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An Essay is a piece of saitoti thesis writing which is a review of literature often written from an prof. george, author's personal point of james b twitchell essay view. Essays can consist of a number of . Prof. George! elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a review a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages. 1113/Comp. Prof. Thesis! 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . Paul! our sentences; raping our vocabulary. And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words.
How people, more specifically the young ones are being lazy with. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Portfolio Reflection Essay The beginning of high school I was a seed in English class. I was not particularly good at george saitoti English and had doubts . on whether I should ask the sur jean, teacher to move me down to the college prep class. Just like a seed, I was a plain little student sitting in thesis, an honors class. Maybe from on indian culture, last year’s English class, I was fully aware my writing was not anything special. George Thesis! That was what I thought because I compared myself to my friends, but for sure, one thing I was positive was that. Better , Essay , Essays 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. It made excellent points about . opinion and fear.
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My first writing assignment grade proves that I had a lot to learn my freshman semester at Georgia State University. My first writing assignment for English 1101 was to write an essay about a personal characteristic that made me unique. It sounded like an easy. Creative writing , Essay , Grammar 1197 Words | 3 Pages. GRADUATE SCHOOL ADMISSIONS ESSAYS Preparation Before applying, understand why attending graduate school makes sense to you. Research On Indian Culture! To clarify why . you want to attend graduate school at this point in your life, try answering questions such as: • What will this degree enable you to achieve? • What do you plan to do with your advanced degree? Be able to express what about you and your experiences will help you to succeed in the program: • Make lists of professors, courses, research projects. Bachelor's degree , College , Essay 675 Words | 2 Pages. “A Word About Words” Havel Evaluation Havel's essay entitled “A Word About Words,” Havel came to the conclusion.
We have an george thesis, ethical duty . to always be suspicious of james b twitchell essay words. The three arguments Havel makes to support this claim are that we've always believed in the power of words to change history, and prof. george all events in the real world always have their prologue in the realm of words. This conclusion needs a lot of support and strong examples that are relevant, reasonable, and sufficient. Havel's. 2002 albums , Argument , Czechoslovakia 910 Words | 3 Pages. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of writing something according to criteria . you establish or identify in the essay . Prof. George! The Genre: You’re familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in newspapers, magazines, and websites. Thesis! They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from prof. george thesis, them we can identify the key components of the 3rd grade, genre. First, there is the object to be evaluated. George Saitoti Thesis! Often this is a single thing—a music CD, a scholarly study, a corporation—but. Academia , Academic publishing , Essay 768 Words | 3 Pages. ?WRITING AN ESSAY (See simplified example at the end) Intro: Actually state the question or title that you are going to answer Say what you . James B Twitchell Essay! are going to do: State that you will define the george thesis, key words and concepts That you will discuss the background to the key concepts and major, relvant, opposing theories That you will weigh up the pros and analyze a movie cons, strengths and prof. thesis weaknesses, arguments for and against of literature And state that you will then summarise the question, i.e “…in order to summarise and amswer.
Debate , Emotion , Essay 644 Words | 2 Pages. writing essays BASIC OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY ? Essays will have different purposes but most follow the same . basic outline, that is: 1. Introduction 2. Body 3. Conclusion BASICS OF ESSAY WRITING INTRODUCTION ? Introduction – introduce the topic in an interesting way, attract the reader somehow. You can try to prof. george saitoti thesis, catch the reader?s attention by for example presenting som interesting/shocking facts or by research culture telling a personal story. ? Thesis statement – present what your essay is prof. about. Essay , Essays , Formal system 544 Words | 6 Pages. Writing a Research Essay in Economics You've been given an economic research essay topic for your assessment task and completed . Sur Jean Sartre! your research.
Your textbook and syllabus outline should be the prof. george saitoti thesis, starting points for the research. Dissertation! Make sure you read the criteria on which you will be assessed. You are now ready to organise your ideas and the information you've collected into a logical sequence. But where do you start? It is useful to begin with an prof., essay outline. The Structure of the Essay Outline The. Consumption function , Debut albums , Economics 1577 Words | 5 Pages. writers gave bold imagine about how environment looked like twenty years ago. Sociology! From our perspective that environment is prof. george thesis better in research, old days so; however did . anyone concern about george saitoti, environment twenty years ago? Let’s take look at two authors’ essays to paper, discuss.
The first essay is A Fable for Tomorrow, written by Rachel Carson (1907-1964), another one is “But a Watch in the Night”: A Scientific Fable, written by James C. Rettie (1904-1969). Prof. Saitoti! To begin with I will provide a brief background about two authors.
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Poetry from prose: A different kind of book report Students use a word-processing program to write a poem that summarizes important themes or events central to the plot of a novel. Once the poem is proofread, students type the poem according to saitoti thesis specific directions. Dissertation Paul! They then print their work and illustrate over or around the writing for an illustrated book report. Students incorporate details from the novel in their writing and in prof. saitoti, their illustrations of their poems. In this way, students focus on the themes or events in the novel that appeal to them most -- the ones they feel are most important to the novel's meaning. A lesson plan for grades 68 English Language Arts.
Figurative language: Metaphor: This lesson is a part of a unit on poetry and figurative language. It is b twitchell essay, designed to teach students the characteristics of metaphor within the context of poetry. A matter of identity: Writing an extended metaphor poem: Students apply their knowledge of literary devices by reading and analyzing the poem “Identity” by Julio Noboa Polanco. Prof. George Saitoti Thesis! Students then create their own poem incorporating the literary devices studied and analyzed in the above mentioned poem. This lesson includes modifications for a Novice Low Limited English student. Research On Indian Culture! War is. : Upon consideration of the perspectives on war from their classmates, the poet Stephen Crane in War is prof. george saitoti, Kind, and various characters from All Quiet on james essay, the Western Front , students will write an editorial for the school newspaper in which they share opinions about war. Please read our disclaimer for lesson plans. The text of this page is copyright 2008.
This assignment serves as a culminating activity for a unit of essay 3rd grade, study on a novel. After reading and discussing the novel in its entirety, students focus on themes and important events in the novel’s plot. Prof. Saitoti Thesis! We review what the theme of a literary work is and brainstorm possibilities of themes for the novel we have studied. These can be themes that apply to the whole novel or only to certain parts of it. Students generate as long a list as they can in dissertation sur jean paul, class and copy it down for future reference. Once the list is completed, students go through the list and find the themes that appeal to them most. Prof. George Saitoti! They may also list events from the plot that they feel are central to the novel’s meaning. On Indian Culture! The themes/events students choose will be the basis for their poems. At this point, students look through the novel to find details to support the themes/events they have chosen. Saitoti Thesis! Students copy phrases or sentences from the novel that reflect the paper on indian, ideas they have chosen to write about.
Ex: In discussing possible themes for the novel Hatchet by Gary Paulsen, students identified the idea that “feeling sorry for yourself doesn’t work” as a theme. Those students who were interested in george thesis, this idea then found the place in the novel in which the author makes this observation. They copied phrases, images, sentences from the novel that showed in detail this idea of the uselessness of self-pity. Sociology! They then incorporated some of the prose from the novel in prof. george, their poems. Some mini-lessons in writing certain types of poetry are helpful. I discuss forming stanzas and rhyme scheme. We look at dissertation paul couplets, triplets and quatrains. Prof. George! I review what an acrostic is--many students find it helpful to have some kind of format to use, and the acrostic, in which students write a poem around the vertical spelling of a word or words central to the meaning of the a movie essay, poem, is one that is easy to use in connection with this assignment. After choosing a few important themes/events and prof., finding details to support their choices, students are ready to write their poems. This can be the most difficult part for some students.
I try to essay encourage them to get away from the idea of rhyme. Although some students have a natural inclination to rhyme and do well with it, many others get bogged down in striving to rhyme and lose the prof. saitoti, ideas they are trying to convey. I make very few requirements for the structure of the research paper on indian, poem. The final poem must be a minimum of twelve lines--it’s interesting how much some students can convey with only three quatrains. Thesis! And many students opt to write several more than twelve lines. Again, the poem does not have to rhyme. And it certainly does not have to be written in complete sentences--sometimes a series of images works best. The poem must include several details pulled from the novel. A Review! These details must relate directly to the theme(s) or events about which the student has chosen to write. As students are writing, they may seek help from each other. I encourage them to share ideas and proofread each other’s work.
When necessary I will pair students to make the work less difficult. Once a student believes he or she is finished with the prof. george, poem, I will proofread it for spelling, capitalization, format, etc. I have students write their first drafts on paper and then type the corrected poems on the computer. Students use appropriate computer commands to create a left justified margin and move their poems to a review of literature the center of the page. I do ask them to capitalize the first letter of each line. They may choose a size and font that they feel suits their poem. But it must fit on one page. Students do another check for spelling and get me or another student to compare their typed version against the original to see that all corrections have been made.
Once that is done, students print their poems. After the poem is printed, students begin illustrating their work. They may work directly over the writing or around it, but they need to prof. george saitoti thesis be careful to ensure that the essay 3rd grade, poem can be read through the illustrations. The only requirement for illustrations, whether they are computer-generated or done by hand, is that they reflect the details in the poem. I try to discourage random illustration that doesn’t relate to the student’s writing. Students may glue their finished product on a sheet of construction paper to saitoti make a “frame.” When everyone is a review, finished, I give students the opportunity to share their work with their classmates. Then we put the poems on the wall for an attractive display. In assessing this assignment, I grade for prof. saitoti, four areas:
following directions--Did the student fulfill all the requirements? focus on compare essay, theme/events include illustrations that reflect the writing have at least 12 lines use of prof. thesis, details--Did the student include plenty of specifics from the novel in writing the poem? effort--Did the student put a lot of time into the writing and artwork and work carefully? correctness--Did the student make sure all corrections were incorporated in the final copy? I assign a letter grade A, A-, B+, B, etc., each given a specific numerical value, for each of the four sections. Analyze Essay! Then I take an prof. saitoti thesis average for a final grade. Students generally do well on this assignment as they enjoy it and tend to put effort into their work. This lesson can be conducted with students of any age who are familiar with the ideas of theme and plot.
I always find this an interesting lesson to conduct. It has served on more than one occasion to generate interest in poetry in students who, prior to working on paper, the assignment, insisted they couldn’t write poems. It is also fun to see the variety of interpretations students make regarding one work of literature. This strategy can also be used for prof. saitoti, finding the focus of informational writing. Grade 6 6.RL.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in research paper culture, the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 6.RL.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the prof. saitoti, text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
Grade 7 7.RL.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in writing compare contrast essay, the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 7.RL.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the george, text. Grade 8 8.RL.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 8.RL.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and dissertation sartre, analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. North Carolina curriculum alignment. Goal 5 : The learner will respond to various literary genres using interpretive and evaluative processes. Objective 5.01 : Increase fluency, comprehension, and insight through a meaningful and comprehensive literacy program by: using effective reading strategies to match type of text. reading self-selected literature and other materials of individual interest. reading literature and prof. saitoti, other materials selected by analyze, the teacher. discussing literature in teacher-student conferences and small group discussions. taking an active role in whole class seminars. discussing and analyzing the effects on texts of such literary devices as figurative language, dialogue, flashback and prof. george thesis, sarcasm. interpreting text by explaining elements such as plot, theme, point of view, characterization, mood, and style. investigating examples of distortion and stereotypes. Research On Indian! recognizing underlying messages in order to george saitoti thesis identify recurring theme(s) within and across works. extending understanding by creating products for a movie essay, different purposes, different audiences and within various contexts. exploring relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts and/or experiences.
Objective 5.02 : Study the characteristics of literary genres (fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry) through: reading a variety of literature and other text (e.g., novels, autobiographies, myths, essays, magazines, plays, pattern poems, blank verse). interpreting what impact genre-specific characteristics have on the meaning of the work. exploring how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the meaning of the literary work. exploring what impact literary elements have on the meaning of the text such as the influence of prof. thesis, setting or the problem and its resolution. Goal 5 : The learner will respond to various literary genres using interpretive and evaluative processes. Objective 5.01 : Increase fluency, comprehension, and insight through a meaningful and comprehensive reading program by: using effective reading strategies to match type of text. reading self-selected literature and other materials of individual interest. Research On Indian! reading literature and thesis, other materials selected by the teacher. assuming an active role in teacher-student conferences. engaging in small group discussions. taking an active role in whole class seminars. analyzing the effects on texts of such literary devices as figuarative language, dialogue, flashback, allusion, and irony. analyzing the research paper culture, effects of such elements as plot, theme, point of view, characterization, mood, and style. analyzing themes and central ideas in literature and other texts in relation to personal issues/experiences. Prof. Saitoti! extending understanding by creating products for different purposes, different audiences and within various contexts. analyzing the connections of relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts, and/or experiences. Objective 5.02 : Study the characteristics of literary genres (fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry) through: reading a variety of compare essay, literature and other text (e.g., mysteries, novels, science fiction, historical documents, newspapers, skits, lyric poems). analyzing what effect genre specific characteristics have on the meaning of the prof. saitoti, work. analyzing how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the writing contrast essay, meaning of the literary work. analyzing what impact literary elements have on the meaning of the text such as the george, influence of setting on the problem and its resolution. Goal 5 : The learner will respond to various literary genres using interpretive and evaluative processes.
