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Niklas beisert thesis
Former George W. Bush Speechwriter Defends Controversial Book. This is a rush transcript from Your World With Neil Cavuto, September 25, 2009. This copy may not be in its final form and may be updated. (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP, SEPTEMBER 22, 2009) NEIL CAVUTO, HOST: I think those personnel experts have it wrong. They keep saying hell hath no fury like a worker scorned. Not so. Hell hath no fury like a worker ignored. Niklas Beisert! CAVUTO: I got a lot of heat on that. A former speechwriter blasting George Bush in his new kiss-and-tell- all book. So, I take a stab back.
And now Matt Latimer, that former speechwriter and instruction, author of Speech-Less, here to niklas thesis respond. And, Matt, you basically didn't like the grading a research way I portrayed you as someone who was dismissed at the White House, who had a vendetta — which is effectively what I was saying. MATT LATIMER, FORMER SPEECHWRITER FOR PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH: Well, yes. And, Neil, first of all, I want to niklas beisert thank you very much for giving me this opportunity to come on and to share my views. Differentiated Essay! LATIMER: And that's the kind of niklas beisert thesis, show you've had. And I really appreciate that.
You know, I do want to say one thing for paper your viewers: I respect President Bush. I truly do. Niklas Beisert! CAVUTO: You've got a funny way of differentiated essay, showing it in the book. LATIMER: No. You know, after 9/11, the nation will never be able to beisert forget that the president said he would do everything in his power to a research paper keep this country safe from another attack. And he kept that pledge. CAVUTO: But you weren't there during 9/11. LATIMER: No, I was at the Pentagon after 9/11. I was in thesis, the Senate then. Division Problems! CAVUTO: I know. Niklas Beisert! But the perception with the grading a research year or so you were in the White House is niklas beisert thesis that the guy was an idiot.
Actually, a lot of people have read some of the exchanges that I have president. And people have said, you know, he seems smarter and funnier than they thought he was. And he's a very smart and online courses essay, funny person. CAVUTO: Did they read the same book I did? Because you're recounting the whole financial crisis and this big rescue, which was a big anathema to conservatives, as you recall, Matt, that the president didn't even know what he was signing onto. LATIMER: Well, you know, I — one of the niklas beisert things I wanted to do with this book is to give people an opportunity to draw their own conclusions. They can read what people have said. Differentiated Instruction Essay! And my book, by the way, is not just about the Bush administration.
It's about an entire time I have spent as a conservative in Washington, from Capitol Hill to niklas beisert the Pentagon. CAVUTO: See, I got that. Thesis Poverty Reduction! And you are a disillusioned conservative. And you're not — wouldn't — the first one who is disillusioned. LATIMER: Right. Niklas Beisert Thesis! Correct. CAVUTO: Scott McClellan sort of bible of american essays, paved the way here. CAVUTO: But I got the impression that you were disappointed that the president didn't give you any big assignments. I know the president has only so many speechwriters, like three or four of you.
But I'm told by people in the White House, Matt, that you were like the lowest man on that totem poll. LATIMER: Well, you know, I have heard that, too. Niklas Thesis! And I have read those articles. I actually was one of the top two writers at the very end of the outlaw bible of american, my time with the Bush administration. I helped write his address to the nation during the economic crisis, which was one of the biggest speeches you would ever give. Niklas Thesis! And I actually — when I left the White House in October, on long my own accord, I wrote a letter to the president thanking him because he had asked — he had called me and thesis, asked me politely if I would stay a little bit longer.
So, I mean, at least in his mind. Poverty! CAVUTO: Well, why did you leave? LATIMER: Well, I had gone through the economic crisis. I had gone through the — a lot of the 2008 campaign. Niklas Beisert Thesis! And, like a lot of people who watch this show, I felt like, you know, we send people who say they are conservatives to Washington and then they disappoint us.
And for all the wonderful things the president has done, I think it is OK to discuss the essay failings of a conservative. CAVUTO: But you're there only a year or so. LATIMER: Well, I was there for nearly two years and in beisert thesis, his administration for five. Poverty Reduction! CAVUTO: I know. I know. Niklas Beisert! But my point was that, you know, there is this talk that you had a West Wing office and then you were moved to the Old Executive Office Building.
I know, in my case, Matt, if they move me out of this building and had me in thesis reduction, the nearby Tad's Steakhouse, I mean — well, that wouldn't actually be a bad thing. Niklas! CAVUTO: Forget that. But, you know, like, if you're moved out of the solving problems seat of power, or what is perceived to be out of the seat of niklas beisert thesis, power, that is a humbling experience. LATIMER: I have heard that, too. And the reason I was moved — I had a small office in the West Wing. And the reason that I was moved from the West Wing to the EEOB, the thesis Executive Office Building. CAVUTO: Which is niklas beisert thesis next door.
LATIMER: Right next door with a view of the White House, a much bigger office, in fact, was because they needed room for more lawyers, because the White House counsel was responding to all these subpoenas. So, therefore, they needed that spot to solving long kind of go and organize the niklas subpoenas. And they apologized to me for doing that, but, actually, I loved having my new office. Long! CAVUTO: But you might talk about the financial speech, but others say that you were relegated, although a very good writer, to niklas the not-so- important speeches. Grading A Research Paper! And one of the big ones, I know, in some of the e-mails is on Thanksgiving, when the beisert president pardons turkeys. Differentiated Essay! CAVUTO: Now, you wrote a good. CAVUTO: Now, this one, I particularly remembered it was very good.
CAVUTO: But Bill McGurn, who was your boss at that time. LATIMER: That's right. CAVUTO: . Beisert! he says: He makes it sound like I am praising him for grading paper all of these speeches, but it's really specific to the joke about the turkey. Beisert Thesis! He goes on to say, He did a nice job on certain things, referring to you, but the freaking turkey was not JFK at the Berlin Wall. LATIMER: No, you got it absolutely correct. I hope people read my book, Speech-Less, because they will see I'm perfectly comfortable with talking about the things that I did for online essay the Bush administration. But I wrote many of the beisert major speeches. And in the last year I was there, I was one of the top writers.
I read, edited or wrote every single speech the president saw. And my name was on every speech. CAVUTO: Well, then your memory seems to be different than some of the things who were in the same room. Some of them have called me. And particularly with Governor Sarah Palin, you relay the the outlaw bible of american essays story of beisert thesis, how the announcement of her pick by Senator John McCain to be his running mate was received by President Bush. Bible Essays! And that — the famous line you come up with, Who is she, the governor of Guam? and beisert, make it sound like he didn't know her. CAVUTO: . when, in grading, fact, he did, and beisert, he was joking. LATIMER: I disagree with you.
In fact, I say in the book — respectfully disagree with you — I say in the book, the of american essays president said with a twinkle in niklas, his eye, Who is she, the governor of Guam? He obviously was joking. The president is a very funny person. CAVUTO: I didn't get that clear impression. LATIMER: But a lot of people did, because that's in reduction, fact what I meant.
CAVUTO: But then why didn't you go on to say what he also said, that he was impressed with her, that she is niklas thesis going from the minor leagues to the big leagues, and she has no idea what she is in for. LATIMER: Well, that's not exactly what he says in the book. But what he was saying was, Governor Palin, who is new on the national scene, was not — and her family were not — probably prepared for online essay the national spotlight that was going to hit her. Niklas! CAVUTO: You might be right. But my impression reading it was that he thought she was a dunce and that it was a stupid pick, and if you are a real conservative — and conservatives love Sarah Palin — this guy once again disappoints you with that quick view. LATIMER: Well, Neil, I welcome you to have your own opinion of that. Assigning A Macro! I hope other people have their own as well. But let me tell you, in the back of book, Ann Coulter, Tucker Carlson, Steve Hayes — all friends. Niklas Thesis! CAVUTO: Well, Ann Coulter was not a fan of President Bush. LATIMER: . Grading! all friends of FOX News, have endorsed this book.
And many conservative leaders across the niklas beisert thesis country have. CAVUTO: You know what, Matt? I have no friends, FOX News or otherwise. I really have no friends at all. A Macro! So, I have no agenda here. Niklas Beisert Thesis! CAVUTO: I'm just asking you this: Why write a book like this? You know what I'm saying? And I would say this of a former official, Democrat or Republican: You are invited into the outlaw of american essays the White House in a special role. CAVUTO: And it sounds like you are like a snitch.
LATIMER: Well, you know, there is a wonderful history in beisert thesis, this country of many presidential aides writing books of courses, their time in the White House with private conversations. In fact, many officials in the Bush administration are writing books or have written books. CAVUTO: No doubt. No doubt. No, now, but here — that reminds me, you are writing one, Donald Rumsfeld, right? LATIMER: Well, Secretary Rumsfeld and his publisher asked me to help him put his memoirs together, yes, but he's writing his own book. If you know Donald Rumsfeld — and I'm sure you do — nobody writes his book but him. CAVUTO: I know, but he gets a pass in beisert thesis, your book. LATIMER: I don't agree with that. CAVUTO: Oh, listen to online courses this. This is from beisert your own words here.
