication , Council of the European Union 4337 Words | 19 Pages. 1 MINUTES OF COUNCIL MEETING HELD ON APRIL 10, 2014 The regular monthly meeting of the St. Ann Parish . Basic Essay. Council was held on Thursday, April 10, 2014 in thesis slide, the Council’s Meeting Room, St. Ann’s Bay. PRESENT WERE: MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL : His Worship the Mayor Deputy Mayor Councillors - Cllr.

Desmond Gilmore – Chairman Cllr.Delroy Redway– Vice Chairman Vinnette Robb-Oddman (Mrs.) Winston Brown Marlon Garvey Lydia Richards (Mrs.) Arthur Clemetson Dalas Dickenson Gilbert McLeod Anthony. Chairman , City council , Councillor 11065 Words | 27 Pages. Barangay Participation in Public Administration. ordered the renaming of barrios back to barangays. The term barangay was adopted and barangay structure defined in the modern context during his . administration, replacing the japanese, old barrios and municipal councils . The name has stuck ever since, though some people still use the old term. The Municipal Council was abolished upon transfer of powers to the barangay system.

Marcos used to call the barangay part of Philippine participatory democracy. Most of his writings involving the New Society which he envisioned. Barangay , By-election , City council 28405 Words | 79 Pages. occurred in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were reestablished. Local Government Elections took place . in 1983 and essay synonym the establishment of functioning councils in 1984. This process of local government reform is still ongoing.

It aims to promote democratic, accountable and autonomous local government authorities, with wide discretionary powers and a strong financial. In this fact Njombe district council started to operate since 1980s. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: POWERS. City council , District , Government 4552 Words | 17 Pages. chief of the towns, in basic japanese, consultation with their respective popular assemblies, elected the provincial chief and three councillors. The provincial chief, the . chief of the capital of the province, and the three councillors constituted the Provincial Council , whose chief duty was to propose measures for the general welfare of the inhabitants of the province. The decree also provided after the essay on self help books, election of delegates from basic japanese essay each province who would constitute the Revolutionary Congress. Essay Synonym. These delegates were. City council , Elpidio Quirino , Emilio Aguinaldo 2470 Words | 10 Pages.

CILCA Role of Councillors in Local Government. responsibility to be well informed on relevant Council matters. Japanese. Councillors may vote, resign, request items to be added to . Council Agendas, chair working parties, and represent the Council on outside bodies. Councillors: Must be over 18, British/European nationals, and thesis not a declared bankrupt1, May sign cheques2, May act as Clerk on an unpaid basis3, Must attend when summoned to basic japanese, the requisite number (at least once every six months) of Council meetings4, Must sign Declaration of Acceptance. City council , Councillor , Decision making 353 Words | 2 Pages. organizing: how to policy anaysis, organize and conduct a productive meeting in one hour or less. Running good meetings has long been the . Basic. practice within our organizations, but ir became a hallmark of our organizations because we kept teaching and presentation slide re-reaching people how to basic, di it until it finally became second nature to them. In the course of the session, one of the leaders asked why the same people who conducted and participated in interesting, useful, and on self productive meetings in the context of citizens’ organizations that. City council , English Congregation , Management 5233 Words | 15 Pages.

Philippines and in colloquial usage, the basic, term “barangay” refers to an inner city neighbourhood. In this day and age, many teenagers do not care . about their barangays and policy anaysis the communities they belong to. Some might not even know which barangay they belong to. They would not be able to identify their barangay officials, problems, activities, organizations, projects and events. For this study, the basic japanese essay, subject is Barangay Ma-a, Davao City . High School Essays On The Crucible. B: Statement of the basic japanese, Problem “Lack of employment and sufficient. Barangay , Cabeza de Barangay , City council 2897 Words | 20 Pages. statement elements practice question Local council management of the city of Wonga Wonga has been discussing financial . reporting requirements needed to policy anaysis, satisfy accounting pronouncements. A matter of some concern is the basic essay, appropriate treatment of houses built by the council on land owned by slide the local aboriginal community. Basic Essay. The houses are currently used by the council to provide inexpensive accommodation for low-income earning families. Specifically, the council is considering whether or not they should.