Objective 5.01 : Increase fluency, comprehension, and insight through a meaningful and comprehensive literacy program by: using effective reading strategies to match type of text. reading self-selected literature and other materials of interest to the individual. reading literature and other materials selected by the teacher. assuming a leadership role in james b twitchell essay, student-teacher reading conferences. leading small group discussions. taking an active role in saitoti, whole class seminars. analyzing the effects of writing thesis, elements such as plot, theme, charaterization, style, mood, and tone. discussing the effects of such literary devices as figurative language, dialogue, flashback, allusion, irony, and symbolism. Prof. George Thesis! analyzing and evaluating themes and sociology thesis, central ideas in george thesis, literature and dissertation sur jean sartre, other texts in relation to personal and societal issues. extending understanding by creating products for different purposes, different audiences, and within various contexts. analyzing and evaluating the relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts, and/or experiences. Objective 5.02 : Study the characteristics of literary genres (fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry) through: reading a variety of literature and other text (e.g., young adult novels, short stories, biographies, plays, free verse, narrative poems). evaluating what impact genre-specific characteristics have on the meaning of the text. evaluating how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the prof. george, meaning of the literary work. evaluating what impact literary elements have on the meaning of the text. LEARN NC, a program of the UNC School of Education, finds the most innovative and successful practices in K-12 education and makes them available to the teachers and sur jean paul sartre, students of george thesis, North Carolina - and the world.
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A-level retake courses at CIFE colleges. CIFE colleges have been providing effective A-level retake courses for many years. All the benefits of small-group teaching, the focus on the individual and the more adult environment come into play in getting good results from our A-level retake course students. Rather than go into more detail about benefits, we thought it might be really helpful to go through the first key question you need to ask yourself Should I retake? It’s August. You’ve got your A-level results. They’re not what you wanted and you are wondering what to do next. One option is to retake in order to get better grades, but is that worth the trouble? You will need information about retaking (see the page on prof. saitoti thesis, FAQs about A-level retakes), and you may need expert advice.
A-level retake courses at dissertation sur jean paul, CIFE colleges may be just what you're looking for, or they might not be relevant to your particular circumstances. George Saitoti. First some words about the need to make plans quickly. Unless you already know that you will be retaking, you need to do your thinking fast. Do you accept your insurance university offer, do you enter UCAS Clearing, or do you retake? If you are taking a GAP year anyway it’s tempting to leave the question until later, but don’t leave it too long. In general it’s better to plan well ahead, and you’ll need to sort out next year’s UCAS application pretty quickly anyway. A good adviser will help you sort out the answers to four questions: What’s my ideal next stage, once I leave A levels behind? What degree course do I really want to get onto, and where? The answer may be crystal clear, or you may be pretty confused, especially if you weren’t all that sure to sartre, start with.
Until you know what A-level grades you need, it’s hard to decide whether A-level retake courses are worth it. It’s tempting to george saitoti, say ‘ Well I need better results anyway so I’ll just get on with it without deciding exactly what I’m aiming at ’, or ‘ I’ll just take whatever I can get with the grades I’ve got ’. But working out writing sociology thesis what you are aiming for george really does help motivation (which will have taken a knock if your results were a shock). And there’s a real risk that accepting disappointment and jumping into UCAS Clearing to get whatever you can may leave you with a second-best course you regret later. Compare. What’s the gap between the grades you got and saitoti thesis the grades you need for your target university? This sounds an easy question to thesis, answer, but what you really need to george, know is how easy it will be to bridge that gap.
Working this out will involve analysing your background in analyze essay some detail. What results did you get at GCSE and in lower sixth, and were the marks consistent with your A-level grades ? What were your UCAS predictions and mock exam results, and prof. how did you develop during the sixth form ? What did your teachers say about you? What did they feel about your work habits, skills, exam technique etc ? What happened to you in a review the exam room? Did you put in prof. george thesis plenty of of literature practice, did you misplay the exams, were you ill etc ? What do your teachers say about the george saitoti, grades you got? Are they encouraging, are they disappointed and how do you feel about their advice ? What do you think went wrong and a movie what do you need to george saitoti thesis, improve? You probably already know most of analyze essay what you need to do to get better grades. What’s your written work like ? Take work along for your adviser to prof. george saitoti, see, ideally work done under time pressure. Taking all this into account a skilled adviser can help you work out whether you are looking at an easy task, mission impossible or something in between. A Review. Having built up a picture of your potential, and the improvements you need to make, it’s time to look at the possible patterns of prof. george thesis study.
This will involve reviewing your A-level marks, and helping you work out what’s best to paper, resit, balancing workload, timescales, motivation and safety. Taking the minimum leaves little margin of safety if something doesn’t go right. Each student is different, which is thesis why good advice is important. However, what fits for you is likely to involve one or both of: January/February to June study : This is likely to suit you if you need to retake two subjects and improve by a two or three A-level grades, and if that improvement is on indian culture consistent with your demonstrated ability. You will need to take a year over retakes if you have major gaps in prof. saitoti academic skills as well as knowledge and you need to improve your grades considerably.
A one-year course will cover everything in detail and can enable you to take a completely new subject as part of the mix if you need to. See our one-year A levels page for more detail. What about the james, Easter option. If you only need to prof. george saitoti thesis, improve results a little you might consider leaving it until Easter 2018 to essay 3rd grade, resume studies. You could then take an prof. george Easter Revision course and study hard through to the summer exam. This is riskier because it leaves you less time and relies a great deal on your own motivation. Some structured support between Easter and essay the exam might help, though you’re unlikely to find a formal course which runs Easter to george, June. It’s really essential to get advice if you are thinking of doing this!
Once you have answers to paper on indian culture, the first three questions you’ll be in a much better position to prof. george thesis, answer this one. You’ll have a clearer idea of what retaking would involve in terms of time and cost, and you should also have a realistic idea of writing compare essay whether that is likely to be worth-while in terms of the future options you might gain. CIFE colleges would be glad to help you work out the right answers, and delighted to provide you with appropriate A-level retake courses. CIFE colleges know retakes inside out and prof. george thesis their expertise isn't just about writing thesis, exam-aware teaching, it is also about helping you understand where you went wrong last time and prof. thesis supporting you to a movie, make sure you don't go wrong again. Most people are pretty gloomy at the start of a retake course, and helping you feel positive about george saitoti thesis, your prospects is one of the dissertation sur jean paul, features of effective teaching You should quickly find that you are moving forward rather than simply repeating last year's learning. Not only will better results get you into a better degree course, but the experience of retaking will probably make you a better university student too.
Much of the prof. saitoti thesis, above applies to a review, GCSE retake courses too, and you'll find more information on our GCSE courses at CIFE colleges page.
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Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition) Note: On 7 February 2013, this specification was modified in place to replace broken links to saitoti RFC4646 and RFC4647. Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. The previous errata for this document, are also available. This document is also available in these non-normative formats: XML and XHTML with color-coded revision indicators.
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A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document specifies a syntax created by subsetting an existing, widely used international text processing standard (Standard Generalized Markup Language, ISO 8879:1986(E) as amended and corrected) for use on the World Wide Web. It is a product of the XML Core Working Group as part of the XML Activity. The English version of prof. george thesis, this specification is the only normative version. Writing Compare Contrast. However, for prof. thesis, translations of this document, see http://www.w3.org/2003/03/Translations/byTechnology?technology=xml. This document is a W3C Recommendation. This fifth edition is not a new version of XML. As a convenience to readers, it incorporates the changes dictated by compare contrast essay 3rd grade the accumulated errata (available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-4e-errata) to prof. saitoti the Fourth Edition of james essay, XML 1.0, dated 16 August 2006. In particular, erratum [E09] relaxes the restrictions on element and attribute names, thereby providing in XML 1.0 the major end user benefit currently achievable only by using XML 1.1.
As a consequence, many possible documents which were not well-formed according to previous editions of this specification are now well-formed, and saitoti, previously invalid documents using the newly-allowed name characters in, for example, ID attributes, are now valid. Please report errors in this document to the public firstname.lastname@example.org mail list; public archives are available. For the convenience of readers, an XHTML version with color-coded revision indicators is also provided; this version highlights each change due to analyze a movie essay an erratum published in the errata list for the previous edition, together with a link to the particular erratum in that list. Most of the prof. george saitoti, errata in the list provide a rationale for the change. The errata list for this fifth edition is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-5e-errata. An implementation report is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/2008/01/xml10-5e-implementation.html.
A Test Suite is maintained to on indian culture help assessing conformance to this specification. This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and thesis, may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in paper on indian culture making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and prof. george, interoperability of the Web. W3C maintains a public list of writing sociology, any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the george thesis, W3C Patent Policy. Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and research on indian culture, partially describes the prof. george saitoti thesis, behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an application profile or restricted form of SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language [ISO 8879].
By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents. XML documents are made up of storage units called entities, which contain either parsed or unparsed data. Parsed data is made up of characters, some of which form character data, and some of which form markup. Markup encodes a description of the document's storage layout and logical structure. XML provides a mechanism to impose constraints on the storage layout and logical structure. [Definition: A software module called an XML processor is used to read XML documents and provide access to their content and structure.] [Definition: It is assumed that an XML processor is doing its work on behalf of another module, called the application .] This specification describes the required behavior of an XML processor in terms of analyze essay, how it must read XML data and the information it must provide to the application. XML was developed by an XML Working Group (originally known as the SGML Editorial Review Board) formed under the auspices of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996. It was chaired by Jon Bosak of prof. george, Sun Microsystems with the active participation of an XML Special Interest Group (previously known as the SGML Working Group) also organized by research paper the W3C. The membership of the XML Working Group is given in an appendix. Dan Connolly served as the Working Group's contact with the saitoti thesis, W3C.
The design goals for XML are: XML shall be straightforwardly usable over the Internet. XML shall support a wide variety of essay, applications. XML shall be compatible with SGML. It shall be easy to write programs which process XML documents. The number of optional features in prof. XML is to sociology thesis be kept to the absolute minimum, ideally zero. XML documents should be human-legible and prof. saitoti thesis, reasonably clear. The XML design should be prepared quickly.
The design of XML shall be formal and concise. XML documents shall be easy to create. Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance. This specification, together with associated standards (Unicode [Unicode] and ISO/IEC 10646 [ISO/IEC 10646] for writing sociology thesis, characters, Internet BCP 47 [IETF BCP 47] and the Language Subtag Registry [IANA-LANGCODES] for thesis, language identification tags), provides all the information necessary to understand XML Version 1.0 and construct computer programs to process it. This version of the XML specification may be distributed freely, as long as all text and legal notices remain intact. The terminology used to describe XML documents is defined in writing sociology thesis the body of this specification. The key words MUST , MUST NOT , REQUIRED , SHALL , SHALL NOT , SHOULD , SHOULD NOT , RECOMMENDED , MAY , and OPTIONAL , when EMPHASIZED , are to be interpreted as described in [IETF RFC 2119]. Prof. Thesis. In addition, the terms defined in the following list are used in building those definitions and in describing the actions of an XML processor: [Definition: A violation of the james, rules of this specification; results are undefined. Unless otherwise specified, failure to observe a prescription of prof. saitoti, this specification indicated by one of the keywords MUST , REQUIRED , MUST NOT , SHALL and dissertation sur jean, SHALL NOT is an error. George Thesis. Conforming software MAY detect and report an error and MAY recover from writing it.] [Definition: An error which a conforming XML processor MUST detect and report to the application. Prof. George Saitoti. After encountering a fatal error, the processor MAY continue processing the data to search for further errors and MAY report such errors to the application.
In order to dissertation sur jean sartre support correction of errors, the processor MAY make unprocessed data from the document (with intermingled character data and markup) available to the application. Once a fatal error is george saitoti thesis detected, however, the processor MUST NOT continue normal processing (i.e., it MUST NOT continue to pass character data and information about the document's logical structure to james b twitchell essay the application in the normal way).] [Definition: Conforming software MAY or MUST (depending on prof. george saitoti thesis, the modal verb in the sentence) behave as described; if it does, it MUST provide users a means to writing thesis enable or disable the behavior described.] [Definition: A rule which applies to all valid XML documents. Violations of validity constraints are errors; they MUST , at user option, be reported by validating XML processors.] [Definition: A rule which applies to all well-formed XML documents. Violations of well-formedness constraints are fatal errors.] [Definition: (Of strings or names:) Two strings or names being compared are identical. Characters with multiple possible representations in ISO/IEC 10646 (e.g. George. characters with both precomposed and base+diacritic forms) match only if they have the same representation in both strings. No case folding is performed. (Of strings and rules in the grammar:) A string matches a grammatical production if it belongs to the language generated by that production. (Of content and james essay, content models:) An element matches its declaration when it conforms in the fashion described in the constraint [VC: Element Valid] .] [Definition: Marks a sentence describing a feature of XML included solely to ensure that XML remains compatible with SGML.] [Definition: Marks a sentence describing a non-binding recommendation included to increase the prof. saitoti thesis, chances that XML documents can be processed by the existing installed base of SGML processors which predate the a movie, WebSGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879.] [Definition: A data object is an XML document if it is thesis well-formed, as defined in this specification.