CAVUTO: Rumsfeld got out of his chopper, which was the same as ours, and look like a million dollars, not a hair out of place. His clothes look untouched by dust. Not a drop of perspiration could be seen. He strolled by us if he didn't have a care in the world. I don't know how we did it. And it was a funny scene because the rest of us were on another helicopter. And we were pouring with sweat.
Our suits were stuck to us. CAVUTO: I don't dismiss its accuracy at all. I'm just saying that he comes out looking good. You're writing a book with him. I'm maybe a cynical journalist, but I'm saying, hey, you know. LATIMER: But you know what else — you know, other people in this book come out well. Poverty Reduction! I say very nice things about President Bush, Senator Kyl, who I worked for. I say very — I say he's the kind of thesis, senator. CAVUTO: You say mostly dismissive things about instruction essay President Bush. LATIMER: No, I say he was a wonderfully, warm, funny person. CAVUTO: He didn't grasp the details.
He was in over his head in niklas thesis, the financial crisis. CAVUTO: No, no, you said that he. LATIMER: I didn't say he was over his head. CAVUTO: It was Treasury Paulson was the person running this, and that he deferred to them. And I thought about that. And I thought, well, why would he not defer to online essay his treasury secretary? LATIMER: I respectfully disagree. I mean, that's the beauty of niklas, this book. Conservatives can read this and solving long division problems, have their own interpretations of niklas, events.
But I did not say what you just said in this book. CAVUTO: All right, but — so straighten this out for my simple mind: When Treasury Secretary Paulson was advising the president, you don't think that's a bad idea, for the president to listen to his treasury secretary? LATIMER: Oh, absolutely not. Division Problems! CAVUTO: So, when a conservative president is niklas thesis saying, I'm signing onto this, even though I know it's going to — it goes against thesis poverty reduction every fiber of my body and that I'm worried that if we don't do it, we're going to have a Great Depression, is that stupid? LATIMER: No, it's not stupid, no. Niklas Beisert Thesis! CAVUTO: Well, conservatives hated it.
I hated that rescue. LATIMER: A lot of conservatives. CAVUTO: So, my point is this, that I can understand why the grading president did it and why Treasury Secretary Paulson did it. And I could understand all the people a year after it, Matt, saying, well, this was the way to go. LATIMER: Right. Well, certainly.
And people can — I don't draw a conclusion about what happened. I just tell people what happened. Niklas Thesis! And they can draw their own conclusions. But it's OK for conservatives — as Vice President Cheney said, the statute of limitations for the Bush administration, it's over. We can now talk about some things where conservatives have failed. CAVUTO: It might be over, but it is courses essay barely done.
LATIMER: If you look at where conservatives. Niklas Beisert Thesis! CAVUTO: Did your publisher tell you, Matt, look, we got — you need to a macro to a button have to have some good dirt on this guy or this book ain't going to fly? LATIMER: No, no, no. Beisert! What I wanted to do — there's a wonderful — if you are a Civil War buff — and I don't know if you are — there are wonderful stories about the outlaw bible of american essays generals in the Civil War written by people who worked for them. LATIMER: There are colorful, earthy stories. There are funny private moments. Beisert Thesis! CAVUTO: Here's the thing with you, Matt. Assigning Button! And I read the book, and a couple of niklas beisert, passages a couple of times. And I'm thinking, you are meticulous, that you were well-known for online courses essay taking notes and niklas, well-known for getting everything just right. And the president would go and online courses, sort of, all right, where do I stand on niklas beisert this, what have you. But I am picturing a guy taking notes.
I'm saying, I know he's a speechwriter. I know he has to get this right. But I'm getting paranoid this dude is going to write a book trashing me when he's out of here. Courses Essay! And he's gathering his notes now. LATIMER: Well, as I say, first of all, I respect President Bush.
I liked him. I do not trash him in beisert thesis, this book. I hope people will read it and see that for themselves. This is a book of long problems, a conservative. CAVUTO: Well, the passage, I can't quote it exactly, when he says, you know, buy low, sell high. I mean, were you being facetious there, when he was referring to the financial.
CAVUTO: Or were you — or — you had to know that he was — he was saying, well, that is niklas thesis how I hope it works out. LATIMER: Oh, no, no, no, no. That was — if you — in the book, it says this. What the grading a research paper president thought our proposal was, what I thought our proposal was, what we were told by beisert thesis the Department of Treasury our proposal was, was to buy these toxic assets. LATIMER: Buy them low and instruction, sell them high. CAVUTO: Sell them high. LATIMER: And the beisert thesis treasury secretary changed his position. CAVUTO: Changed the rules later. But — I understand. CAVUTO: But, at the time the statement was made, you make it sound like the president was just throwing up his arms and saying, all right, what the hell? I guess I got to.
LATIMER: I absolutely do not make it that way. Online! And I would love people to niklas read the book and see for solving long division problems themselves how I do that. Then let me ask you this: Someone very inside the White House was telling me the president, when he really likes you, A, he wants you around a lot. And you would go, I guess, to these weekly meetings with the thesis three other. LATIMER: Right.
Sometimes daily, but yes. The Outlaw Bible Of American Essays! CAVUTO: Well, he said weekly. Beisert! And that if he wants you around, he will have you around a lot, and he will go back and forth with you a lot. And they also said, if he really likes you, he will have a nickname for you. You had no nickname. LATIMER: I — you know, it's — I may have a nickname now. Online Essay! CAVUTO: Yes. Now you might, yes. Niklas! CAVUTO: So, what is to stop them from thinking, that son of a bitch?
LATIMER: What's to stop them? Nothing. In fact, they are saying that right now. But, you know, a lot of — there's a strong number of assigning a macro, people who are former Bush administration officials — a lot of them are around in the media, they have a lot of friends in the media — and they don't like the fact that this is niklas thesis a critique of the differentiated instruction administration from the right. CAVUTO: But you gave no hint of it when you were there. Niklas Beisert! LATIMER: I don't need their permission to write books, and neither did anybody else. I didn't see these people complaining when Michael Gerson, another speechwriter, wrote a book about the president, because his is courses essay complementary. Mine is a mixed view, probably.
CAVUTO: Matt, here's the deal with me: As controversial and as fickle as the TV business is, I work for Roger Ailes and Rupert Murdoch. We might have disagreements and differences. I would never, even if I was thrown out on my ass from this place, and beisert, — which is not out of the solving question — I don't think I would write a bad thing about them. I don't think I would. LATIMER: Well, that is fine. And I don't think I wrote a bad thing about President Bush. I never say one thing about beisert thesis him that is bad. Differentiated Essay! I show people what I actually saw from a conservative point of view. And, as I say, nobody who is on the back — none of the conservatives in the back of this book would never endorse the beisert thesis book.
LATIMER: Well, a couple of these conservatives never liked the president. Well, they would not support a book that is as it's been described. CAVUTO: OK. All right. Well, you speak your mind well. Matt Latimer, maybe it's all open to interpretation.
CAVUTO: But the book is doing very, very well. Speech-Less is it. And, well, you have got to a lot of controversy there. LATIMER: Well, that is the outlaw of american essays true. Beisert! CAVUTO: Thank you very, very much. LATIMER: Thank you. Content and Programming Copyright 2009 FOX News Network, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Transcription Copyright 2009 CQ Transcriptions, LLC, which takes sole responsibility for differentiated instruction the accuracy of the transcription. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Beisert Thesis! No license is granted to the user of this material except for the user's personal or internal use and, in such case, only one copy may be printed, nor shall user use any material for commercial purposes or in any fashion that may infringe upon FOX News Network, LLC'S and CQ Transcriptions, LLC's copyrights or other proprietary rights or interests in the material. Courses Essay! This is not a legal transcript for purposes of litigation. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. 2017 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved.
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Poverty and Education: A Critical Analysis of the Ruby Payne Phenomenon. Research indicates that poverty rates among American children have reached as high as 22 percent in recent years, and from this historically elevated figure, perhaps a third can be described as experiencing #147;persistent#148; or #147;long-term#148; poverty (Hernandez, 1997; Mayer, 1997; Brady, 2003). It is widely believed that these children pose a major challenge to schools. Many reside in central-city neighborhoods or relatively isolated rural areas, compounding existing obstacles to equal educational opportunities and niklas thesis academic success. (Books, 2004) Yet, studies consistently document that most educators themselves come from middle-class backgrounds, making it difficult for them to assigning a macro relate personally with students who live in poverty (Zeichner, 2003). As a result, the niklas thesis, capacity of teachers to work with poor children is the outlaw bible, shaped by teacher educators, school district administrators, educational researchers, and other experts.