Asset , Balance sheet , City council 307 Words | 2 Pages. Structures of Government in essay museum, South Africa. Municipal Manager and Speaker. Name: Suhil Singh Stu No.: 212519449 Course: Introduction to basic essay, Local Government Table of Contents: * . Introduction * The Municipal Manager * The Speaker * The Mayor * The Mayoral Council * Conclusion * References Introduction The constitution of 1996 establishes local government as a distinguishing sphere of government. Essays Crucible. This sphere consists of municipalities that have been established for basic japanese the whole territory of policy anaysis, the. City council , District , Government occupations 2457 Words | 8 Pages.

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Simple Japanese Essays I Wrote ( Like A 3-Year-Old Child) About

Essay Writing in Middle School History Class. By Shara Peters and Jody Passanisi. The main purpose of school is to prepare children to be successful after school. Everyone talks about japanese, our “digital age” and the shifts in education it necessitates. One shift is abundantly clear: written communication has never been as important as it is now. When we were in school, people communicated differently – people actually talked on policy anaysis, the phone. Now, thanks to basic essay, texting, email, blogs, etc., more and more communication happens through writing. The nature of writing is changing as well.

People are rapidly scrolling through newsfeeds and scanning for interesting articles. If you want your ideas to be read, you have to get to the point quickly. And if you make grammar errors, or state something that is factually incorrect, you will be judged instantly – in a very public way. In our own teaching, we’ve always maintained that writing is an essential skill for middle schoolers to develop. Whether your classroom is project based, inquiry based, student-centered, teacher-driven or lecture-style, your students are going to need to learn to express their understandings, evaluation, and synthesis through writing. And not just any writing, but writing that is clear, cogent, concise, backed-up with research and facts, and well argued.

Scaffolding the Writing Experience. Middle grades students are asked to slide, do more with their writing than we were as students. Today, summaries and basic japanese, reporting on facts are seldom enough; standards speak to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis. Advances in technology are helping to move writing in these directions, giving students the capacity to quickly revise their work from essay synonym, first to final draft, without tediously copying multiple versions. In addition, the availability of information plays an important part in the raising of basic essay, expectations. It is no longer difficult to gather facts and essay on self books, data, so the difficulty must be reflected elsewhere – in what is done with the essay, information.

Now, there is a much higher intellectual expectation than simply paraphrasing one or two “authoritative” sources. With this advance in expectations comes an increased need for scaffolding the learning process. Some students find these demands for higher orders of thinking and writing very challenging, to say the least. They are adolescents, still moving from concrete to formal operations in slide, the Piagetian sense, and will often need our support with their writing. Throughout our teaching careers, integrating writing skills – and essay, having students demonstrate understanding of content through writing – has been a priority.

But we haven’t always done it the slide, same way. When we first started teaching social studies in middle school, we used a five-paragraph essay. We provided the students an outline so that they could learn the important components of the essay, format (intro, thesis, supporting paragraphs, transitions, conclusion – for example, this essay organizer on essay synonym, the Constitution). The essays were evaluative, and basic, the students were required to use evidence from specific readings and notes that had been introduced and worked through during class. These essays were challenging, but the step-by-step scaffolding helped a great deal.

The parts that were the most difficult are not really surprising: the thesis, the analysis, the conclusion – the components that required the most critical and evaluative thinking. As time passed, we began to ask our students to be more accountable for essay synonym, the sources they used, as Jody wrote about last year in this MiddleWeb piece on using citations in history. Japanese! Even so, at the end of each unit, students continued to use our five-part outline to showcase their writing, their ability to synthesize, and essay synonym, their knowledge of the essay, historical content that we had just explored. While this organizing tool helped some students structure their ideas into presentation slide some impressive essays, we came to see that it was masking some students’ writing deficiencies. Though the final product (after multiple revisions) often appeared to include high level thinking and deep comprehension, the amount of teacher guidance and basic japanese essay, outside help that some students received made us doubt the integrity of the assignment, and whether it was a true assessment of student comprehension and high essays on the crucible, ability. We began to wonder if timed writing events, where student writing skills would be “unmasked,” might add an japanese important formative assessment element. Timed writing is by no means new, but it is seeing a resurgence in the high schools where our students often matriculate. In history class these timed writings are based on a few primary or secondary source documents (or a mixed grouping of both) and students are asked to make an essay synonym evaluative statement about a historical period or concept using the evidence given. DBQs, or Document Based Questions, have also been around awhile (in AP courses, for example).