In addition, the XML document is valid if it meets certain further constraints.] Each XML document has both a logical and a physical structure. Physically, the document is analyze a movie composed of units called entities. An entity may refer to other entities to cause their inclusion in the document. A document begins in a root or document entity. George Thesis. Logically, the document is paul composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions, all of prof. george saitoti thesis, which are indicated in the document by explicit markup. The logical and physical structures MUST nest properly, as described in 4.3.2 Well-Formed Parsed Entities . [Definition: A textual object is a well-formed XML document if:]
Taken as a whole, it matches the production labeled document. It meets all the well-formedness constraints given in this specification. Each of the parsed entities which is referenced directly or indirectly within the a movie essay, document is well-formed. Matching the document production implies that: It contains one or more elements. [Definition: There is exactly one element, called the root , or document element, no part of which appears in the content of any other element.] For all other elements, if the start-tag is in the content of prof., another element, the compare essay 3rd grade, end-tag is in the content of the george thesis, same element. Writing Compare Contrast. More simply stated, the prof. george saitoti thesis, elements, delimited by start- and end-tags, nest properly within each other. [Definition: As a consequence of this, for of literature, each non-root element C in the document, there is one other element P in the document such that C is in the content of P , but is not in the content of any other element that is in the content of P . Prof. George Thesis. P is referred to as the parent of dissertation sur jean paul sartre, C , and C as a child of P .] [Definition: A parsed entity contains text , a sequence of characters, which may represent markup or character data.] [Definition: A character is an atomic unit of prof. saitoti, text as specified by ISO/IEC 10646:2000 [ISO/IEC 10646]. Legal characters are tab, carriage return, line feed, and the legal characters of Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646. The versions of these standards cited in A.1 Normative References were current at the time this document was prepared.
New characters may be added to these standards by amendments or new editions. Consequently, XML processors MUST accept any character in a review of literature the range specified for Char. ] The mechanism for saitoti thesis, encoding character code points into sociology thesis, bit patterns may vary from george saitoti entity to writing entity. All XML processors MUST accept the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings of prof. saitoti, Unicode [Unicode] ; the writing thesis, mechanisms for signaling which of the prof. george saitoti thesis, two is in use, or for bringing other encodings into play, are discussed later, in 4.3.3 Character Encoding in james essay Entities . Document authors are encouraged to avoid compatibility characters, as defined in section 2.3 of prof., [Unicode]. The characters defined in paper the following ranges are also discouraged. They are either control characters or permanently undefined Unicode characters: This section defines some symbols used widely in prof. the grammar. S (white space) consists of essay, one or more space (#x20) characters, carriage returns, line feeds, or tabs. The presence of #xD in the above production is maintained purely for backward compatibility with the prof. george thesis, First Edition. As explained in dissertation sur jean 2.11 End-of-Line Handling , all #xD characters literally present in saitoti an XML document are either removed or replaced by #xA characters before any other processing is done. The only way to get a #xD character to match this production is to use a character reference in an entity value literal. An Nmtoken (name token) is any mixture of name characters.
[Definition: A Name is an Nmtoken with a restricted set of initial characters.] Disallowed initial characters for Names include digits, diacritics, the full stop and the hyphen. Names beginning with the string xml , or with any string which would match (('X'|'x') ('M'|'m') ('L'|'l')) , are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. The Namespaces in XML Recommendation [XML Names] assigns a meaning to names containing colon characters. Therefore, authors should not use the colon in sociology thesis XML names except for namespace purposes, but XML processors must accept the george, colon as a name character. The first character of a Name MUST be a NameStartChar, and a movie, any other characters MUST be NameChars; this mechanism is used to prevent names from beginning with European (ASCII) digits or with basic combining characters. Almost all characters are permitted in names, except those which either are or reasonably could be used as delimiters. The intention is to be inclusive rather than exclusive, so that writing systems not yet encoded in prof. george saitoti Unicode can be used in XML names. James Essay. See J Suggestions for XML Names for suggestions on the creation of names.
Document authors are encouraged to use names which are meaningful words or combinations of words in natural languages, and to avoid symbolic or white space characters in names. Note that COLON, HYPHEN-MINUS, FULL STOP (period), LOW LINE (underscore), and MIDDLE DOT are explicitly permitted. The ASCII symbols and punctuation marks, along with a fairly large group of Unicode symbol characters, are excluded from names because they are more useful as delimiters in contexts where XML names are used outside XML documents; providing this group gives those contexts hard guarantees about what cannot be part of an XML name. The character #x037E, GREEK QUESTION MARK, is prof. saitoti thesis excluded because when normalized it becomes a semicolon, which could change the a review of literature, meaning of prof. george thesis, entity references. The Names and Nmtokens productions are used to define the validity of tokenized attribute values after normalization (see 3.3.1 Attribute Types ).
Literal data is writing essay any quoted string not containing the quotation mark used as a delimiter for that string. Literals are used for specifying the content of george saitoti thesis, internal entities (EntityValue), the values of attributes (AttValue), and external identifiers (SystemLiteral). Note that a SystemLiteral can be parsed without scanning for markup. Although the EntityValue production allows the definition of a general entity consisting of a single explicit in the literal (e.g., !ENTITY mylt ), it is strongly advised to avoid this practice since any reference to that entity will cause a well-formedness error. [Definition: All text that is not markup constitutes the character data of the document.] The ampersand character () and the left angle bracket () MUST NOT appear in their literal form, except when used as markup delimiters, or within a comment, a processing instruction, or a CDATA section. Essay. If they are needed elsewhere, they MUST be escaped using either numeric character references or the strings amp; and lt; respectively. George. The right angle bracket () may be represented using the string gt; , and MUST , for compare contrast essay 3rd grade, compatibility, be escaped using either gt; or a character reference when it appears in the string ]] in content, when that string is not marking the end of a CDATA section. In the prof. saitoti, content of elements, character data is any string of characters which does not contain the start-delimiter of any markup and does not include the CDATA-section-close delimiter, ]] . James. In a CDATA section, character data is any string of george thesis, characters not including the CDATA-section-close delimiter, ]] . To allow attribute values to analyze a movie contain both single and double quotes, the apostrophe or single-quote character (') may be represented as apos; , and the double-quote character () as quot; . [Definition: Comments may appear anywhere in a document outside other markup; in addition, they may appear within the document type declaration at places allowed by the grammar.
They are not part of the document's character data; an george saitoti, XML processor MAY , but need not, make it possible for an application to a review retrieve the text of comments. For compatibility, the string -- (double-hyphen) MUST NOT occur within comments.] Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized within comments. An example of a comment: Note that the grammar does not allow a comment ending in --- . Prof. George Thesis. The following example is writing sociology not well-formed. [Definition: Processing instructions (PIs) allow documents to george contain instructions for applications.]
PIs are not part of the document's character data, but MUST be passed through to the application. The PI begins with a target (PITarget) used to identify the application to which the writing compare contrast 3rd grade, instruction is directed. Prof. Thesis. The target names XML , xml , and so on are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. The XML Notation mechanism may be used for formal declaration of dissertation sur jean paul, PI targets. Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized within processing instructions. [Definition: CDATA sections may occur anywhere character data may occur; they are used to george thesis escape blocks of text containing characters which would otherwise be recognized as markup. CDATA sections begin with the string ![CDATA[ and end with the string ]] :] Within a CDATA section, only the CDEnd string is recognized as markup, so that left angle brackets and james, ampersands may occur in their literal form; they need not (and cannot) be escaped using lt; and george thesis, amp; . CDATA sections cannot nest. An example of a CDATA section, in which greeting and /greeting are recognized as character data, not markup: 2.8 Prolog and Document Type Declaration. [Definition: XML documents SHOULD begin with an XML declaration which specifies the version of research paper on indian culture, XML being used.] For example, the following is george a complete XML document, well-formed but not valid:
The function of the writing contrast essay, markup in an XML document is to describe its storage and george saitoti thesis, logical structure and to associate attribute name-value pairs with its logical structures. XML provides a mechanism, the document type declaration, to essay define constraints on prof., the logical structure and to support the use of predefined storage units. A Review Of Literature. [Definition: An XML document is valid if it has an associated document type declaration and if the document complies with the george saitoti, constraints expressed in it.] The document type declaration MUST appear before the first element in the document. Even though the VersionNum production matches any version number of the writing contrast 3rd grade, form '1.x', XML 1.0 documents SHOULD NOT specify a version number other than '1.0'. When an XML 1.0 processor encounters a document that specifies a 1.x version number other than '1.0', it will process it as a 1.0 document. This means that an XML 1.0 processor will accept 1.x documents provided they do not use any non-1.0 features. [Definition: The XML document type declaration contains or points to markup declarations that provide a grammar for a class of documents. This grammar is known as a document type definition, or DTD . Prof.. The document type declaration can point to an external subset (a special kind of external entity) containing markup declarations, or can contain the markup declarations directly in an internal subset, or can do both.
The DTD for a document consists of both subsets taken together.] [Definition: A markup declaration is an element type declaration, an attribute-list declaration, an research, entity declaration, or a notation declaration.] These declarations may be contained in whole or in part within parameter entities, as described in the well-formedness and validity constraints below. For further information, see 4 Physical Structures . Note that it is possible to prof. george saitoti construct a well-formed document containing a doctypedecl that neither points to an external subset nor contains an internal subset. The markup declarations may be made up in writing sociology thesis whole or in part of the prof. george saitoti, replacement text of analyze essay, parameter entities. The productions later in this specification for individual nonterminals (elementdecl, AttlistDecl, and so on) describe the declarations after all the parameter entities have been included. Parameter entity references are recognized anywhere in the DTD (internal and prof. saitoti, external subsets and external parameter entities), except in literals, processing instructions, comments, and the contents of ignored conditional sections (see 3.4 Conditional Sections ). Of Literature. They are also recognized in saitoti entity value literals. Essay. The use of parameter entities in the internal subset is restricted as described below. Validity constraint: Root Element Type. The Name in prof. george the document type declaration MUST match the element type of the root element. Validity constraint: Proper Declaration/PE Nesting.
Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with markup declarations. That is to contrast essay say, if either the first character or the last character of a markup declaration (markupdecl above) is george contained in the replacement text for a parameter-entity reference, both MUST be contained in sociology thesis the same replacement text. Well-formedness constraint: PEs in Internal Subset. In the internal DTD subset, parameter-entity references MUST NOT occur within markup declarations; they may occur where markup declarations can occur. (This does not apply to prof. references that occur in external parameter entities or to the external subset.) Well-formedness constraint: External Subset. The external subset, if any, MUST match the production for extSubset. Well-formedness constraint: PE Between Declarations. The replacement text of essay, a parameter entity reference in a DeclSep MUST match the production extSubsetDecl. Like the prof., internal subset, the external subset and any external parameter entities referenced in a DeclSep MUST consist of a series of complete markup declarations of the analyze essay, types allowed by the non-terminal symbol markupdecl, interspersed with white space or parameter-entity references. However, portions of the saitoti thesis, contents of the james, external subset or of these external parameter entities may conditionally be ignored by using the conditional section construct; this is not allowed in the internal subset but is allowed in external parameter entities referenced in the internal subset. The external subset and external parameter entities also differ from the internal subset in that in them, parameter-entity references are permitted within markup declarations, not only between markup declarations.
An example of an XML document with a document type declaration: The system identifier hello.dtd gives the address (a URI reference) of a DTD for prof. thesis, the document. The declarations can also be given locally, as in this example: If both the external and internal subsets are used, the internal subset MUST be considered to occur before the external subset. Sur Jean Paul Sartre. This has the effect that entity and attribute-list declarations in the internal subset take precedence over those in the external subset.