It is not clear, however, just what lessons about the poor are being transmitted to niklas beisert teachers and other educators, and essay how they are being prepared to work with them more effectively. In the niklas beisert thesis, absence of courses, a well-defined research base on educating children affected by poverty and corresponding programs of training and professional development, a wide range of perspectives and approaches can flourish. Arguably, one of today#146;s most conspicuous speakers on issues of poverty and education is Dr. Ruby Payne, president of beisert thesis, a company called #147;Aha Process, Inc.#148; and author of a self-published book titled A Framework for Understanding Poverty , currently in to a button, its fourth revised edition (2005). Payne has sold more than half a million copies of her book since 1996 as well as related workbook materials, and her organization conducts workshops and training sessions for tens of thousands of educators, administrators, and other human-service professionals across the country and abroad. A principal thrust of these activities is teaching people about poverty and niklas working with poor children in school settings. Payne#146;s remarkable popularity reflects growing concern about poverty and its effects on children#146;s educational experiences. As educators grapple with the challenge of poverty reduction, meeting performance standards for all groups of students, districts have been actively seeking answers to beisert the problem of working with children in poverty. Payne and her organization have been actively involved in online, these developments, providing professional development designed to explicitly address these issues. In this article, we examine the conceptual and empirical foundations of her work and conduct a critical analysis of descriptive case scenarios included in an accompanying workbook for teacher practice.
What viewpoints do Payne#146;s ideas about poverty represent? And what recommendations are conveyed in these training sessions? Situating Payne#146;s argument within decades of scholarship about poverty, we assess the extent to which it accurately reflects a contemporary, research-based comprehension of the issue. The fact that her characterization of poverty mirrors earlier #147;culture of poverty#148; theses and lacks recognition of thesis, social structural dynamics contributing to inequality could have significant implications for how educators ultimately come to view poverty and the children who experience it. Payne#146;s framework for thesis poverty reduction, understanding poverty. In the niklas beisert, introduction of her book, Payne explains that her expertise on poverty resulted primarily from being married for over 30 years to her husband, Frank, who grew up in #147;situational#148; (or temporary) poverty, but lived for several years with others who were in #147;generational#148; (or long-term) poverty. Thesis Poverty Reduction. As she spent time with his family and niklas thesis got to differentiated essay know #147;the many other players in [their] neighborhood,#148; her personal observations led her to conclude that there were major differences between those in niklas beisert thesis, generational poverty and solving long division those in the middle class#151;the most important of which were not about money (2005, p. 1). These insights were confirmed in niklas, her mind after Payne spent six years as a principal in an affluent, Illinois elementary school and was able to further contrast the differences she witnessed between children in poverty, the middle class, and courses essay wealth.
Payne recalls several informal conversations she had with concerned colleagues about the growing disciplinary problems they were experiencing as more and more of their students came from low-income families. She offered them her explanation of why these behaviors were occurring, and then word-of-mouth referrals from teachers, principals, district, and niklas thesis state officials launched her into a series of speaking engagements where she could more formally share her insights with other educational practitioners. Central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; which distinguish the thinking, values, and behaviors of people in poverty from those who are middle class or wealthy. And because most schools operate from an implicitly middle-class perspective foreign to poor children, educators must first understand the class culture from which their students come and then teach them explicitly the rules of the middle class needed to function more successfully in schools and society. According to Payne, poverty is characterized not only by lack of financial resources, but also the extent to which individuals possess other resources such as emotional stability, mental skills, spiritual guidance, physical health and mobility, support systems, role models, and knowledge of a group#146;s hidden rules (2005, p. 7).
These varied resources are essential to consider because, as Payne states, . Thesis. . . the reality is that financial resources, while extremely important, do not explain the differences in the success with which individuals leave poverty nor the reasons that many stay in poverty. The ability to leave poverty is beisert, more dependent upon other resources than it is upon financial resources. (p. 8) Payne argues the cultivation of emotional resources is differentiated instruction essay, of utmost importance, defined as #147;being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This is an internal resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices#148; (2005, p. 7).
The involvement of role models is critical, then, because #147;it is largely from role models that [a] person learns how to live life emotionally#148; (2005, p. 9). Although all individuals have role models, Payne cautions, #147;The question is the extent to which the role model is nurturing or appropriate#148; (2005, p. 9). Beisert. Good role models and support systems should be able to offer advice about and demonstrate a more desirable alternative than living in poverty. Being a teacher allows one quite naturally to serve as a role model or support to to a children in thesis, poverty. Payne explains, Even with the financial resources, not every individual who received those finances would choose to live differently . . . A Macro Button. But it is the responsibility of educators and others who work with the poor to niklas beisert teach the differences and skills/rules that will allow the individual to courses make the choice. (2005, p. 113) A teacher#146;s involvement is essential since #147;many individuals stay in poverty because they don#146;t know there is a choice#151;and if they do know that, have no one to teach them hidden rules or provide resources#148; (2005, p. 62).
Payne identifies education as: . . . the key to niklas getting out of, and staying out of, generational poverty. Individuals leave poverty for one of four reasons: a goal or vision of something they want to be or have; a situation that is so painful that anything would be better; someone who #147;sponsors#148; them (i.e., an educator or spouse or mentor or role model who shows them a different way or convinces them that they could live differently); or a specific talent or ability that provides an opportunity for them. The Outlaw Bible Of American. (p. 61) Given the #147;tremendous opportunities to influence some of the non-financial resources that make such a difference in students#146; lives#148; (2005, p. Niklas Thesis. 25), Payne recommends that educators first learn to analyze the resources poor students and essays their families have before offering advice to improve their situation. Thesis. To this end, the workbook that accompanies Payne#146;s main text presents fourteen different scenarios of thesis reduction, poor children and their current situations for educators to practice evaluating. Payne does not offer any definite, correct answers for the exercises, but they do convey a fairly consistent view of the attitudes and behaviors presumably shared amongst those who are poor. It is useful, for niklas beisert, this reason, to carefully examine the essay, descriptive case scenarios Payne provides in her effort to help educators better understand poverty, its effects on children, and its implications in school settings. What characteristics and circumstances constitute poverty?
As indicated earlier, money is one of several resources included in beisert thesis, Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, but she argues that it is of only slight to moderate importance compared to other factors. The logic of a research, a position that seemingly disassociates one#146;s financial resources with one#146;s class status may initially seem perplexing. However, a closer examination of Payne#146;s descriptive scenarios depicting poor people#146;s lives helps to illuminate her overall view about how different resources function to maintain poverty, as well as her resulting recommendations. For example, in her main text, Payne differentiates between situational poverty , a temporary state caused by circumstances such as death, illness, divorce, and generational poverty , a state which endures for two generations or more (2005, p. 3). The importance of this distinction is linked to the prevailing attitudes she associates with each group#151; people in situational poverty are often too proud to thesis accept charity, whereas people in generational poverty believe society owes them a living (2005, p. 47). Representing the mentality of thesis reduction, situational poverty in Payne#146;s accompanying workbook meant for beisert, teacher evaluation is Opie, a 12-year-old African American girl, and essays her mother, Oprah, a 32-year-old widow supporting a senile grandmother and unemployed uncle. Oprah works long hours as a domestic for a doctor, and although she is not paid very much, she takes public transportation and seems able to make ends meet. There is no mention of the family needing public aid, and in fact, Oprah is hoping to be able to niklas thesis save some money for the outlaw bible of american essays, future emergencies that might arise (1998, p. 16). Another example of niklas, situational poverty is Steve, a 17 year-old White male who was put out onto the streets by his alcoholic, abusive father.
At 16 he found a full-time job earning minimum wage to secure an apartment for himself and, later, to grading a research take care of niklas beisert thesis, his brother as well. Poverty Reduction. Steve works hard and niklas #147;all [he] has time to do is go to work, go to school, and sleep#148; (1998, p. 23). In both scenarios, the differentiated essay, individuals strive to be self-sufficient through legitimate forms of employment and niklas beisert thesis persist in an effort to improve their life circumstances. In contrast, though, the sense of entitlement supposedly fostered in long division problems, generational poverty more commonly leads to illegitimate means of securing financial resources. For example, Juan is a six-year-old Hispanic boy who lives with his grandmother who cannot speak English, and a 25-year-old uncle, Ramon. Juan#146;s father was killed in a gang-related shooting and his mother is in beisert, jail, so Ramon looks after Juan. Thesis. In order to support the family, Ramon sells drugs with his gang and makes an average of $1,000 a week. Ramon does not expect to live past his thirtieth birthday because of his dangerous lifestyle, but he continues leading his gang and niklas beisert thesis plans to solving long problems kill a rival gang member and niklas beisert then flee to Mexico for a while (1998, p. 18). A similar situation is discussed in the scenario about Geraldo, a 13-year-old Hispanic male who is a prominent gang member in his neighborhood. Geraldo remains involved with his gang as a #147;matter of pride,#148; and makes $4,000 in reduction, a week selling drugs, sharing it with 10 other members. Thesis. Like Ramon, Geraldo anticipates he will be dead before he turns 25 and therefore believes, #147;You might as well enjoy life and girls.#148; Ultimately, Geraldo admits, #147;. . . faithful is not in my vocabulary.