But again, they are increasingly becoming a primary way to procure evidence of essay, student understanding – evidence of students’ ability to read, comprehend, synthesize, organize, and evaluate evidence “like historians” through their own writing. This resurgence can be seen as part of the thesis reduction, general increase in activities and japanese essay, experiences that ask the students to think more critically and analytically, a phenomenon we associate with the rise of the Common Core Standards. We have been incorporating more and more of these types of writing experiences into our teaching to prepare our students for what will be expected of policy anaysis, them when they go to high school. Timed writings don’t always have to be DBQ based. Basic! At the end of a project-based learning unit, Jody used a timed writing to see if students were able to synthesize the varied information they had learned about the causes of the policy anaysis, Civil War into basic japanese essay an evaluative and thesis poverty, succinct four paragraph essay that was written over a class period. Students were asked to answer the question “What Caused the Civil War?” with a clear thesis, evidence, and citations, culminating in a conclusion that got to a “so what?” point. While this was a challenge, most students were able to demonstrate understanding with clear writing. The feeling of basic japanese, self-efficacy gained in timed writings in middle school will carry over to ap english synthesis essay museum, high school when students are tasked with a similar writing assignment – to write quickly and clearly and convey something important to the reader. These timed writings can better show the basic japanese, teacher the students’ process skills at various stages, without having to rely completely on thesis, a finished (and often heavily scaffolded) product. That said, the scaffolding provided by the essay outline should also be part of instruction. You don’t just hand challenging assignments to the kids and say “go for it!”

There will be some students who have special needs or Individualized Education Plans who may need a great deal of additional support and possibly much more time than other students in the class, but the exposure to timed writing, if it is basic, done with a learning rather than “testing” vibe, can help each and every student to reach a personal goal, even if that goal is modified. Teachers can help all students to lower their affective filter in writing simply by exposing them to the timed writing process. We believe this exposure will help them a great deal in their academic careers. Despite the fact that timed writings seem to be in vogue at the moment and the DBQ method helps students to policy anaysis, begin to japanese essay, think like historians, we don’t think that the five paragraph essay is ready for the dumpster. The writing skills that the students gain, not to presentation thesis, mention the thinking skills, are important. Japanese! The vehicle in which they get to the writing is secondary to the experience of writing about historical concepts – and writing a lot . What’s next for middle grades writing in social studies? The push for writing analytically is an important one, and one that will only poverty help students be able to navigate the basic, past in a more critical way. Gaining advanced writing skills will also impact their present, empowering them to articulate their views in more meaningful language.

How do you use writing in the social studies classroom? Jody Passanisi is an eighth grade U.S. History teacher in Los Angeles and the author of help books, History Class Revisited . She earned her teaching credential and japanese essay, an M.S. in education from Mount St. Mary’s College and an M.A. in ap english, religious studies from the basic, Graduate Theological Union. Shara Peters teaches eighth grade U.S.

History in essay synonym, a Los Angeles independent school. Essay! She earned her teaching credential from Hebrew Union College and her M.A. in teaching from American Jewish University. Follow them on Twitter @21centuryteachr. “When we were in school, people communicated differently – people actually talked on the phone.” You’ve understated the difference. We talked on the phone, we went early to school and stayed as late as we could so we could hang out, and talk, with our friends. Essay Synonym! One of the most frequent problems was talking in class. English survived as a language because of its strong oral tradition, from Beowulf to surviving 300 years of French rule following the Norman Conquest. But out of this English illiteracy came a renaissance of writing and literature, still anchored in an oral tradition that was in itself a conglomeration of invaders from the Vikings to the Danes, the Britons, the Romans, the Angle, Saxons, and Jutes, and finally William’s conquer of England which ended a very limited literacy on the island. It was the strong oral tradition that incorporated the basic japanese essay, past tradition with the French and gave birth to what is modern English. Usage is king.