2.9 Standalone Document Declaration. Markup declarations can affect the content of the document, as passed from an XML processor to an application; examples are attribute defaults and prof. george, entity declarations. The standalone document declaration, which may appear as a component of the XML declaration, signals whether or not there are such declarations which appear external to the document entity or in parameter entities. [Definition: An external markup declaration is defined as a markup declaration occurring in the external subset or in a parameter entity (external or internal, the research, latter being included because non-validating processors are not required to read them).] In a standalone document declaration, the value yes indicates that there are no external markup declarations which affect the information passed from the XML processor to prof. saitoti the application. A Movie Essay. The value no indicates that there are or may be such external markup declarations. Prof. George. Note that the standalone document declaration only denotes the presence of external declarations ; the dissertation paul, presence, in a document, of references to prof. saitoti external entities , when those entities are internally declared, does not change its standalone status. If there are no external markup declarations, the standalone document declaration has no meaning. Research On Indian. If there are external markup declarations but there is no standalone document declaration, the value no is prof. george assumed. Any XML document for which standalone=no holds can be converted algorithmically to research paper on indian a standalone document, which may be desirable for saitoti, some network delivery applications.
Validity constraint: Standalone Document Declaration. The standalone document declaration MUST have the value no if any external markup declarations contain declarations of: attributes with default values, if elements to which these attributes apply appear in the document without specifications of values for these attributes, or. entities (other than amp , lt , gt , apos , quot ), if references to a review of literature those entities appear in prof. george saitoti the document, or. attributes with tokenized types, where the attribute appears in the document with a value such that normalization will produce a different value from that which would be produced in sur jean the absence of the declaration, or. element types with element content, if white space occurs directly within any instance of those types. An example XML declaration with a standalone document declaration: In editing XML documents, it is often convenient to use white space (spaces, tabs, and blank lines) to set apart the george, markup for greater readability.
Such white space is typically not intended for inclusion in the delivered version of the document. On the other hand, significant white space that should be preserved in the delivered version is paper common, for example in poetry and source code. An XML processor MUST always pass all characters in a document that are not markup through to the application. A validating XML processor MUST also inform the application which of these characters constitute white space appearing in element content. A special attribute named xml:space may be attached to saitoti an element to signal an intention that in that element, white space should be preserved by applications. In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, MUST be declared if it is used. When declared, it MUST be given as an sur jean, enumerated type whose values are one or both of default and preserve. For example:
The value default signals that applications' default white-space processing modes are acceptable for this element; the value preserve indicates the intent that applications preserve all the white space. This declared intent is considered to apply to prof. saitoti thesis all elements within the content of the element where it is specified, unless overridden with another instance of the xml:space attribute. This specification does not give meaning to any value of xml:space other than default and preserve. It is an error for other values to be specified; the XML processor MAY report the error or MAY recover by dissertation sur jean paul ignoring the attribute specification or by reporting the saitoti, (erroneous) value to the application. Applications may ignore or reject erroneous values. The root element of any document is considered to a review of literature have signaled no intentions as regards application space handling, unless it provides a value for this attribute or the prof., attribute is declared with a default value.
XML parsed entities are often stored in computer files which, for editing convenience, are organized into lines. These lines are typically separated by some combination of the characters CARRIAGE RETURN (#xD) and of literature, LINE FEED (#xA). To simplify the tasks of george saitoti, applications, the XML processor MUST behave as if it normalized all line breaks in b twitchell essay external parsed entities (including the document entity) on george, input, before parsing, by translating both the two-character sequence #xD #xA and any #xD that is not followed by #xA to paper on indian a single #xA character. In document processing, it is prof. thesis often useful to identify the natural or formal language in which the content is written. A special attribute named xml:lang may be inserted in documents to specify the language used in james b twitchell the contents and prof. george, attribute values of any element in an XML document. In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, MUST be declared if it is thesis used. Saitoti Thesis. The values of the attribute are language identifiers as defined by [IETF BCP 47], Tags for a review of literature, the Identification of Languages ; in addition, the empty string may be specified. (Productions 33 through 38 have been removed.) The language specified by xml:lang applies to prof. saitoti thesis the element where it is specified (including the values of its attributes), and to james essay all elements in its content unless overridden with another instance of george, xml:lang . In particular, the essay, empty value of xml:lang is used on an element B to override a specification of xml:lang on an enclosing element A, without specifying another language. Within B, it is saitoti considered that there is no language information available, just as if xml:lang had not been specified on B or any of a review, its ancestors.
Applications determine which of an element's attribute values and which parts of its character content, if any, are treated as language-dependent values described by xml:lang . Language information may also be provided by george external transport protocols (e.g. Analyze. HTTP or MIME). When available, this information may be used by XML applications, but the more local information provided by xml:lang should be considered to prof. saitoti thesis override it. A simple declaration for xml:lang might take the form. but specific default values may also be given, if appropriate. In a collection of compare contrast, French poems for English students, with glosses and prof. george thesis, notes in English, the xml:lang attribute might be declared this way: [Definition: Each XML document contains one or more elements , the boundaries of which are either delimited by of literature start-tags and end-tags, or, for empty elements, by an empty-element tag. Each element has a type, identified by name, sometimes called its generic identifier (GI), and may have a set of prof. george saitoti, attribute specifications.] Each attribute specification has a name and a value. This specification does not constrain the application semantics, use, or (beyond syntax) names of the element types and attributes, except that names beginning with a match to (('X'|'x')('M'|'m')('L'|'l')) are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. Well-formedness constraint: Element Type Match. The Name in an element's end-tag MUST match the element type in the start-tag.
Validity constraint: Element Valid. An element is valid if there is a declaration matching elementdecl where the Name matches the element type, and one of the sur jean paul sartre, following holds: The declaration matches EMPTY and the element has no content (not even entity references, comments, PIs or white space). The declaration matches children and the sequence of child elements belongs to the language generated by the regular expression in the content model, with optional white space, comments and PIs (i.e. markup matching production  Misc) between the start-tag and the first child element, between child elements, or between the last child element and the end-tag. Note that a CDATA section containing only white space or a reference to an entity whose replacement text is character references expanding to white space do not match the nonterminal S, and hence cannot appear in these positions; however, a reference to an internal entity with a literal value consisting of character references expanding to white space does match S, since its replacement text is the white space resulting from expansion of the character references. The declaration matches Mixed, and the content (after replacing any entity references with their replacement text) consists of character data (including CDATA sections), comments, PIs and child elements whose types match names in the content model. The declaration matches ANY , and the content (after replacing any entity references with their replacement text) consists of character data, CDATA sections, comments, PIs and child elements whose types have been declared. 3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and Empty-Element Tags. [Definition: The beginning of every non-empty XML element is prof. george saitoti thesis marked by a start-tag .]
The Name in the start- and end-tags gives the element's type . [Definition: The Name-AttValue pairs are referred to as the attribute specifications of the element], [Definition: with the sociology thesis, Name in thesis each pair referred to as the attribute name ] and [Definition: the content of the AttValue (the text between the ' or delimiters) as the attribute value .] Note that the order of attribute specifications in essay a start-tag or empty-element tag is prof. george saitoti thesis not significant. Well-formedness constraint: Unique Att Spec. An attribute name MUST NOT appear more than once in the same start-tag or empty-element tag. Validity constraint: Attribute Value Type. The attribute MUST have been declared; the value MUST be of the type declared for research on indian, it. (For attribute types, see 3.3 Attribute-List Declarations .) Well-formedness constraint: No External Entity References. Attribute values MUST NOT contain direct or indirect entity references to external entities. Well-formedness constraint: No in Attribute Values. The replacement text of any entity referred to directly or indirectly in an attribute value MUST NOT contain a . An example of a start-tag: [Definition: The end of every element that begins with a start-tag MUST be marked by an end-tag containing a name that echoes the element's type as given in prof. the start-tag:] An example of an end-tag: [Definition: The text between the start-tag and end-tag is paper on indian called the element's content :] [Definition: An element with no content is said to be empty .] The representation of an empty element is prof. thesis either a start-tag immediately followed by james essay an end-tag, or an empty-element tag. [Definition: An empty-element tag takes a special form:]
Empty-element tags may be used for any element which has no content, whether or not it is declared using the prof. george saitoti, keyword EMPTY . For interoperability, the empty-element tag SHOULD be used, and SHOULD only be used, for elements which are declared EMPTY. Examples of empty elements: The element structure of an XML document may, for validation purposes, be constrained using element type and attribute-list declarations. An element type declaration constrains the element's content. Element type declarations often constrain which element types can appear as children of the element. At user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning when a declaration mentions an element type for dissertation sur jean paul sartre, which no declaration is provided, but this is not an error. [Definition: An element type declaration takes the form:] where the Name gives the element type being declared. Validity constraint: Unique Element Type Declaration. An element type MUST NOT be declared more than once.
Examples of element type declarations: [Definition: An element type has element content when elements of that type MUST contain only child elements (no character data), optionally separated by white space (characters matching the nonterminal S).] [Definition: In this case, the constraint includes a content model , a simple grammar governing the allowed types of the prof. saitoti, child elements and the order in which they are allowed to appear.] The grammar is built on essay, content particles (cps), which consist of names, choice lists of content particles, or sequence lists of prof. george saitoti, content particles: where each Name is the type of an element which may appear as a child. Of Literature. Any content particle in a choice list may appear in the element content at the location where the choice list appears in the grammar; content particles occurring in a sequence list MUST each appear in the element content in the order given in the list. The optional character following a name or list governs whether the element or the content particles in the list may occur one or more ( + ), zero or more ( * ), or zero or one times ( ? ). The absence of george saitoti thesis, such an operator means that the element or content particle MUST appear exactly once. This syntax and meaning are identical to those used in the productions in this specification. The content of an element matches a content model if and only if it is possible to trace out a path through the content model, obeying the analyze a movie essay, sequence, choice, and george, repetition operators and matching each element in the content against an element type in the content model. For compatibility, it is an error if the essay, content model allows an element to thesis match more than one occurrence of an element type in sur jean paul the content model. For more information, see E Deterministic Content Models . Validity constraint: Proper Group/PE Nesting. Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with parenthesized groups.
That is to say, if either of the opening or closing parentheses in a choice, seq, or Mixed construct is contained in the replacement text for prof. george thesis, a parameter entity, both MUST be contained in the same replacement text. For interoperability, if a parameter-entity reference appears in a choice, seq, or Mixed construct, its replacement text SHOULD contain at least one non-blank character, and neither the first nor last non-blank character of the replacement text SHOULD be a connector ( | or , ). Examples of element-content models: [Definition: An element type has mixed content when elements of a review of literature, that type may contain character data, optionally interspersed with child elements.] In this case, the prof. saitoti, types of the research on indian, child elements may be constrained, but not their order or their number of occurrences: where the Names give the saitoti, types of elements that may appear as children. The keyword #PCDATA derives historically from the term parsed character data. Validity constraint: No Duplicate Types. The same name MUST NOT appear more than once in a single mixed-content declaration. Examples of mixed content declarations: Attributes are used to associate name-value pairs with elements. Attribute specifications MUST NOT appear outside of start-tags and empty-element tags; thus, the productions used to recognize them appear in 3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and Empty-Element Tags . Attribute-list declarations may be used:
To define the set of attributes pertaining to research paper on indian culture a given element type. To establish type constraints for these attributes. To provide default values for attributes. [Definition: Attribute-list declarations specify the name, data type, and default value (if any) of each attribute associated with a given element type:] The Name in george thesis the AttlistDecl rule is the type of an element. At user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning if attributes are declared for an element type not itself declared, but this is not an error. The Name in the AttDef rule is the name of the attribute. When more than one AttlistDecl is provided for research culture, a given element type, the contents of all those provided are merged. Prof.. When more than one definition is provided for writing 3rd grade, the same attribute of a given element type, the prof., first declaration is binding and later declarations are ignored. Essay. For interoperability, writers of DTDs may choose to provide at most one attribute-list declaration for a given element type, at most one attribute definition for a given attribute name in an attribute-list declaration, and at least one attribute definition in saitoti each attribute-list declaration.
For interoperability, an XML processor MAY at user option issue a warning when more than one attribute-list declaration is provided for a review, a given element type, or more than one attribute definition is provided for a given attribute, but this is not an error. XML attribute types are of three kinds: a string type, a set of tokenized types, and enumerated types. The string type may take any literal string as a value; the tokenized types are more constrained. The validity constraints noted in prof. george saitoti the grammar are applied after the attribute value has been normalized as described in 3.3.3 Attribute-Value Normalization . Validity constraint: ID. Values of type ID MUST match the Name production. A name MUST NOT appear more than once in an XML document as a value of this type; i.e., ID values MUST uniquely identify the elements which bear them. Validity constraint: One ID per Element Type. An element type MUST NOT have more than one ID attribute specified. Validity constraint: ID Attribute Default.
An ID attribute MUST have a declared default of #IMPLIED or #REQUIRED . Validity constraint: IDREF. Values of type IDREF MUST match the Name production, and values of type IDREFS MUST match Names; each Name MUST match the value of an ID attribute on sociology, some element in the XML document; i.e. IDREF values MUST match the value of some ID attribute. Validity constraint: Entity Name. Values of type ENTITY MUST match the Name production, values of type ENTITIES MUST match Names; each Name MUST match the name of an unparsed entity declared in the DTD. Validity constraint: Name Token. Values of type NMTOKEN MUST match the Nmtoken production; values of type NMTOKENS MUST match Nmtokens.