I#146;m only faithful to them streets#148; (1998, p. 22). The fatalistic views assumed by Ramon and Geraldo are just the opposite of what Payne describes as the essential emotional, mental, and spiritual resources required to escape poverty. Because Payne generally conceives of poverty#151;and staying in poverty#151;as at least partly a matter of choice, an individual must have the ability to identify and reason through various courses of action, particularly those necessitating deferred gratification and personal restraint. Instruction Essay. The scenario of Magnolia, a 16-year-old White girl in tenth grade who single-handedly takes care of her eight siblings because her mother is neglectful and niklas beisert thesis irresponsible, exemplifies a person who possesses these critical resources. Magnolia demonstrates her emotional resources by refusing to thesis poverty reduction steal from others, even though her mother instructs her to do it so they can have food to eat and #147;[she] can#146;t remember a time when [she wasn#146;t] hungry sometime during the week#148; (1998, p. 24). However, Magnolia#146;s commitment to caring for her siblings is clear as she sneaks the welfare check out of the mailbox to buy food for the family before her mother can waste it gratuitously on herself.
Magnolia gets Bs and Cs in school but aspires to be a teacher. Niklas Thesis. Payne tells us that she could earn As if only there was time to do her homework and assigning a macro to a maximize her mental resources. Magnolia, however, is an exceptional case in beisert, Payne#146;s workbook. Most of the differentiated instruction essay, scenarios depict people who lack emotional, mental, and niklas spiritual resources. For example, Habib is division problems, a #147;likeable and easily persuaded#148; 18-year-old, African-American male whose one great attribute is that he is #147;one heck of a fighter#148; (1998, p. 21). One day when he was sixteen, he returned home to find that his mother had been beaten by her latest boyfriend. After calling an ambulance for her, Habib went looking for niklas thesis, her boyfriend but decided it might be a good idea to break into and rob a pawnshop instead. Payne suggests that this course of action represented Habib trying to resolve his anger, and the outlaw of american when he was caught, he also had a gun in his pocket. Another scenario portrays the lives of Tahiti, a 14-year-old girl of mixed African-American and Mexican parentage, and her best friend Theresa, a 14-year-old Hispanic girl. Niklas. Neither of the girls does well in school, and Tahiti#146;s family life is fraught with drinking and abuse.
In order to give their lives meaning, these girls actively try to get pregnant so they can #147;have something of [their] own#148; (1998, p. 25). All of the a macro to a, people in Payne#146;s scenarios have physical resources, although they function differently for men and women. While men gain advantage from their ability to fight and willingness to niklas beisert utilize violence (as seen in the scenarios of Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib), Payne indicates that women can use their bodies and sex to elicit favors. The scenario of John and Adele best illustrates the the outlaw of american, significance of a woman#146;s physical resources. Adele, a 29-year-old White, single mother of niklas, two children, was left by her unfaithful but educated and wealthy husband. Her ex-husband pays minimal child support and poverty Adele works part-time despite being an alcoholic. When Adele#146;s car breaks down, she is financially unable to have it fixed and may get fired if she cannot report to work the next day. Adele assesses the available choices and determines that one way to niklas beisert solve her problem is to invite the mechanic over for dinner. The mechanic later calls and invites her out to courses dinner instead, mentioning that they might be able to work something out in terms of payment. Adele thinks, #147;It has been a long time since [I] have been out, and niklas beisert he is good-looking and seems like a nice man#148; (1998, p. 15). Payne suggests that Adele would likely benefit from having a support system for times of reduction, need, and that Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib could use role models to teach them appropriate, less destructive behaviors.
The scenario of niklas beisert thesis, Wisteria and Eileen attests to the importance that Payne attributes to support from extended family. In this case, Wisteria, a 70-year-old woman on Social Security, provides a home for Eileen, her 10-year-old granddaughter who was abandoned by her drug-addicted, prostitute, and currently incarcerated mother. Wisteria only receives about $150 a week and is in declining health, but her willingness to take care of Eileen means that the child will not be placed in a foster home. Furthermore, Wisteria has accumulated modest financial resources and enlists support from the church where she has been a member for 40 years (1998, p. 17). The church is a critical institution in Payne#146;s view, but it is unable to address the problems of poverty by itself. A church serves as a social support in the scenario about Maria and Noemi, a Hispanic mother-and-daughter pair from a devout Catholic family that receives food stamps but is long, otherwise quite loving and intact.
What Payne suggests 10-year-old Maria learns from Noemi#146;s role-modeling, however, is niklas beisert, that she should get married, have children, and stay home like her mother (1998, p. 19). Similar patterns of courses essay, early pregnancy are also perpetuated by beisert thesis the maternal example in the scenario of Tijuana Checosovakia, a 14-year-old African-American girl who had her first child when she was 11 (1998, p. 20); Sally#146;s 15-year-old sister in the scenario of Sally and Sueann (1998, p. 10); and Vangie, an African-American woman who conceived her first child at 13 (1998, p. 12). Again, for Payne it is emotional and moral resources that count more than financial support. Even if the individuals and the outlaw bible of american essays families in her various scenarios have adequate material means of subsistence, it is their values and behavior that most critically determine their prospects for escaping poverty. Interestingly, the primary positive role models mentioned in Payne#146;s scenarios are educators. This is niklas beisert thesis, hardly surprising, given her involvement in a research paper, professional development activities for teachers. For instance, Magnolia#146;s aspiration to become a teacher (discussed earlier) was inspired by niklas the kindness of her own fifth-grade teacher who provided a Thanksgiving meal for her hungry family. As a result, Magnolia believes that she could help kids too if she was a teacher. Differentiated Instruction Essay. In the scenario about Steve (also discussed earlier), it is a school counselor who persuades him to stay in school and graduate even though he is niklas beisert thesis, exhausted trying to solving long division balance a full-time job and classes. Beisert. The counselor expresses faith in long, Steve#146;s ability to learn, and personally meets him at 7:00 in the morning to provide algebra tutorials. Through these interactions with teachers and other school officials, Magnolia and Steve have role models who can serve as their #147;sponsors#148; out of thesis, poverty.
They can, in thesis poverty, other words, finally be provided an opportunity to niklas learn the hidden rules of the bible, middle class to do well in school and become financially self-supporting, successful members of our society. Of course, these also are examples of educators who are going beyond the general call of duty, working with students outside of the normal workday and using their own resources rather than those of the niklas, school or district. What these individuals draw upon are emotional and assigning moral resources as well, and niklas beisert their examples in Payne#146;s scenarios reinforce the emphasis that she places upon these attributes. In framing the grading a research, social problem of poverty in such basic human terms, Payne adds considerable force to her arguments about niklas, its origins and the possibilities for its resolution. On the other hand, the reality of the outlaw of american essays, working with such students is often considerably more complicated than her scenarios may suggest, and poverty may not be as closely tied to niklas morality and associated #147;hidden rules#148; as she seems to believe. A critique of Payne#146;s framework. Without doubt, the conceptual clarity and apparent applicability of Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty are among its primary assets. Yet, given the heated scholarly debates regarding poverty over the last several decades, her authoritative-sounding pronouncements about children#146;s socioeconomic status and of american essays their educational and behavioral outcomes are rather remarkable.
This apparent certainty appeals to thesis many people#146;s common-sense notions of how poverty functions and how it can be eliminated. It is important to note, however, that the underlying logic of solving division, Payne#146;s conception of poverty is beisert, not well-supported by contemporary social science research, and her straightforward explanations and conclusions may hold problematic implications for poor children and those educators who serve them. In the discussion that follows, we consider a number of potential criticisms of Payne#146;s work, including her selective use of social science research to support her arguments about the impact of poverty on education and solving long division problems other outcomes for children in society. One problem in Payne#146;s framework of poverty is the extent to which she essentializes the values, behaviors, and orientations of those who are poor. Although Payne distinguishes between different circumstances of poverty, she routinely describes the poor in sweeping fashion as individuals who differ markedly from others in the middle and wealthy classes. For example, Payne explains that poor people lack the ability to govern their own behavior which is necessary for functioning in the middle class (2005, p. Beisert. 77). As a result, the scenarios discussed earlier in this article are intended to illustrate how #147;the line between what is legal and illegal is thin and often crossed#148; so that the poor #147;simply see jail as a part of life and not necessarily always bad#148; (2005, p. 22). Also, she maintains that the poor assume their life circumstances are inevitable, so money is a research, either shared or spent immediately.
Disciplinary action is seen as being about penance and forgiveness rather than really changing negative behaviors; men value hard labor and identify as #147;a lover#148; and #147;a fighter#148; with bars and work as their main social outlets; and women learn that #147;sex will bring in money and favors. Values are important, but they don#146;t put food on the table#151;or bring relief from intense pressure#148; (2005, p. 23#150;24). Payne paints provocative pictures, but they are usually variations on a single theme. Life in poor families is characterized by constant chatter and background noise from the TV which is almost always on; disorganization and clutter; matriarchal and extended family structures; and multiple internal feuds #147;with nearly everyone having multiple relationships, some legal and some not#148; (2005, p. Thesis. 51#150;56). Such scenarios convey powerful images, and all but a couple of them depict poor people as engaging in behavior of questionable moral character. Even if the main character in a story is to a, a largely innocent student, she or he is usually presented as contending with adults who have proven to be morally weak. Whether it is an out-of-work uncle or a father in jail, an unwed pregnant sister or a drunken mother, the children in these stories are victims of the adults who have failed them.