No matter what efforts are made to the contrary, usage will prevail. Essay Synonym! That is the basic essay, significance of the change you’ve identified; it’s been less than 500 years ago we were an oral based culture, and now we are solidifying that change as we text rather than talk, email rather than call on the phone, and this has pushed the pendulum in essay help books, the other direction, as we recognize the basic japanese, need for critical thinking and writing. But at what cost? Is the ability to thesis reduction, communicate using the basic japanese essay, spoken word still important? We don’t use it to presentation, text, email, use the computer, it doesn’t have spell check, and basic essay, there is no “undo” button. It’s easy to make a mistake whole speaking, and ap english essay museum, these days, when you make a mistake, you find your err as a viral video all over the Internet. I’m not arguing anything you’ve said, only concerned by what seems to basic, be an increasing isolation of the writer and perhaps the need for balance in a culture that is increasingly a written tradition at the expense of the oral tradition. Several years ago I participated in a Teaching American History grant where the value of high, historical thinking was emphasized.

I learned the value of using primary documents to spur such thinking. Fortunately, we were also shown methods to basic, teach our students how to evaluate and compile information in a clear and reduction, coherent essay. The two Chicago teachers that created the DBQProject.com understood first-hand how to teach these methods. I still consider it the most useful professional development I have ever received as an educator. Japanese! It is a great resource for thesis reduction, the skills you mentioned above. For middle school students, they shortened the process, which made it easier for adolescents to understand. Essay! It also provided a firm foundation to teach strong reading and writing skills in Social Studies classrooms. After coordinating many of essay synonym, these strategies on the 7th/8th grade levels, my 8th graders are now able to answer one essential question from a chapter/unit with a well-organized and descriptive essay. It has become my standard assessment, which is completed within one class period.

I also cleared two weeks during each quarter to allow for research projects, including an essay (with works cited) and a class presentation. I agree… don’t throw the 5-paragraph essay out the window yet. Writing must be taught via effective methods and with support. My students no longer fear writing because they know *how* to do it and have extensive experience. It is simply amazing to witness student achievement when it all comes together successfully. It s a free archive of contextual “stories” containing primary source evidence/extensions of the stories. Basic Essay! You can sign up for the premium version to poverty reduction, assign writing to japanese, students, to write multimedia stories yourself to use with your class. In my forty-some years of teaching English, I have come to hate to five paragraph formula. It teaches students to think formulaically, to essay synonym, write repetitively, and to basic japanese essay, not be concerned with audience, purpose or voice. Reduction! It becomes a kind of fill-in-the-blank kind of writing. Essay! I wish it did just mean making sure you introduce a thesis, provide supporting evidence, and offer transitions to link ideas to an overall purpose.

But that is presentation slide, just writing. Yes, let’s teach that–which is just argument–rather than a formula that stipulates how you introduce a topic (not a thesis), repeating ideas–and probably language–from the introduction in each part of the body, and then repeating them again in basic japanese, the conclusion. Deadly. But isn’t fill the blank – what you actually do fill into the blank – isn’t that where the meaning is? Not in ap english museum, the format? Who cares if format is 5 paragraphs or a blog or free verse – I’m curious what the content is – not what the basic essay, structure is (as long as structure makes sense to me as a reader and I can follow the thinking). I dislike formulaic writing but not the shape – the content.

I don’t want boring, empty words in any form, five paragraph or otherwise. But I’ll take deep, rich thinking in any form too – five paragraph is fine if the content written is amazing. It’s the content not the form I care about. Shakespeare didn’t say “Sonnet form is essay synonym, formulaic. Everyone uses it when they write a Sonnet.” He used the basic, formulaic structure of Sonnet, but breathed his own life into the content.