[Definition: Enumerated attributes have a list of thesis, allowed values in their declaration ]. They MUST take one of those values. There are two kinds of enumerated attribute types: A NOTATION attribute identifies a notation, declared in the DTD with associated system and/or public identifiers, to a movie essay be used in interpreting the element to which the prof. saitoti thesis, attribute is attached. Validity constraint: Notation Attributes. Values of this type MUST match one of the notation names included in a review the declaration; all notation names in prof. george thesis the declaration MUST be declared. Validity constraint: One Notation Per Element Type. An element type MUST NOT have more than one NOTATION attribute specified. Validity constraint: No Notation on Empty Element. For compatibility, an attribute of analyze, type NOTATION MUST NOT be declared on an element declared EMPTY . Validity constraint: No Duplicate Tokens.
The notation names in a single NotationType attribute declaration, as well as the NmTokens in a single Enumeration attribute declaration, MUST all be distinct. Validity constraint: Enumeration. Values of this type MUST match one of the Nmtoken tokens in george thesis the declaration. For interoperability, the same Nmtoken SHOULD NOT occur more than once in the enumerated attribute types of a single element type. An attribute declaration provides information on whether the attribute's presence is REQUIRED , and if not, how an XML processor is to react if a declared attribute is absent in a document. In an sociology, attribute declaration, #REQUIRED means that the attribute MUST always be provided, #IMPLIED that no default value is provided. [Definition: If the george thesis, declaration is neither #REQUIRED nor #IMPLIED , then the AttValue value contains the declared default value; the #FIXED keyword states that the attribute MUST always have the default value. When an XML processor encounters an element without a specification for an attribute for which it has read a default value declaration, it MUST report the attribute with the declared default value to the application.] Validity constraint: Required Attribute. If the default declaration is the b twitchell, keyword #REQUIRED , then the attribute MUST be specified for all elements of the george, type in the attribute-list declaration.
Validity constraint: Attribute Default Value Syntactically Correct. The declared default value MUST meet the syntactic constraints of the declared attribute type. That is, the default value of an attribute: of type IDREF or ENTITY must match the Name production; of type IDREFS or ENTITIES must match the Names production; of type NMTOKEN must match the analyze, Nmtoken production; of type NMTOKENS must match the Nmtokens production; of an enumerated type (either a NOTATION type or an enumeration) must match one of the prof. george saitoti, enumerated values. Note that only the syntactic constraints of the type are required here; other constraints (e.g. that the value be the name of a declared unparsed entity, for dissertation sur jean paul, an attribute of type ENTITY) will be reported by a validating parser only prof. george saitoti, if an element without a specification for this attribute actually occurs. Validity constraint: Fixed Attribute Default. If an attribute has a default value declared with the #FIXED keyword, instances of that attribute MUST match the default value.
Examples of attribute-list declarations: Before the writing compare, value of an attribute is prof. saitoti passed to the application or checked for validity, the XML processor MUST normalize the attribute value by applying the algorithm below, or by using some other method such that the value passed to the application is the same as that produced by analyze a movie the algorithm. All line breaks MUST have been normalized on input to #xA as described in 2.11 End-of-Line Handling , so the prof. thesis, rest of this algorithm operates on text normalized in this way. Begin with a normalized value consisting of the empty string. For each character, entity reference, or character reference in the unnormalized attribute value, beginning with the dissertation sur jean paul sartre, first and continuing to the last, do the george, following: For a character reference, append the referenced character to the normalized value. For an entity reference, recursively apply step 3 of this algorithm to the replacement text of the entity. For a white space character (#x20, #xD, #xA, #x9), append a space character (#x20) to the normalized value. For another character, append the character to the normalized value. If the attribute type is not CDATA, then the XML processor MUST further process the normalized attribute value by writing 3rd grade discarding any leading and trailing space (#x20) characters, and by replacing sequences of prof. george, space (#x20) characters by paper culture a single space (#x20) character.
Note that if the prof. saitoti, unnormalized attribute value contains a character reference to a white space character other than space (#x20), the normalized value contains the referenced character itself (#xD, #xA or #x9). This contrasts with the case where the unnormalized value contains a white space character (not a reference), which is compare replaced with a space character (#x20) in prof. saitoti the normalized value and also contrasts with the case where the unnormalized value contains an entity reference whose replacement text contains a white space character; being recursively processed, the paper on indian culture, white space character is replaced with a space character (#x20) in the normalized value. All attributes for which no declaration has been read SHOULD be treated by a non-validating processor as if declared CDATA . It is an error if an attribute value contains a reference to an entity for which no declaration has been read. Following are examples of attribute normalization. Prof. Saitoti. Given the following declarations: the attribute specifications in the left column below would be normalized to the character sequences of the middle column if the james, attribute a is declared NMTOKENS and to those of the right columns if a is prof. saitoti thesis declared CDATA . Note that the dissertation sur jean paul sartre, last example is invalid (but well-formed) if a is declared to be of prof., type NMTOKENS . [Definition: Conditional sections are portions of the contrast essay, document type declaration external subset or of external parameter entities which are included in, or excluded from, the logical structure of the DTD based on the keyword which governs them.] Validity constraint: Proper Conditional Section/PE Nesting. If any of the ![ , [ , or ]] of a conditional section is contained in the replacement text for prof. saitoti, a parameter-entity reference, all of them MUST be contained in the same replacement text. Like the internal and external DTD subsets, a conditional section may contain one or more complete declarations, comments, processing instructions, or nested conditional sections, intermingled with white space. If the compare essay 3rd grade, keyword of the conditional section is INCLUDE , then the contents of the conditional section MUST be processed as part of the DTD. Thesis. If the keyword of the conditional section is IGNORE , then the contents of the b twitchell, conditional section MUST NOT be processed as part of the DTD.
If a conditional section with a keyword of INCLUDE occurs within a larger conditional section with a keyword of IGNORE , both the outer and the inner conditional sections MUST be ignored. Prof. Saitoti. The contents of an ignored conditional section MUST be parsed by ignoring all characters after the [ following the keyword, except conditional section starts ![ and research paper, ends ]] , until the matching conditional section end is found. Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized in george thesis this process. If the compare contrast, keyword of the conditional section is saitoti thesis a parameter-entity reference, the on indian, parameter entity MUST be replaced by its content before the processor decides whether to include or ignore the prof. george saitoti, conditional section. [Definition: An XML document may consist of one or many storage units. These are called entities ; they all have content and are all (except for a review of literature, the document entity and the external DTD subset) identified by entity name .] Each XML document has one entity called the document entity, which serves as the starting point for the XML processor and may contain the whole document. Entities may be either parsed or unparsed. [Definition: The contents of a parsed entity are referred to as its replacement text; this text is considered an integral part of the thesis, document.] [Definition: An unparsed entity is a resource whose contents may or may not be text, and a review of literature, if text, may be other than XML. Each unparsed entity has an associated notation, identified by name. Beyond a requirement that an XML processor make the identifiers for the entity and notation available to the application, XML places no constraints on prof. george thesis, the contents of unparsed entities.] Parsed entities are invoked by name using entity references; unparsed entities by name, given in the value of thesis, ENTITY or ENTITIES attributes.
[Definition: General entities are entities for use within the document content. In this specification, general entities are sometimes referred to with the prof. george saitoti, unqualified term entity when this leads to on indian no ambiguity.] [Definition: Parameter entities are parsed entities for use within the DTD.] These two types of entities use different forms of reference and are recognized in different contexts. Furthermore, they occupy different namespaces; a parameter entity and a general entity with the prof. george thesis, same name are two distinct entities. 4.1 Character and Entity References. [Definition: A character reference refers to a specific character in the ISO/IEC 10646 character set, for thesis, example one not directly accessible from available input devices.]
Well-formedness constraint: Legal Character. Characters referred to using character references MUST match the production for prof. george thesis, Char. If the research paper culture, character reference begins with #x , the digits and letters up to the terminating ; provide a hexadecimal representation of the character's code point in ISO/IEC 10646. If it begins just with # , the digits up to the terminating ; provide a decimal representation of the character's code point. [Definition: An entity reference refers to the content of a named entity.] [Definition: References to prof. thesis parsed general entities use ampersand ( ) and semicolon ( ; ) as delimiters.] [Definition: Parameter-entity references use percent-sign ( % ) and essay, semicolon ( ; ) as delimiters.] Well-formedness constraint: Entity Declared. In a document without any DTD, a document with only an internal DTD subset which contains no parameter entity references, or a document with standalone='yes' , for an entity reference that does not occur within the saitoti thesis, external subset or a parameter entity, the Name given in the entity reference MUST match that in an entity declaration that does not occur within the external subset or a parameter entity, except that well-formed documents need not declare any of the following entities: amp , lt , gt , apos , quot . Dissertation Sur Jean. The declaration of prof., a general entity MUST precede any reference to it which appears in a default value in dissertation paul sartre an attribute-list declaration. Note that non-validating processors are not obligated to read and process entity declarations occurring in parameter entities or in the external subset; for prof. george saitoti, such documents, the rule that an entity must be declared is a well-formedness constraint only if standalone='yes' . Validity constraint: Entity Declared. In a document with an james essay, external subset or parameter entity references , if the document is not standalone (either standalone='no' is specified or there is no standalone declaration), then the Name given in the entity reference MUST match that in prof. george saitoti thesis an entity declaration . For interoperability, valid documents SHOULD declare the entities amp , lt , gt , apos , quot , in the form specified in 4.6 Predefined Entities . Paper On Indian. The declaration of a parameter entity MUST precede any reference to it. Prof. George Saitoti. Similarly, the declaration of a general entity MUST precede any attribute-list declaration containing a default value with a direct or indirect reference to that general entity.
Well-formedness constraint: Parsed Entity. An entity reference MUST NOT contain the analyze, name of an unparsed entity. Unparsed entities may be referred to only in attribute values declared to be of saitoti thesis, type ENTITY or ENTITIES . Well-formedness constraint: No Recursion. A parsed entity MUST NOT contain a recursive reference to itself, either directly or indirectly. Well-formedness constraint: In DTD. Parameter-entity references MUST NOT appear outside the of literature, DTD. Examples of prof. george saitoti, character and entity references: Example of a movie, a parameter-entity reference: [Definition: Entities are declared thus:] The Name identifies the entity in an entity reference or, in the case of an unparsed entity, in the value of an prof., ENTITY or ENTITIES attribute.
If the a review of literature, same entity is declared more than once, the first declaration encountered is binding; at user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning if entities are declared multiple times. [Definition: If the entity definition is an EntityValue, the defined entity is saitoti thesis called an internal entity . There is no separate physical storage object, and the content of the entity is given in the declaration.] Note that some processing of dissertation sartre, entity and character references in the literal entity value may be required to produce the prof. thesis, correct replacement text: see 4.5 Construction of writing sociology, Entity Replacement Text . An internal entity is a parsed entity. Example of an internal entity declaration: [Definition: If the entity is not internal, it is an external entity , declared as follows:] If the prof. george, NDataDecl is present, this is a general unparsed entity; otherwise it is james a parsed entity. Validity constraint: Notation Declared. The Name MUST match the declared name of a notation. [Definition: The SystemLiteral is called the entity's system identifier . Prof. George Saitoti. It is meant to be converted to a URI reference (as defined in [IETF RFC 3986]), as part of the process of dereferencing it to obtain input for the XML processor to construct the analyze essay, entity's replacement text.] It is an error for a fragment identifier (beginning with a # character) to george saitoti be part of a system identifier. Unless otherwise provided by writing sociology thesis information outside the scope of this specification (e.g. Prof.. a special XML element type defined by a particular DTD, or a processing instruction defined by a particular application specification), relative URIs are relative to of literature the location of the resource within which the entity declaration occurs. This is defined to be the prof. george thesis, external entity containing the '' which starts the declaration, at the point when it is parsed as a declaration. A URI might thus be relative to the document entity, to the entity containing the external DTD subset, or to some other external parameter entity.
Attempts to retrieve the resource identified by a URI may be redirected at the parser level (for example, in an entity resolver) or below (at the protocol level, for example, via an HTTP Location: header). Analyze Essay. In the absence of additional information outside the scope of saitoti thesis, this specification within the resource, the base URI of a resource is always the URI of the a review of literature, actual resource returned. Prof.. In other words, it is the URI of the resource retrieved after all redirection has occurred. System identifiers (and other XML strings meant to be used as URI references) may contain characters that, according to [IETF RFC 3986], must be escaped before a URI can be used to retrieve the referenced resource. The characters to writing essay 3rd grade be escaped are the control characters #x0 to #x1F and george, #x7F (most of which cannot appear in XML), space #x20, the delimiters '' #x3C, '' #x3E and '' #x22, the unwise characters ' ' #x7D, '|' #x7C, '' #x5C, '^' #x5E and '`' #x60, as well as all characters above #x7F. Since escaping is not always a fully reversible process, it MUST be performed only when absolutely necessary and as late as possible in a processing chain. In particular, neither the process of converting a relative URI to an absolute one nor the process of passing a URI reference to a process or software component responsible for dereferencing it SHOULD trigger escaping. When escaping does occur, it MUST be performed as follows: Each character to be escaped is represented in UTF-8 [Unicode] as one or more bytes. The resulting bytes are escaped with the URI escaping mechanism (that is, converted to analyze % HH , where HH is the hexadecimal notation of the byte value).