While Payne presents the stories in a straightforward fashion to encourage analysis, they are ultimately morality tales inviting judgment from an audience of largely middle-class professionals. A second concern is that Payne#146;s essentialized portrayal of the poor and problems related to poverty can lead to misconceptions or contribute to popular stereotypes about people in poverty. As noted earlier, central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; or #147;mental models#148; which distinguish the niklas beisert, thinking and behavior of people who are poor from those who are middle class and long division wealthy. In identifying these characteristics, Payne appears to rely heavily on niklas beisert thesis the work of Oscar Lewis (1968), Michael Harrington (1962), Richard Sennett (Sennett Cobb, 1973), and other writers from the 1960s and early 1970s who, to one degree or another, endorsed a #147;culture of poverty#148; thesis about behavioral differences between the poor and others. Payne herself uses this term sparingly, but throughout the reduction, book she argues that individuals in niklas thesis, generational poverty exhibit characteristics consistent with the culture of poverty thesis. As evident in the descriptive scenarios, the poor are generally depicted as having a weak work ethic, little sense of internal discipline or future orientation, and leading lives characterized to one extent or another by disorder and violence. In making these characterizations, Payne seems to be unaware of the assigning a macro to a button, many studies dating from the late 1960s that challenged the culture of beisert thesis, poverty thesis, in many instances directly testing the extent to which traits such as these were more prevalent among the poor than other groups. By and large, these studies found that such characteristics were not more likely to solving problems be evident in poor individuals or households. Indeed, people in poverty valued work, saving money, behaving properly, maintaining stable families, and a number of other #147;middle-class#148; attributes as much as their counterparts in higher social and economic strata. These results, moreover, held across groups with experiences of differing duration in poverty and niklas across racial and solving division ethnic lines (Roach Gursslin, 1967; Irelan, Moles, O#146;Shea, 1969; Coward, Feagin, Williams, 1974; Davidson Gaitz, 1974; Abell Lyon, 1979; Carmon, 1985; Jones Luo, 1999).
To put the matter another way, this body of research suggests that many of the attitudes that Payne attributes to the poor are also evident to niklas beisert thesis varying degrees among the the outlaw bible, non-poor, groups that Payne would describe as the #147;middle class#148; and the #147;wealthy.#148; After all, there is considerable evidence that individuals in these groups have characteristics of the sort that Payne attributes only to the poor: a variable work ethic, inability to save money, and uncertainty in interpersonal relationships. Recent studies indicate that traditional middle-class values on a range of issues have shifted in the past several decades. Beisert. Divorce, for instance, is now widely seen as acceptable, a broad range of grading a research, personal behavior is tolerated or accepted, and work judged to niklas beisert thesis be demeaning is often spurned, even in the face of unemployment. (Thornton Young-DeMarco, 2001; Jaynes, 2000) Mainstream values of the sort Payne holds up as exemplary appear to be considerably less prevalent today than in the past, throughout all segments of the assigning button, population. Much of the behavior Payne describes, consequently, is not exclusively a problem of the poor and may therefore reflect values that she incorrectly attributes to poverty. Middle-class or upper-class individuals, of course, are less likely to suffer as a result of such behaviors because, as Payne notes, having monetary resources makes the consequences of such attitudinal or behavioral characteristics considerably less dire.
However, a major problem in her interpretation is suggesting that there may be a causal force to these attributes. While they may make it difficult for some to escape poverty under current social and economic conditions, there is little evidence that such traits are especially prevalent among the poor, and they do not explain why some people fall into poverty and others do not. Studies challenging the culture of poverty thesis have cast serious doubt on the proposition that a clearly distinguishable #147;culture of poverty#148; in fact exists. By and large, it is a term that has fallen out of use in the social science literature today. The studies that Payne does reference offer little support for her formulation of #147;mental models#148; that distinguish the behavior of the niklas thesis, poor. Long. One study she cites a great deal is Susan Mayer#146;s (1997) book, What Money Can#146;t Buy . Mayer argues that #147;. . . activities, possessions and housing environments that are important to children#146;s outcomes are only moderately related to parental income#148; (p.
113). In other words, the poor do not lack in resources necessary for children to niklas beisert succeed, and middle-class status is essay, hardly a guarantee of a child#146;s success. What matters are the #147;values#148; of niklas beisert thesis, parents, and Mayer (like many other researchers) offers scant evidence that the poor have different values than other groups. On the surface, of course, this point would appear to differentiated instruction support Payne#146;s argument, and it is no doubt for beisert thesis, this reason that she cites Mayer#146;s work. But Mayer#146;s position is more complicated than this, and directly addresses the question of whether income is related to parenting practices, an issue at the core of Payne#146;s argument. In examining this matter, Mayer reports that there is negligible difference between the poor and other families. After reviewing the evidence from survey data, she concludes, #147;These results provide little evidence that parents#146; income has a large influence on parenting practices. Nor do the results in this chapter suggest that parental income has a large effect on parents#146; psychological attributes other than their feelings of efficacy. And parental efficacy has only a moderate effect on children#146;s outcomes#148; (1997, p. 124). By and large, according to Mayer, parenting practices and the values that inform them are generally unrelated to instruction essay income. This is hardly a finding that provides support for Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, despite her use of Mayer#146;s book for confirmation of her theories.
Mayer does indicate that #147;some persistently poor parents are shiftless and neglectful,#148; adding that their households exhibit #147;neither the moral nor the material standards that most Americans believe children require#148; (1997, p. 151). Niklas Beisert. But she also makes it clear that families falling into this category are only a part of the solving division problems, persistently poor, who also suffer from niklas beisert, illness, depression, and other limitations quite separate from their moral predilections. This suggests that poor families of the sort that Payne describes as reflecting #147;generational poverty#148; represent a modest proportion of the poor, perhaps less than a quarter and probably lower. Given these figures, it stands to reason that the children in such families would be a rather small fraction of all children, possibly just 3 or 4 percent. As Mayer concludes, #147;poverty alone is not synonymous with incompetence,#148; and as the number of families living in poverty rises, #147;the average poor person becomes more like the assigning, average middle-class person#148; (1997, p. 152). This too is an argument in sharp distinction from Payne#146;s, which suggests that the niklas beisert, numbers of attitudinally deviant poor families are increasing (Payne, 2005, p. 61). Another book Payne cites a number of times is a collection of studies edited by Greg J. Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (1997) titled, Consequences of Growing Up Poor . Poverty Reduction. Again, Payne appears to have been rather selective in choosing quotes from this source, as the various studies provide little support for her analysis. In the chapter examining the link between income levels and niklas beisert parenting practices, for instance, Hanson, McLanahan, and Thomson (1997) echo Mayer#146;s points described above, #147;We found that household income and a macro debt are only weakly related to beisert effective parenting. A Research Paper. Consequently, differences in the levels of parenting do not account for much of the association between economic resources and children#146;s well being#148; (p. 219). While the researchers did find evidence that various approaches to parenting had different effects in poor and non-poor households (with control and supervision being less important in the latter), this did not materially affect the relationship between income and beisert thesis children#146;s outcomes.
In another study, Canadian researchers found little evidence of a relationship between poverty and behavioral problems in the schools (Pagani, Boulerice, Tremblay, 1997). These and similar conclusions throughout the book indicate that the solving long problems, relationship between poverty, the values and behavior of parents, and the welfare of beisert, children are a good deal more complicated than Payne suggests. What is perhaps most problematic about Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty is its underlying logic that suggests poor people have choices about whether to remain in#151;or escape from#151;poverty. As illustrated in the scenarios described earlier, Payne argues that the poor may not realize they have a choice to live differently, and even if they do recognize their own agency, they may be reluctant to exercise it without the aid of a sponsor who can model the appropriate use of emotional resources. The Outlaw Bible Of American. Payne explains that in niklas beisert thesis, poverty,
There is a freedom of verbal expression, an appreciation of individual personality, a heightened and intense emotional experience, and a sensual, kinesthetic approach to life usually not found in the middle class or among the educated. These patterns are so intertwined in the daily life of the poor that to the outlaw bible of american have those cut off would be to lose a limb. Many choose not to live a different life. And for some, alcoholism, laziness, lack of motivation, drug addiction, etc., in niklas beisert thesis, effect make the choices for the individual. A Research. (2005, p. 113) As a result, Payne indicates that helping poor children develop self control requires both structure and choice so that they can recognize what behaviors are expected of them, identify the consequences accompanying particular actions, and ultimately #147;emphasize that the individual always has a choice#151;to follow or not to follow the expected behaviors#148; (2005, p. Beisert. 78).
Emphasizing that emotional resources are the most important factor in the perpetuation of differentiated instruction essay, poverty implies it is the poor themselves who bear the greatest responsibility for their condition, despite the beisert, extensive research literature suggesting otherwise. For example, Payne overlooks the a macro to a, predominant social and economic causes of poverty highlighted in social science literature such as deindustrialization, discrimination, unequal educational resources, and socioeconomic segregation (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). These studies dispel prevalent beliefs that changing individuals#146; values and thesis behavior can affect their social mobility, or that children in poor and lower-class households have the online courses, same objective opportunities for inter-generational social mobility as children from more affluent families. Recent research on the state of the thesis, very poor in assigning a macro button, American society suggests that their social environment is niklas, considerably more influential than Payne#146;s book indicates. The Gatreaux project in Chicago, for instance, has demonstrated that moving families out of inner-city communities with highly concentrated poverty can have a significant effect on the life chances of children and adults alike. Once relocated to a research paper middle-class neighborhoods, children performed better in school, adults found employment, and beisert family prospects improved. Solving Long. (Kaufman Rosenbaum, 1992) This research casts considerable doubt on the #147;mental models#148; theory that Payne postulates in her book. The failure to consider this perspective is a major shortcoming of her analysis. Furthermore, although Payne#146;s reference to individuals in situational and generational poverty does not correspond to data categories on thesis the census and are thus difficult to quantify exactly, the research literature on poverty indicates that the largest group of solving long problems, these children are racial/ethnic minorities (mostly African-American) living in beisert, central-city neighborhoods where local employment opportunities are severely restricted.
Payne, however, suggests that race is largely unrelated to poverty. In doing so, she sidesteps the critical issue of systematic, historical patterns of thesis reduction, discrimination and exploitation that have contributed to the persistence of widespread poverty in the United States. Here, too, she ignores the very research upon which her book purportedly relies. A study cited by Payne reports that African-American families in 1980 were more than seven times more likely to experience #147;persistent#148; poverty (more than six years) than Whites. African-Americans also were more likely to live in a neighborhood where more than a fifth of the residents were persistently poor by about the same margin (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Maritato, 1997). Children in these families often live in beisert thesis, environments where the effects of paper, #147;concentrated poverty#148; are evident, a term employed by beisert William Julius Wilson to describe to describe the impact of deindustrialization and long-term unemployment on long division inner-city communities (Wilson, 1987, 1996). These statistics tell a different story about the relationship between poverty and race than Payne describes, particularly with respect to niklas thesis the #147;persistent#148; poor. Meaningful efforts to educate poor children and work towards the elimination of poverty in poverty, society at large necessitate a commitment to understanding and reforming the existing structure of socioeconomic stratification. This entails a critical analysis of contemporary economic shifts and needs (Books, 2004; Kantor, 1999; Ranney, 1999; Wilson, 1987), as well as attention to the advantageous functioning of the system to particular groups of privileged people (Gans, 1995; Jencks, 1972). For example, although there is greater parity in amount of education received by Blacks and Whites in the United States, this has not translated into more equal occupational success or earnings (Conley, 1999, p. 86). Even larger economic disparities can be captured when considering wealth rather than income between groups, as some social scientists have suggested.
Oliver and Shapiro (1997) explain, Wealth is money that is beisert, not typically used to purchase milk, shoes, or other necessities. Sometimes it bails families out of financial and personal crises, but more often it is used to create opportunities, secure a desired stature and standard of living, or pass along a class status already obtained to a new generation. (p. 171) The measure of one#146;s wealth#151;including things such as inheritance, investments, and property#151;has the the outlaw bible essays, #147;particular attribute of quantifying the social value of ideas or objects#148; (Conley, 1999, p. 144). Payne concludes that in conceptualizing poverty,
Naming the problem is the first step toward a solution, and the most important step, for if the niklas thesis, problem is not named accurately the course of action based on that faulty assumption will only lead further and further from a solution. So naming problems accurately#151;making the correct diagnosis#151;is crucial because it is on those definitions that the theories of change and program activities are based. Thesis. (2005, p. 169) Yet, Payne#146;s own viewpoint is niklas beisert, largely unsubstantiated in grading, current research literature. Through a detailed analysis of the niklas beisert thesis, descriptive scenarios Payne provides to the outlaw bible of american accompany her framework for understanding poverty, it is clear that the niklas, poor are portrayed rather monolithically in their values and behaviors, which generally correspond to the culture of poverty thesis of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Thesis Reduction. In like fashion, then, Payne recommends that educators serve to inspire and model change so the poor know there is niklas thesis, a more desirable way of living. Essay. If only the niklas beisert thesis, problem of poverty could be so simply diagnosed, then the remedy would be fairly straightforward. Yet Payne#146;s work may misinform well-intentioned efforts to educate poor children by locating the online courses essay, problem of poverty within the niklas, individual without regard to the larger social context in which they live and are expected to succeed.
The Payne phenomenon in perspective. Given the reduction, issues identified above, the beisert thesis, influence of Dr. Ruby Payne presents something of a puzzle. If her viewpoint is so heavily tilted toward a certain perspective and essay the research base for thesis, her work is so questionable, what explains the popularity of her book and the apparent success of her workshops? As suggested above, the clarity of her explanation for poverty and related issues, along with the confident tone of her narratives and recommendations, may explain part of the appeal. The fact that she purports to draw upon decades of academic research no doubt lends credibility to her enterprise and its publications. But it is also possible that a good deal of the interest her perspective draws from educators is rooted in their own middle-class conceptions about the poor and the causes of poverty. Most educators, after all, are unfamiliar with the extensive research literature on poverty and its effects on children, and long division problems if Payne#146;s citations seem to support their own views about the poor, they would hardly be in a position to challenge the interpretation of research that Payne offers. Beisert. If they are predisposed to believing that the poor are lazy and impulsive as well as unreliable and to a temperamental, they are more likely to agree with Payne#146;s analysis than to question it. Beisert. In short, Payne may be popular simply because she echoes commonplace assumptions about assigning, why some individuals appear to succeed in American society while others do not.
As historian Michael Katz has noted, traditional views toward the poor have existed in the country for at least two-hundred years (Katz, 1986). In the past, observers of the poor distinguished between those considered #147;worthy#148; and #147;unworthy.#148; The difference was typically linked to thesis personal rectitude, much like the distinctions that Payne notes in separating #147;situational#148; from #147;generational#148; poverty. Her #147;mental models#148; conceptual framework and the scenarios she describes echo the ideas of a research paper, middle-class welfare reformers from the past, for whom poverty was more a moral condition than a matter of economic status. Now, as then, children are depicted as victims of the problematic attitudes and behaviors their parents exhibit and niklas beisert thesis deemed highly susceptible to inheriting the same dysfunctional worldviews. While this may elicit sympathy and concern for students who live in online courses, poverty, and niklas beisert thesis perhaps cause teachers to devote more time and attention to assigning button their needs, it is unlikely to niklas beisert thesis create a sound, research-based comprehension of the grading, problems presented by poverty and the best ways to address them. Because of this, it seems unlikely that Payne#146;s framework will lead to niklas beisert meaningful, long-term change in the circumstances of assigning a macro to a, poor children#146;s lives and the ability of schools to work with them. Ultimately, it is necessary to consider whether the apparent success of Ruby Payne and beisert her organization represents a failure on solving problems the part of teacher educators and the many social science researchers who have addressed the connections between poverty and schooling over beisert the past several decades. After all, if thousands of professional educators have been misinformed to one extent or another by Payne#146;s analytical framework, it is at least partly because the online courses, training they received in colleges and universities did not prepare them to critically assess its problems.
If teachers and principals lack an thesis, understanding about how poverty and social class affect children#146;s education, it may be because their own professional education provided little information or theory for them to draw upon for this purpose. At the same time, researchers focusing on these issues have not contributed to the development of successful in-service education programs that acknowledge the realities and needs of teachers and other education professionals in the classroom. Ruby Payne has thus filled a critical vacuum in the field. This, too, explains some of her success. Where others have been uninterested or perhaps unable to help teachers understand just how poverty and education are related, Payne and solving division her collaborators have been quite willing to step into the breach. Perhaps it is time for the research and teacher education community to take up the challenge of poverty and begin to engage the questions that Ruby Payne has addressed so actively for niklas beisert, the past decade or so. This is not an easy undertaking since the links between poverty and thesis poverty reduction schooling are far from fully understood. Niklas Beisert. As a number of studies have noted, the bible of american, particular mechanisms that account for why some individuals and families end up in poverty and remain there for any length of time are still poorly comprehended (Sawhill, 1988).
Quantitative studies using large national or even local databases, despite their many important contributions, are unlikely to provide definitive answers. Thesis. As the authors of a chapter on #147;intergenerational transmission of poverty#148; in the Duncan and Brooks-Gunn volume note, #147;While we know that growing up poor reduces children#146;s economic mobility, these analyses tell us little about why#148; (Corcoran Adams, 1997, p. 514). In their concluding chapter, Duncan and Brooks-Gunn refer to the absence of courses, strong relationships between parental income and beisert school performance in quantitative studies as an #147;enigma#148; (Duncan Brooks-Gunn, 1997, p. 603). More fine-grained analyses of the the outlaw essays, effect of schooling and development of children living in poverty are needed before answers to these questions can be generated. While teachers and schools do have an important role in addressing issues of beisert, educational opportunity and equity for essay, poor children, much additional research will be necessary before effective programs of niklas beisert thesis, professional assistance for problems, them can or should be undertaken. Niklas Beisert. Ruby Payne#146;s program, while doubtless well intentioned, is not based on a sound or thorough understanding of poverty and its causes.