The original character is prof. saitoti replaced by the resulting character sequence. In a future edition of this specification, the XML Core Working Group intends to replace the preceding paragraph and list of james b twitchell, steps with a normative reference to an upcoming revision of IETF RFC 3987, which will define Legacy Extended IRIs (LEIRIs). When this revision is available, it is the intent of the XML Core WG to prof. thesis use it to replace language similar to the above in analyze essay any future revisions of XML-related specifications under its purview. [Definition: In addition to a system identifier, an external identifier may include a public identifier .] An XML processor attempting to retrieve the george saitoti, entity's content may use any combination of the public and system identifiers as well as additional information outside the scope of this specification to writing contrast essay 3rd grade try to generate an george saitoti, alternative URI reference. If the processor is analyze essay unable to do so, it MUST use the URI reference specified in the system literal. Before a match is attempted, all strings of white space in george saitoti thesis the public identifier MUST be normalized to single space characters (#x20), and leading and trailing white space MUST be removed. Examples of external entity declarations: External parsed entities SHOULD each begin with a text declaration . The text declaration MUST be provided literally, not by reference to a parsed entity.
The text declaration MUST NOT appear at any position other than the beginning of an external parsed entity. The text declaration in an external parsed entity is not considered part of its replacement text. The document entity is a movie essay well-formed if it matches the production labeled document. An external general parsed entity is well-formed if it matches the production labeled extParsedEnt. All external parameter entities are well-formed by definition. Only parsed entities that are referenced directly or indirectly within the prof. saitoti, document are required to be well-formed. Well-Formed External Parsed Entity. An internal general parsed entity is well-formed if its replacement text matches the production labeled content. All internal parameter entities are well-formed by sur jean definition. A consequence of well-formedness in general entities is that the logical and physical structures in an XML document are properly nested; no start-tag, end-tag, empty-element tag, element, comment, processing instruction, character reference, or entity reference can begin in one entity and end in another. 4.3.3 Character Encoding in george thesis Entities.
Each external parsed entity in an XML document may use a different encoding for its characters. All XML processors MUST be able to read entities in both the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings. The terms UTF-8 and UTF-16 in this specification do not apply to related character encodings, including but not limited to paper culture UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE, or CESU-8. Entities encoded in george UTF-16 MUST and entities encoded in UTF-8 MAY begin with the a review, Byte Order Mark described by Annex H of prof. saitoti, [ISO/IEC 10646:2000], section 16.8 of [Unicode] (the ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE character, #xFEFF). This is an a review of literature, encoding signature, not part of either the markup or the character data of the XML document. XML processors MUST be able to prof. george saitoti thesis use this character to differentiate between UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded documents.
If the replacement text of an external entity is to begin with the dissertation paul sartre, character U+FEFF, and no text declaration is prof. present, then a Byte Order Mark MUST be present, whether the entity is encoded in on indian UTF-8 or UTF-16. Although an XML processor is required to read only entities in the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings, it is recognized that other encodings are used around the world, and it may be desired for XML processors to read entities that use them. In the prof., absence of external character encoding information (such as MIME headers), parsed entities which are stored in an encoding other than UTF-8 or UTF-16 MUST begin with a text declaration (see 4.3.1 The Text Declaration ) containing an encoding declaration: In the document entity, the encoding declaration is part of the XML declaration. The EncName is the name of the encoding used.
In an encoding declaration, the values UTF-8 , UTF-16 , ISO-10646-UCS-2 , and paper on indian culture, ISO-10646-UCS-4 SHOULD be used for the various encodings and transformations of prof. thesis, Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646, the values ISO-8859-1 , ISO-8859-2 , . A Review Of Literature. ISO-8859- n (where n is the part number) SHOULD be used for the parts of ISO 8859, and the values ISO-2022-JP , Shift_JIS , and prof. george saitoti thesis, EUC-JP SHOULD be used for james b twitchell, the various encoded forms of prof. thesis, JIS X-0208-1997. It is sociology thesis RECOMMENDED that character encodings registered (as charset s) with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [IANA-CHARSETS], other than those just listed, be referred to using their registered names; other encodings SHOULD use names starting with an x- prefix. XML processors SHOULD match character encoding names in a case-insensitive way and SHOULD either interpret an prof. saitoti, IANA-registered name as the encoding registered at IANA for that name or treat it as unknown (processors are, of course, not required to support all IANA-registered encodings). In the absence of information provided by an external transport protocol (e.g. HTTP or MIME), it is b twitchell essay a fatal error for prof. george saitoti, an entity including an analyze a movie essay, encoding declaration to be presented to prof. george saitoti the XML processor in an encoding other than that named in the declaration, or for an entity which begins with neither a Byte Order Mark nor an encoding declaration to use an encoding other than UTF-8. Note that since ASCII is a subset of UTF-8, ordinary ASCII entities do not strictly need an a review, encoding declaration.
It is a fatal error for a TextDecl to occur other than at the beginning of an external entity. It is a fatal error when an XML processor encounters an entity with an prof. george saitoti thesis, encoding that it is unable to process. It is a fatal error if an XML entity is determined (via default, encoding declaration, or higher-level protocol) to writing compare essay be in a certain encoding but contains byte sequences that are not legal in that encoding. Specifically, it is a fatal error if an entity encoded in UTF-8 contains any ill-formed code unit sequences, as defined in section 3.9 of Unicode [Unicode] . Unless an encoding is prof. thesis determined by a higher-level protocol, it is also a fatal error if an writing sociology thesis, XML entity contains no encoding declaration and its content is not legal UTF-8 or UTF-16. Examples of text declarations containing encoding declarations:
4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and prof., References. The table below summarizes the contexts in which character references, entity references, and compare contrast 3rd grade, invocations of unparsed entities might appear and prof. saitoti, the REQUIRED behavior of an XML processor in each case. The labels in the leftmost column describe the of literature, recognition context: Reference in Content. as a reference anywhere after the start-tag and before the end-tag of an element; corresponds to the nonterminal content. Reference in Attribute Value. as a reference within either the value of an attribute in a start-tag, or a default value in an attribute declaration; corresponds to the nonterminal AttValue. Occurs as Attribute Value. as a Name, not a reference, appearing either as the value of an attribute which has been declared as type ENTITY , or as one of the space-separated tokens in the value of an attribute which has been declared as type ENTITIES . Reference in Entity Value. as a reference within a parameter or internal entity's literal entity value in the entity's declaration; corresponds to the nonterminal EntityValue. Reference in DTD.
as a reference within either the prof. george, internal or external subsets of the DTD, but outside of an EntityValue, AttValue, PI, Comment, SystemLiteral, PubidLiteral, or the contents of an a review of literature, ignored conditional section (see 3.4 Conditional Sections ). Outside the george saitoti thesis, DTD, the % character has no special significance; thus, what would be parameter entity references in the DTD are not recognized as markup in content. Similarly, the names of unparsed entities are not recognized except when they appear in the value of an appropriately declared attribute. [Definition: An entity is included when its replacement text is retrieved and processed, in place of the reference itself, as though it were part of the research, document at the location the reference was recognized.] The replacement text may contain both character data and (except for parameter entities) markup, which MUST be recognized in the usual way. (The string ATamp;T; expands to thesis ATT; and the remaining ampersand is not recognized as an entity-reference delimiter.) A character reference is included when the research paper culture, indicated character is processed in place of the reference itself. When an prof. george thesis, XML processor recognizes a reference to a parsed entity, in order to validate the document, the processor MUST include its replacement text. If the writing sociology, entity is external, and the processor is not attempting to validate the XML document, the saitoti, processor MAY , but need not, include the entity's replacement text. If a non-validating processor does not include the replacement text, it MUST inform the sociology, application that it recognized, but did not read, the entity. This rule is based on the recognition that the prof. george, automatic inclusion provided by the SGML and of literature, XML entity mechanism, primarily designed to prof. thesis support modularity in authoring, is not necessarily appropriate for other applications, in particular document browsing.
Browsers, for example, when encountering an external parsed entity reference, might choose to provide a visual indication of the dissertation paul sartre, entity's presence and retrieve it for prof., display only on sartre, demand. The following are forbidden, and constitute fatal errors: the appearance of prof. george saitoti, a reference to an unparsed entity, except in the EntityValue in an entity declaration. the appearance of any character or general-entity reference in the DTD except within an EntityValue or AttValue. a reference to an external entity in james b twitchell an attribute value. When an george saitoti thesis, entity reference appears in an attribute value, or a parameter entity reference appears in a literal entity value, its replacement text MUST be processed in place of the reference itself as though it were part of the document at the location the essay, reference was recognized, except that a single or double quote character in prof. the replacement text MUST always be treated as a normal data character and MUST NOT terminate the b twitchell, literal. George Thesis. For example, this is well-formed: while this is not: When the name of an unparsed entity appears as a token in research the value of an attribute of declared type ENTITY or ENTITIES , a validating processor MUST inform the george thesis, application of the writing sociology, system and public (if any) identifiers for both the entity and its associated notation. When a general entity reference appears in the EntityValue in an entity declaration, it MUST be bypassed and left as is. Just as with external parsed entities, parameter entities need only prof. george, be included if validating . When a parameter-entity reference is recognized in the DTD and included, its replacement text MUST be enlarged by the attachment of one leading and dissertation sur jean, one following space (#x20) character; the prof. george saitoti thesis, intent is to constrain the replacement text of parameter entities to sociology thesis contain an prof. saitoti, integral number of grammatical tokens in the DTD. This behavior MUST NOT apply to parameter entity references within entity values; these are described in 4.4.5 Included in Literal . It is an error for a reference to an unparsed entity to appear in the EntityValue in an entity declaration.
4.5 Construction of Entity Replacement Text. In discussing the treatment of entities, it is useful to distinguish two forms of the entity's value. [Definition: For an internal entity, the literal entity value is the quoted string actually present in the entity declaration, corresponding to the non-terminal EntityValue.] [Definition: For an writing contrast essay 3rd grade, external entity, the literal entity value is the exact text contained in the entity.] [Definition: For an internal entity, the george saitoti thesis, replacement text is the essay, content of the prof. george saitoti, entity, after replacement of character references and parameter-entity references.] [Definition: For an external entity, the replacement text is the content of the entity, after stripping the writing sociology thesis, text declaration (leaving any surrounding whitespace) if there is saitoti one but without any replacement of character references or parameter-entity references.] The literal entity value as given in on indian culture an internal entity declaration (EntityValue) may contain character, parameter-entity, and general-entity references. Such references MUST be contained entirely within the prof. george saitoti thesis, literal entity value. The actual replacement text that is included (or included in literal) as described above MUST contain the replacement text of any parameter entities referred to, and MUST contain the character referred to, in james b twitchell essay place of saitoti thesis, any character references in the literal entity value; however, general-entity references MUST be left as-is, unexpanded. For example, given the writing compare 3rd grade, following declarations: then the replacement text for the entity book is: The general-entity reference rights; would be expanded should the reference book; appear in prof. george the document's content or an attribute value. These simple rules may have complex interactions; for sur jean sartre, a detailed discussion of a difficult example, see D Expansion of Entity and Character References . [Definition: Entity and character references may both be used to escape the left angle bracket, ampersand, and other delimiters.
A set of general entities ( amp , lt , gt , apos , quot ) is specified for this purpose. Numeric character references may also be used; they are expanded immediately when recognized and MUST be treated as character data, so the prof. thesis, numeric character references #60; and compare, #38; may be used to prof. george saitoti thesis escape and when they occur in character data.] All XML processors MUST recognize these entities whether they are declared or not. Sociology. For interoperability, valid XML documents SHOULD declare these entities, like any others, before using them. If the entities lt or amp are declared, they MUST be declared as internal entities whose replacement text is a character reference to the respective character (less-than sign or ampersand) being escaped; the double escaping is REQUIRED for prof. george saitoti thesis, these entities so that references to them produce a well-formed result.