However, if her efforts to address the reduction, difficulties educators face in working with poor children generates increased research attention and a resolution to better connect researchers#146; findings with educators#146; instructional concerns, then perhaps her work will turn out to niklas have been significant indeed. Abell, T., Lyon, L. (1979). Do the differences make a difference? An empirical evaluation of the culture of online courses essay, poverty in the United States. Niklas Thesis. American Ethnologist, 6 (3), 602#150;621. Books, S. (2004) Poverty and schooling in the U.S.: Contexts and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Brady, D. (2003). Rethinking the sociological measurement of grading, poverty. Social Forces , 81 (3), 715#150;752.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. Thesis. J., Maritato, N. (1997) Poor families, poor outcomes: The well being of children and youth. In G. J. Grading A Research Paper. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of niklas beisert thesis, growing up poor (pp. 1#150;17). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Carmon, N. Grading A Research Paper. (1985). Poverty and culture: Empirical evidence and implications for public policy. Sociological Perspectives, 28 (4), 403#150;417. Conley, D. Beisert Thesis. (1999). Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America . Berkeley, CA: University of online, California Press.
Corcoran, M. Adams, T. (1997). Beisert Thesis. Race, sex and the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In G. A Macro To A. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 461#150;517). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Coward, B. E., Feagin, J. R., Williams, Jr., J. Beisert. A. Solving Long Division Problems. (1974). The culture of poverty debate: Some additional data. Social Problems , 21 (5), 621#150;634.
Davidson, C. Gaitz, C. Thesis. M. (1974). Are the poor different? A comparison of work behavior and attitudes among the a macro to a button, urban poor and nonpoor. Niklas Beisert Thesis. Social Problems , 22 (2), 229#150;245. Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Poverty. Income effects across the life span: Integration and interpretation. Beisert Thesis. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 596#150;610). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Gans, H. J. (1995).
The war against the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy . New York, NY: Basic Books. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., Thomson, E. Online Courses Essay. (1997). Economic resources, parental practices, and children#146;s well-being. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 190#150;238). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Harrington, M. (1962).
The other America: Poverty in the United States . New York, NY: Macmillan. Hernandez, D. J. (1997). Beisert Thesis. Poverty trends. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp.18#150;34). New York, NY: Russell Sage.
Irelan, L. M., Moles, O. C., O'Shea, R. M. (1969). Ethnicity, poverty, and selected attitudes: A test of the #147;culture of poverty#148; hypothesis. Social Forces, 47 (4), 405#150;413. Jaynes, G. D. (2000). Identity and economic performance. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 568 (3), 128#150;139. Jencks, C. Long Problems. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and niklas beisert thesis schooling in America . Grading. New York, NY: Basic Books. Jones, R. K., Luo, Y. (1999). The culture of poverty and beisert thesis African-American culture: An empirical assessment. Sociological Perspectives , 42 (3), 439#150;458.
Kantor, H. (1999). Race, education, and joblessness in the inner city, 1970#150;1990. The Urban Review , 31 (3), 225#150;242. Katz, M. Grading. B. (1986). In the shadow of the poorhouse: A social history of welfare in America. New York, NY: Basic Books. Lewis, O. (1968). Beisert. A study of slum culture: Backgrounds for courses, La Vida . New York, NY: Random House. Massey, D. S., Denton, N. A. Niklas. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mayer, S. (1997). What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Oliver, M. L., Shapiro, T. M. (1997). Black wealth/white wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality . New York, NY: Routledge. Pagani, L., Boulerice, B. Tremblay, R. (1997). The influence of poverty on children#146;s classroom placement and behavior problems. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 311#150;339).
New York, NY: Russell Sage. Payne, Ruby K. (1996). A framework for essays, understanding poverty: Modules 1#150;7 workbook . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Payne, Ruby K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty . Niklas. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Ranney, D. C. (1999). Class, race, gender, and poverty: A critique of some contemporary theories.
In L. Kushnick J. Jennings (Eds.), A new introduction to poverty: The role of race, power, and politics (pp. 39#150;56). New York, NY: New York University Press. Roach, J. Instruction. L., Gursslin, O. R. (1967). Beisert Thesis. An evaluation of the concept #148;culture of poverty#148;. Social Forces , 45 (3), 383#150;392. Sawhill, I. V. (1988). Poverty in the U.S.: Why is it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature, 26 (3), 1073#150;1119.
Sennett, R., Cobb, J. (1973). The hidden injuries of class. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Thornton, A., Young-DeMarco, L. Grading. (2001). Four decades of trends in niklas thesis, attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the 1990s. Journal of Marriage and the Family , 63 (4), 1009#150;1037. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Outlaw Bible Of American. The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor . New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. Zeichner, K. M. (2003).
The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers College Record , 105 (3), 490#150;519. http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 12596, Date Accessed: 10/4/2017 7:07:00 AM. University of beisert thesis, Kansas. JENNIFER C. NG is an assistant professor in the School of Education at the University of Kansas. Solving Division. Her primary research interests include the socialization of beginning teachers in urban schools, as well as such multicultural issues as race, class, and niklas thesis gender. Her recent publications have appeared in Educational Studies and Education and Urban Society. University of Kansas.
JOHN L. RURY is a research, a professor of education at the University of Kansas. His area of specialization is the history of American education, with special reference to problems of inequality and discrimination in schooling.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in beisert thesis helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to button, know more about can make this paper more interesting. Niklas Beisert Thesis? Available Sources: I give links to division problems, many sources. Check those for articles first and niklas beisert if you find some, your work is half done.
I also save you time by giving you links to a research, videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. Niklas Beisert Thesis? 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to assigning a macro to a, write your essay.
Choosing a topic that everyone is niklas beisert talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to reduction, the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to beisert, you and that you care about.
Steer clear of courses overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. Niklas Beisert Thesis? For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and online courses essay is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is beisert hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the instruction economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage?
What is Love? What kind of love leads to beisert thesis, a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for solving division problems a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to niklas beisert thesis, become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by online courses essay, people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and niklas beisert keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way?
What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the a research paper best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the niklas thesis best by a research paper, doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult?
Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and niklas beisert thesis other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit?
How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the solving division T.V. Niklas? show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people?
Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. The Outlaw Of American? Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Beisert Thesis? Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in differentiated instruction American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005).
The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and niklas kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for to a button the environment? Should the niklas beisert thesis horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached?
Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of to a Mexico? What are the thesis dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for division water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to thesis, encourage the use of assigning a macro to a reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to niklas, encourage recycling? What causes people to litter?
What could motivate people to bible of american essays, clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment?
Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the thesis environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is paper deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint?
What are the dangers for beisert people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to essays, handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to beisert thesis, encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Button? Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for beisert your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information.
Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children?
How can you get out solving division of the friend zone? How can you know you are in niklas beisert thesis an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family?
What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for grading paper children?
How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and niklas beisert thesis social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is online essay nanotechnology and thesis how has it already changed our lives?
How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in thesis developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the niklas beisert thesis lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to solving long, act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by niklas, using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete?
What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is long better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?
SciTech Daily: Science and thesis new technology news and research reports. Grading? MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Beisert Thesis? Write down everything you know about the paper topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. Niklas Thesis? After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for thesis poverty the body of your essay). Niklas Thesis? Using those reasons, look at thesis, the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for niklas thesis some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence).
Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Solving Problems? Do you have to do research for niklas beisert thesis your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and reduction Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. How to niklas thesis, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. This is a great resource. A Research Paper? I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay.
Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too.
Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Niklas? Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in online courses grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to niklas beisert, do at bible of american, first. I was clueless and niklas beisert was browsing for answers but none of essay them made sense except for this.
Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and beisert thesis I have to a macro to a, write an argumentative paper. Your insight on niklas beisert thesis how to the outlaw of american, do so has been extremely helpful. Niklas Beisert? I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for a research my essay. Again, thank you for niklas helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago.
I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on assigning to a writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for niklas beisert writing it!
It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and thesis topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written.
In my class, I focus on niklas beisert having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the essay viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. Niklas Beisert? In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out online essay their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an thesis online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the long division state take actions to niklas, prevent high rate of divorces, which ones?
Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Solving Problems? Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on niklas thesis school campus.
Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from essay, United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on thesis my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys!
ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in differentiated instruction this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in beisert thesis a written debate so to poverty, speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics.
Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thesis? Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.
Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the long division hardest to argue about. Thesis? The less the differentiated instruction words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from niklas thesis, Australia. What an online interesting range of ideas and tips!
Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is niklas beisert thesis very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to assigning, write the questions without giving away your position on thesis each topic. - Ginger.
Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Instruction? Very interesting. Fun ideas and niklas thesis great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is a research a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Niklas Beisert? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and bible advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and beisert thesis respective owners.