If the entities gt , apos , or quot are declared, they MUST be declared as internal entities whose replacement text is the single character being escaped (or a character reference to that character; the double escaping here is OPTIONAL but harmless). For example: [Definition: Notations identify by name the format of unparsed entities, the format of elements which bear a notation attribute, or the application to which a processing instruction is addressed.] [Definition: Notation declarations provide a name for research on indian culture, the notation, for use in entity and george saitoti thesis, attribute-list declarations and in attribute specifications, and an external identifier for the notation which may allow an XML processor or its client application to locate a helper application capable of processing data in the given notation.] Validity constraint: Unique Notation Name. A given Name MUST NOT be declared in more than one notation declaration. XML processors MUST provide applications with the name and external identifier(s) of essay, any notation declared and saitoti, referred to in an attribute value, attribute definition, or entity declaration. They MAY additionally resolve the external identifier into contrast, the system identifier, file name, or other information needed to george saitoti allow the application to call a processor for data in the notation described. (It is not an error, however, for writing sociology, XML documents to declare and refer to notations for which notation-specific applications are not available on the system where the XML processor or application is running.) [Definition: The document entity serves as the root of the entity tree and a starting-point for an XML processor.] This specification does not specify how the document entity is to prof. saitoti thesis be located by an XML processor; unlike other entities, the document entity has no name and might well appear on a processor input stream without any identification at all. 5.1 Validating and contrast 3rd grade, Non-Validating Processors. Conforming XML processors fall into two classes: validating and non-validating.
Validating and non-validating processors alike MUST report violations of this specification's well-formedness constraints in the content of the document entity and any other parsed entities that they read. [Definition: Validating processors MUST , at prof. george thesis, user option, report violations of the constraints expressed by the declarations in the DTD, and failures to fulfill the validity constraints given in this specification.] To accomplish this, validating XML processors MUST read and process the entire DTD and 3rd grade, all external parsed entities referenced in the document. Non-validating processors are REQUIRED to check only the document entity, including the entire internal DTD subset, for george saitoti, well-formedness. [Definition: While they are not required to check the document for validity, they are REQUIRED to process all the declarations they read in the internal DTD subset and in research paper any parameter entity that they read, up to the first reference to a parameter entity that they do not read; that is to say, they MUST use the prof. george saitoti, information in those declarations to normalize attribute values, include the replacement text of internal entities, and thesis, supply default attribute values .] Except when standalone=yes , they MUST NOT process entity declarations or attribute-list declarations encountered after a reference to a parameter entity that is not read, since the george saitoti, entity may have contained overriding declarations; when standalone=yes , processors MUST process these declarations. Note that when processing invalid documents with a non-validating processor the research paper on indian, application may not be presented with consistent information. For example, several requirements for uniqueness within the document may not be met, including more than one element with the same id, duplicate declarations of elements or notations with the same name, etc. In these cases the prof. thesis, behavior of the parser with respect to reporting such information to the application is undefined. The behavior of sartre, a validating XML processor is prof. george thesis highly predictable; it must read every piece of a document and report all well-formedness and validity violations. Less is required of a non-validating processor; it need not read any part of the document other than the a review of literature, document entity. Prof.. This has two effects that may be important to users of XML processors: Certain well-formedness errors, specifically those that require reading external entities, may fail to be detected by a non-validating processor. Examples include the constraints entitled Entity Declared , Parsed Entity , and No Recursion , as well as some of the cases described as forbidden in 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and References . The information passed from the processor to the application may vary, depending on whether the processor reads parameter and writing contrast 3rd grade, external entities.
For example, a non-validating processor may fail to normalize attribute values, include the replacement text of internal entities, or supply default attribute values , where doing so depends on having read declarations in external or parameter entities , or in the internal subset after an unread parameter entity reference . For maximum reliability in prof. saitoti thesis interoperating between different XML processors, applications which use non-validating processors SHOULD NOT rely on any behaviors not required of analyze a movie essay, such processors. George Saitoti Thesis. Applications which require DTD facilities not related to validation (such as the writing, declaration of default attributes and internal entities that are or may be specified in external entities) SHOULD use validating XML processors. The formal grammar of XML is given in this specification using a simple Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation. Each rule in prof. george saitoti the grammar defines one symbol, in the form. Symbols are written with an initial capital letter if they are the start symbol of compare essay 3rd grade, a regular language, otherwise with an initial lowercase letter. Literal strings are quoted. Within the expression on the right-hand side of a rule, the george saitoti, following expressions are used to match strings of of literature, one or more characters: where N is saitoti a hexadecimal integer, the expression matches the character whose number (code point) in ISO/IEC 10646 is N . The number of leading zeros in the #xN form is insignificant. matches any Char with a value in the range(s) indicated (inclusive). matches any Char with a value among the compare contrast essay, characters enumerated. Enumerations and ranges can be mixed in one set of brackets.
matches any Char with a value outside the prof., range indicated. matches any Char with a value not among the characters given. Enumerations and ranges of writing compare contrast essay 3rd grade, forbidden values can be mixed in one set of brackets. matches a literal string matching that given inside the george saitoti thesis, double quotes. matches a literal string matching that given inside the single quotes. These symbols may be combined to match more complex patterns as follows, where A and B represent simple expressions: expression is treated as a unit and may be combined as described in this list. matches A or nothing; optional A . matches A followed by B . This operator has higher precedence than alternation; thus A B | C D is identical to (A B) | (C D) . matches any string that matches A but does not match B . matches one or more occurrences of A . Concatenation has higher precedence than alternation; thus A+ | B+ is identical to (A+) | (B+) . matches zero or more occurrences of james b twitchell essay, A . Concatenation has higher precedence than alternation; thus A* | B* is identical to prof. thesis (A*) | (B*) . Other notations used in the productions are: well-formedness constraint; this identifies by name a constraint on well-formed documents associated with a production. validity constraint; this identifies by name a constraint on valid documents associated with a production.
Because of changes to analyze essay productions  and , the productions in this Appendix are now orphaned and not used anymore in determining name characters. This Appendix may be removed in a future edition of this specification; other specifications that wish to refer to prof. george saitoti thesis the productions herein should do so by means of a reference to the relevant production(s) in contrast essay 3rd grade the Fourth Edition of this specification. Following the characteristics defined in the Unicode standard, characters are classed as base characters (among others, these contain the alphabetic characters of the Latin alphabet), ideographic characters, and combining characters (among others, this class contains most diacritics). Prof. Saitoti Thesis. Digits and extenders are also distinguished. The character classes defined here can be derived from the Unicode 2.0 character database as follows: Name start characters must have one of the of literature, categories Ll, Lu, Lo, Lt, Nl.
Name characters other than Name-start characters must have one of the categories Mc, Me, Mn, Lm, or Nd. Characters in prof. saitoti thesis the compatibility area (i.e. with character code greater than #xF900 and less than #xFFFE) are not allowed in XML names. Characters which have a font or compatibility decomposition (i.e. those with a compatibility formatting tag in field 5 of the database -- marked by field 5 beginning with a ) are not allowed. The following characters are treated as name-start characters rather than name characters, because the property file classifies them as Alphabetic: [#x02BB-#x02C1], #x0559, #x06E5, #x06E6. Characters #x20DD-#x20E0 are excluded (in accordance with Unicode 2.0, section 5.14). Character #x00B7 is analyze essay classified as an extender, because the property list so identifies it. Character #x0387 is added as a name character, because #x00B7 is prof. george thesis its canonical equivalent. Characters ':' and '_' are allowed as name-start characters. Characters '-' and analyze, '.' are allowed as name characters. XML is designed to be a subset of SGML, in that every XML document should also be a conforming SGML document. For a detailed comparison of the prof. saitoti, additional restrictions that XML places on documents beyond those of SGML, see [Clark].
D Expansion of Entity and Character References (Non-Normative) This appendix contains some examples illustrating the paper culture, sequence of george, entity- and character-reference recognition and expansion, as specified in 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and writing, References . If the DTD contains the prof. saitoti, declaration. then the XML processor will recognize the character references when it parses the entity declaration, and resolve them before storing the following string as the analyze essay, value of the entity example : A reference in the document to example; will cause the text to be reparsed, at which time the start- and end-tags of the p element will be recognized and the three references will be recognized and thesis, expanded, resulting in a p element with the following content (all data, no delimiters or markup): A more complex example will illustrate the analyze essay, rules and prof. saitoti, their effects fully. In the following example, the line numbers are solely for reference. This produces the following: in line 4, the research paper culture, reference to character 37 is expanded immediately, and saitoti, the parameter entity xx is stored in the symbol table with the value %zz; . Compare Essay 3rd Grade. Since the replacement text is not rescanned, the prof. george saitoti, reference to parameter entity zz is not recognized. Writing. (And it would be an prof. george, error if it were, since zz is not yet declared.) in line 5, the character reference #60; is expanded immediately and sociology thesis, the parameter entity zz is george saitoti stored with the replacement text !ENTITY tricky error-prone , which is a well-formed entity declaration. in line 6, the research on indian, reference to xx is recognized, and george, the replacement text of xx (namely %zz; ) is parsed. The reference to b twitchell essay zz is recognized in its turn, and prof. thesis, its replacement text ( !ENTITY tricky error-prone ) is parsed.
The general entity tricky has now been declared, with the replacement text error-prone . in line 8, the reference to the general entity tricky is analyze essay recognized, and it is expanded, so the full content of the test element is the self-describing (and ungrammatical) string This sample shows a error-prone method. In the prof. saitoti thesis, following example. the replacement text of x is the writing contrast essay, four characters lt; because references to general entities in entity values are bypassed . The replacement text of lt is a character reference to the less-than character, for example the five characters #60; (see 4.6 Predefined Entities ). Since neither of these contains a less-than character the result is well-formed. If the definition of x had been. then the document would not have been well-formed, because the replacement text of x would be the single character which is prof. not permitted in attribute values (see WFC: No in Attribute Values ).
E Deterministic Content Models (Non-Normative) As noted in 3.2.1 Element Content , it is required that content models in element type declarations be deterministic. This requirement is for compatibility with SGML (which calls deterministic content models unambiguous); XML processors built using SGML systems may flag non-deterministic content models as errors. For example, the content model ((b, c) | (b, d)) is non-deterministic, because given an initial b the paper on indian, XML processor cannot know which b in the model is being matched without looking ahead to see which element follows the b . In this case, the two references to b can be collapsed into a single reference, making the model read (b, (c | d)) . An initial b now clearly matches only a single name in the content model. The processor doesn't need to prof. saitoti thesis look ahead to see what follows; either c or d would be accepted. More formally: a finite state automaton may be constructed from the content model using the standard algorithms, e.g. algorithm 3.5 in section 3.9 of analyze essay, Aho, Sethi, and Ullman [Aho/Ullman].
In many such algorithms, a follow set is saitoti constructed for compare essay 3rd grade, each position in the regular expression (i.e., each leaf node in the syntax tree for the regular expression); if any position has a follow set in which more than one following position is labeled with the same element type name, then the content model is in error and may be reported as an error. Algorithms exist which allow many but not all non-deterministic content models to george saitoti thesis be reduced automatically to equivalent deterministic models; see Bruggemann-Klein 1991 [Bruggemann-Klein]. F Autodetection of Character Encodings (Non-Normative) The XML encoding declaration functions as an internal label on each entity, indicating which character encoding is in use. Before an a review, XML processor can read the internal label, however, it apparently has to know what character encoding is in use—which is what the prof. george thesis, internal label is trying to indicate. In the b twitchell essay, general case, this is prof. george thesis a hopeless situation.
It is a movie not entirely hopeless in XML, however, because XML limits the prof. thesis, general case in two ways: each implementation is assumed to support only a movie essay, a finite set of character encodings, and the XML encoding declaration is restricted in position and george saitoti thesis, content in order to a review make it feasible to saitoti autodetect the james b twitchell essay, character encoding in use in each entity in prof. george saitoti normal cases. Also, in many cases other sources of information are available in addition to the XML data stream itself. Two cases may be distinguished, depending on whether the XML entity is presented to the processor without, or with, any accompanying (external) information. We will consider these cases in turn. F.1 Detection Without External Encoding Information. Because each XML entity not accompanied by external encoding information and not in UTF-8 or UTF-16 encoding must begin with an XML encoding declaration, in which the first characters must be ' ?xml ', any conforming processor can detect, after two to four octets of analyze a movie, input, which of the following cases apply. Prof. Thesis. In reading this list, it may help to know that in UCS-4, '' is #x0000003C and '?' is #x0000003F , and the Byte Order Mark required of UTF-16 data streams is #xFEFF . Of Literature. The notation ## is prof. used to denote any byte value except that two consecutive ## s cannot be both 00.
With a Byte Order Mark: Without a Byte Order Mark: In cases above which do not require reading the encoding declaration to determine the encoding, section 4.3.3 still requires that the research paper on indian, encoding declaration, if present, be read and that the encoding name be checked to match the actual encoding of the entity. Also, it is prof. possible that new character encodings will be invented that will make it necessary to use the encoding declaration to determine the writing compare 3rd grade, encoding, in cases where this is george not required at present. This level of autodetection is enough to read the XML encoding declaration and parse the character-encoding identifier, which is still necessary to distinguish the individual members of dissertation sur jean paul sartre, each family of encodings (e.g. to tell UTF-8 from 8859, and the parts of george saitoti, 8859 from analyze a movie essay each other, or to distinguish the specific EBCDIC code page in use, and so on). Because the contents of the encoding declaration are restricted to prof. saitoti characters from the ASCII repertoire (however encoded), a processor can reliably read the entire encoding declaration as soon as it has detected which family of encodings is in use. Since in writing contrast essay 3rd grade practice, all widely used character encodings fall into one of the categories above, the XML encoding declaration allows reasonably reliable in-band labeling of character encodings, even when external sources of information at prof. george, the operating-system or transport-protocol level are unreliable.
Character encodings such as UTF-7 that make overloaded usage of a review of literature, ASCII-valued bytes may fail to be reliably detected. Once the processor has detected the character encoding in use, it can act appropriately, whether by invoking a separate input routine for each case, or by calling the proper conversion function on saitoti thesis, each character of input. Like any self-labeling system, the james, XML encoding declaration will not work if any software changes the george thesis, entity's character set or encoding without updating the dissertation sartre, encoding declaration. Implementors of george saitoti thesis, character-encoding routines should be careful to ensure the dissertation paul, accuracy of the internal and saitoti thesis, external information used to label the entity. F.2 Priorities in sociology the Presence of External Encoding Information. The second possible case occurs when the XML entity is accompanied by encoding information, as in some file systems and some network protocols. When multiple sources of information are available, their relative priority and george saitoti, the preferred method of handling conflict should be specified as part of the higher-level protocol used to deliver XML. In particular, please refer to [IETF RFC 3023] or its successor, which defines the james, text/xml and application/xml MIME types and provides some useful guidance. In the interests of interoperability, however, the following rule is george saitoti thesis recommended. If an a review of literature, XML entity is in a file, the Byte-Order Mark and encoding declaration are used (if present) to prof. saitoti determine the writing contrast, character encoding.
G W3C XML Working Group (Non-Normative) This specification was prepared and approved for publication by the W3C XML Working Group (WG). WG approval of this specification does not necessarily imply that all WG members voted for its approval. The current and former participants of the XML WG are: Jon Bosak, Sun ( Chair ) James Clark ( Technical Lead ) Tim Bray, Textuality and Netscape ( XML Co-editor ) Jean Paoli, Microsoft ( XML Co-editor ) C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. ( XML Co-editor ) Dan Connolly, W3C ( W3C Liaison ) Paula Angerstein, Texcel Steve DeRose, INSO Dave Hollander, HP Eliot Kimber, ISOGEN Eve Maler, ArborText Tom Magliery, NCSA Murray Maloney, SoftQuad, Grif SA, Muzmo and prof. george saitoti thesis, Veo Systems MURATA Makoto (FAMILY Given), Fuji Xerox Information Systems Joel Nava, Adobe Conleth O'Connell, Vignette Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad John Tigue, DataChannel. H W3C XML Core Working Group (Non-Normative) The fifth edition of a movie, this specification was prepared by the W3C XML Core Working Group (WG). Saitoti. The participants in dissertation sur jean paul the WG at the time of publication of this edition were: John Cowan, Google Andrew Fang, PTC-Arbortext Paul Grosso, PTC-Arbortext ( Co-Chair ) Konrad Lanz, A-SIT Glenn Marcy, IBM Henry Thompson, W3C ( Staff Contact ) Richard Tobin, University of Edinburgh Daniel Veillard Norman Walsh, Mark Logic ( Co-Chair ) Francois Yergeau. This edition was encoded in prof. thesis a slightly modified version of the a movie essay, XMLspec DTD, v2.10. The XHTML versions were produced with a combination of the xmlspec.xsl, diffspec.xsl, and REC-xml.xsl XSLT stylesheets.
J Suggestions for george thesis, XML Names (Non-Normative) The following suggestions define what is believed to be best practice in the construction of XML names used as element names, attribute names, processing instruction targets, entity names, notation names, and the values of attributes of type ID, and are intended as guidance for document authors and schema designers. All references to Unicode are understood with respect to a particular version of the Unicode Standard greater than or equal to 5.0; which version should be used is left to a review of literature the discretion of the prof. george, document author or schema designer. The first two suggestions are directly derived from the b twitchell, rules given for identifiers in Standard Annex #31 (UAX #31) of the Unicode Standard, version 5.0 [Unicode], and exclude all control characters, enclosing nonspacing marks, non-decimal numbers, private-use characters, punctuation characters (with the noted exceptions), symbol characters, unassigned codepoints, and white space characters. The other suggestions are mostly derived from Appendix B in previous editions of this specification. The first character of any name should have a Unicode property of ID_Start, or else be '_' #x5F. Characters other than the saitoti, first should have a Unicode property of ID_Continue, or be one of the a review, characters listed in the table entitled Characters for Natural Language Identifiers in UAX #31, with the exception of ' #x27 and ’ #x2019. Characters in names should be expressed using Normalization Form C as defined in prof. [UnicodeNormal]. Ideographic characters which have a canonical decomposition (including those in of literature the ranges [#xF900-#xFAFF] and [#x2F800-#x2FFFD], with 12 exceptions) should not be used in names.
Characters which have a compatibility decomposition (those with a compatibility formatting tag in field 5 of the Unicode Character Database -- marked by field 5 beginning with a ) should not be used in names. This suggestion does not apply to prof. thesis characters which despite their compatibility decompositions are in research paper regular use in their scripts, for george, example #x0E33 THAI CHARACTER SARA AM or #x0EB3 LAO CHARACTER AM. Combining characters meant for use with symbols only (including those in the ranges [#x20D0-#x20EF] and [#x1D165-#x1D1AD]) should not be used in names. The interlinear annotation characters ([#xFFF9-#xFFFB]) should not be used in names. Variation selector characters should not be used in names.
Names which are nonsensical, unpronounceable, hard to read, or easily confusable with other names should not be employed.
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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the scientific study of how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is prof. george thesis producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an area of social psychology but go no further. This is partly the result of a proliferation of research in b twitchell essay social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on a specialised field and take less notice of what is happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to an integrative approach. The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in what are called the different 'levels of explanation' at which social psychological research operates at. Saitoti Thesis! The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup and the research has tended to sur jean sartre, concentrate on one of these levels without integrating them together.
This can lead to an incomplete answer to the original research question. Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the example of social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to integrate social psychological knowledge and outline some of these attempts. George Saitoti Thesis! The continuing rise of cognitive psychology as an overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. For example, explanations of social cognition are made in terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis.
This can be seen in a variety of experiments on writing the effects of motivational and emotional factors on behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Here participants were told they were going to be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral. The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of prof. george thesis different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the mood state would affect the a review of literature, social judgement of the participants. They found different levels of 'affect infusion' depending on the particular circumstances of the prof. george, study.
The main criticism of this type of formulation of motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of james b twitchell others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on prof. george many areas of psychology and lays claim to being another overarching theory - although this is a movie essay more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in prof. george saitoti terms of adaptations to essay, the environment, both social and physical. This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on george interpersonal relationships, specifically in terms of sexual attraction and james how it relates to differing levels of investment in george saitoti thesis offspring. Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today. While it is analyze essay possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in modern technological societies.
Both the evolutionary theory and ideas from cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on which social psychology can build an integrated perspective. Saitoti! Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and Branscombe Spears (2001) is in a particularly social psychological perspective. A Review! These authors suggest that one of the most successful attempts at integrating analyses from a variety of different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986). Social identity theory grew out of the prof. george thesis, minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an research paper culture extremely arbitrary and loosely formed grouping so as to prefer the in-group members over prof. george thesis the out-group members. This would occur with only the smallest and most subtle provocation (described in Tajfel, 1978). Research On Indian! This theory is based on the idea that society is structured by social groupings with different levels of power and prof. saitoti interests and that people gain their social identity from james, these groups. Attached to this social identity are particular ways of behaving to prof. george saitoti thesis, be adhered to. People are not limited to a review, a single social identity though and can, and generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the situation. To counter the criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to separate personal identity from social identity as it is prof. precisely the confounding of these two levels that has drawn the censure of critics. Because of its concentration on the importance of sociology groups, a number of established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically.
These include, for example, in-group favouritism and intergroup differentiation. Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about intrapsychic processes? Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory. Self-categorisation theory grew out of saitoti social identity theory and concentrates on how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987). It sees a person as choosing from a number of fuzzy categories about how to behave in particular situations as compared to a kind of prototype. This analysis brings in the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and then comparing individual behaviour to that. These kinds of distinctions between levels of understanding and categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in a review of literature research like that carried out by Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). In this study psychology students were encouraged to compare themselves to fine arts students and then physics students respectively.
The results showed they tended to emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to fine arts students, and their creativity when comparing themselves to physics students. This clearly shows how people have a need to compare themselves favourably to saitoti, others but also effectively shows how people's image of themselves is affected by the exact nature of the writing 3rd grade, social comparison that they are making. The combination of social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and cohesion and the maintenance of self-esteem. One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the salient points is prof. george saitoti that of crowd behaviour. Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of changes in individuation and in analyze essay self-awareness in an individual person. Like many areas of social psychology this analysis has come under fire for ignoring or playing down the saitoti, intergroup interactions. In an analysis of crowd behaviour based on social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Of Literature! Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the result of this is george saitoti thesis that there is often a high level of the dissertation sur jean, sharing of social identity. But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to how to saitoti, behave and so people tend to look for b twitchell essay, those members of the group that they identify with and copy them. To look at it from another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity.
The simple result is prof. thesis that people tend to conform to the group norms to a greater extent. Culture! Studies of riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for prof. george, this point of view. A Review! Reicher (1984) studied the prof. george saitoti, riots that occurred in 1980 in the St Paul's area of Bristol. It was found that, for example, people only targeted symbols of the essay, state such as the police and banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate. There was a strong sense of positive social identity and the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of findings tend to support ideas from saitoti, social identity and self-categorisation theory. The fragmentation and analyze attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the most important major differences or splits in the practice of social psychology came with the george saitoti, so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in the late 60s and early 70s. This was lead by critics of traditional approaches to social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to sociology thesis, gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and saitoti thesis positivism. B Twitchell! The effect of concentrating on reductionism in psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on intrapersonal psychology at the expense of understanding the social nature of human relations. Critics of positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of prof. traditional scientific methods.
They contended that it was not possible to a movie essay, study a person or group of people in an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to be objective about yourself - by definition! While traditional experimental approaches to social psychology continued then, new methods began to saitoti thesis, grow from different traditions that challenged the analyze essay, way social psychology had been 'done' in the past. Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the banner of 'social constructionism'. This new plurality of approaches has at its centre the idea that reality is socially constructed. In essence this idea is that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the prof. saitoti thesis, primary focus for investigation. A Review Of Literature! Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is one method of analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of prof. george thesis written or verbal text. While these new approaches to social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in terms of the methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to the way that mainstream psychology is carried out. Writing Sociology Thesis! Still, their concentration on the social in saitoti social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in the same direction. Whether integration is desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is a review of literature certainly questionable. The main problem for social psychologists is that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is little communication between specialisms and prof. saitoti thesis little opportunity for the sharing and a movie integration of knowledge. As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of discrete parts or modules.
Unless bridges can be built between the sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the widening cracks. There is prof. george saitoti some evidence that some level of integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the gap between mainstream social psychology and sur jean paul sartre social constructionist analyses look less likely to george, be bridged despite the boost to qualitative methodologies in the mainstream. Branscombe, N. R. Dissertation Sur Jean Sartre! Spears, R. (2001) Social Psychology : Past, Present, and Some Predictions for the Future. In J. S. Prof. George Saitoti Thesis! Halonen S. F. Davis (Eds.). The many faces of psychological research in research the 21st century (text-only version; chap.
7). Retrieved September 5, 2005 from http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/teachpsych/faces/text/Ch07.htm Buss, D. M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164-168. Thesis! Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66.
Gergen, K. J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Hogg, M. Writing Contrast! A. Vaughan, G. M. (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed. Eysenek, M. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman.
Potter, J., Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage. Saitoti Thesis! Reicher, S. (1984) St. Paul's a study of the limits of b twitchell essay crowd behaviour.
In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in social psychology. Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of social psychology, Vol. 6, pp.
161-198). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Prof. George Saitoti Thesis! Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553. Tajfel, H. (1978). Interindividual behaviour and dissertation sur jean intergroup behaviour. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp. 27-60). Prof. George Thesis! New York: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. Dissertation Paul! (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., Austin, W. Saitoti Thesis! G. (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall. Turner, J.C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. Paper Culture! In Turner, J.C.
Hogg, M.A. Oakes, P.J. Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. (Eds.), Rediscovering the saitoti, social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. Sociology Thesis! 42-67). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Prof.! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to writing contrast, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in george saitoti your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to james, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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