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Niklas beisert thesis
causes ww2 essay We can count many causes of niklas thesis, World War 2, political and long others, but the three root causes of World War 2 were : The Prussian Militarism - developed in niklas thesis, 200 years of history, it was the force that made Germany so powerful, and made it possible for a man like Adolf Hitler to thesis gain total control of it. Adolf Hitler - a madman and political genius, Adolf Hitler re-ignited the Prussian militarism after the German defeat in World War 1, and with this great power under his total control, he started the greatest and cruelest war in history, in his planned attempt to vastly expand Germany and to dominate the entire world. Appeasement - Britain and France could easily stop Hitler when Germany was still weak, but their war-traumatized pacifist desire to totally avoid violence just helped Hitler rebuild Germany's military strength more rapidly, until it was too late to stop him. For many centuries, the territory of modern Germany was divided between over 300 German-speaking small and independent political units ruled by beisert thesis, small absolute princes. Prussia, in eastern Germany, with Berlin its capital city, was one of these many countries. The Prussian militarism started with Friedrich Wilhelm I, The soldier king of Prussia (1713-1740), then a small kingdom around Berlin, and developed for over 200 years, making Prussia one of the most militarist countries in history, A military that has a state. Prussia was an thesis reduction efficient and strictly disciplined military-oriented state, with a militarist mentality and the world's most effective army.
Prussia was initially just a small agricultural state with little resources, but The soldier king and his successors, with an impressive combination of merciless iron will and organizational talent, converted it to a modern Sparta. Prussia typically spent 65% - 85% of niklas, its budget on its military, an enormous spending. Such a system could be sustained for so long only by a combination of : Strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient civil service that ran the state for thesis poverty, its king, and for thesis, his strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient army. The backbone of Prussia's civil and military services were the Junkers, (the word means young lords in old German), the conservative and the outlaw bible essays militarist aristocratic land owners, who were Prussia's officer Corps and held almost all the senior and medium-level civil positions. An education system which produced hard working obedient people, aware of their duty and willing to sacrifice. Expansion. Prussia's formidable military strength, and its willingness to use it, enabled its rapid territorial expansion by a skilled combination of beisert, military victories and power diplomacy. The territorial expansion added population and assigning button resources, which fed and sustained the niklas beisert Prussian military. In the 19th century, with the a macro button industrial age, Prussia's military advantage increased even further. Prussia's successful expansionist militarism reached its peak under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, The Iron Chancellor, who was its prime minister for 28 years (1862-1890). A great statesman and diplomat, Bismarck's political vision was to niklas beisert unify the the outlaw of american essays many German states to one great country, a German Empire in Prussian domination, by a combined campaign of Blood and iron and diplomacy.
Bismarck achieved that goal in beisert thesis, less than a decade, with a series of solving long division, wars and diplomatic maneuvers, and dedicated the rest of his long tenure to solidify his great achievement, both by helping to keep Europe in peace, and by keeping Prussia and its Junkers class in power in niklas beisert, their new Empire, while skillfully capping calls for democracy. Bismarck knew how to preserve his great achievement, but his successors did not. In 1914 the peace in Europe collapsed into World War 1. After four years of terrible and futile carnage in both sides, the combined weight of the outlaw essays, several great powers finally overcame the German military. The German High Command in 1918 did not wait for the collapse, and stopped the niklas beisert thesis war when they realized that they're about to lose, saving the online courses essay country from further destruction. As a result of the defeat, monarchy was abolished, the large German military was dismantled, later re-established under very severe limitations of its size and beisert equipment, the exhausted country was required to long pay unbearably enormous compensations to the equally exhausted victors, and democracy was established, in the country of people who were taught to strictly obey their superiors, not elect them (there were elections in Germany earlier, but the Reichstag (Congress) had no real authority). On the surface, the new German republic seemed a different country, a peaceful and disarmed democracy that was no longer a threat to its neighbors, and became a prolific and influential center of modern arts and science. But under the surface, it was still the Prussian Germany, with the Junkers in power in beisert, the civil and button military service (including the beisert thesis admired wartime supreme commander as president), with a limited military force, but one that was formed from the bible essays finest war veterans and niklas thesis demonstrated great resourcefulness in bypassing the limits dictated by the peace treaty, and the country was in a financial crisis and a political chaos, and many Germans blamed the peace treaty's dictations of online essay, their country's troubles, and wanted to restore its national pride and past greatness, which above all meant a desire to restore Germany's military strength. With all the power of great, long-term, political, social, economical and cultural forces that shape human history, historians are awed by the great role of niklas thesis, key individuals, the ability of the right person at the right time and place to deeply affect the direction of differentiated, history.
When World War 1 ended in a German defeat and the large German military was dismantled, most Germans accepted the new reality and beisert thesis did their best to build their new post-war civilian life, in difficult economic circumstances. For Adolf Hitler, who was a plain soldier in the war (severely wounded twice, decorated twice for bravery in battle), the prospects of new life and career were even less promising. A high-school dropout who was a poor homeless nomad in Vienna before the war, Hitler was not even a German citizen, he was an Austrian who volunteered to the German military when World War 1 started. He had no family or friends in Germany, no contact with his family in Austria, and a [theoretical] attempt to evaluate his social skills by his relations with his fellow soldiers during the war, or with women, before and online essay after the niklas beisert thesis war, would also suggest a very unpromising future, since Hitler was unpopular in his unit, the other soldiers thought he was weird, and he was very inhibited with regard to women. From such an unpromising start point, the assigning a macro to a chance that such a person can rise from beisert thesis so low to becoming an extremely popular and successful political leader, seemed practically impossible, but Hitler did that in just 13 years. In 1920 he resigned from the army (he was still technically a soldier) to essays enter politics as the leader of a very tiny unknown extreme right political group, not even a party yet, and in niklas beisert thesis, 1933 he was elected the Chancellor of Germany, and the outlaw bible of american quickly abolished democracy, as he said he would, and became a dictator of absolute power. For Hitler's full biography, read my Adolf Hitler essay. Here I'll describe the unique set of qualities of Hitler's personality, and then explain why without them Hitler, or anyone else, could not lead Germany so fast to beisert thesis a second war, a World War that shook the world and long problems almost drowned it in blood.
In his authoritative book The Rise and beisert thesis Fall of the Third Reich : A History of Nazi Germany, William L. Online Courses Essay? Shirer writes about Hitler : The man who founded the Third Reich, who ruled it ruthlessly and thesis often with uncommon shrewdness, who led it to essay such dizzy heights and to such sorry end, was a person of niklas beisert thesis, undoubted, if evil, genius. It is true that he found in the German people, as centuries of experience had molded them up to that time, a natural instrument which he was able to shape to his own sinister ends. But without Adolf Hitler, who was possessed of online courses, a demonic personality, a granite will, uncanny instincts, a cold ruthlessness, a remarkable intellect, a soaring imagination and, until toward the niklas beisert end, an courses amazing capacity to size up people and situations, there almost certainly would never have been a Third Reich. It is one of the great examples of the singular and niklas thesis incalculable power of personality in historical life. To some Germans and, no doubt, to most foreigners it appeared that a charlatan had come to power in Berlin. To the majority of differentiated instruction essay, Germans Hitler had, or would shortly assume, the niklas beisert aura of a truly charismatic leader. They were to follow him blindly, as if he possessed a divine judgment, for thesis poverty reduction, the next twelve tempestuous years. Hitler was an exceptional speaker, a demagogue. His speeches might now seem weird or funny, and beisert thesis that's what foreigners thought of him until it was too late, but the effect of courses essay, Hitler's speeches on his political audience was almost hypnotic. First of all, that's what gave him the leadership of the tiny group that he joined, as the other few members, and others who joined later, quickly realized that their only niklas beisert hope of ever getting anywhere in politics depends on Hitler's gift of thesis poverty reduction, speech.
Then, as party leader, Hitler was different from all his political opponents in his vision for Germany's future. Hitler had an exceptionally far-fetched and very appealing vision of what he wanted for Germany, how to get there, and why it will succeed. Niklas Beisert? Hitler didn't just promise a better future like politicians do. He promised them the world. He convinced them that it's theirs by thesis poverty reduction, natural right and that they have the power to take it for themselves, that they are a Masters race of superior people, and he was so convincing that they believed him. By that, Hitler dwarfed all his political opponents, and slowly, year by beisert thesis, year, but at bible, an increasing rate, more Germans listened to his message and niklas thesis became supporters. Hitler's words were also backed by brutal street violence. German politics in those years was not just speeches, and Hitler operated, ruthlessly, a private army of 500,000 street gangsters, the S.A organization, or Brown shirts as they were called for their uniform, who attacked other parties followers and gatherings. In the effectiveness of their organized brutality, the Nazis also left all their political opponents behind.
Those in assigning a macro to a, power, the leaders of mainstream parties and the widely respected president, saw the danger in Hitler and disliked him, but they kept underestimating him until it was too late, and after the 1933 elections, he overcame all of niklas thesis, them in a political negotiation in poverty, which they did not realize what he was trying to achieve and why, and so he got what he needed while his political opponents thought that the deal they made with him will keep him under control. So in 1933 Hitler did the beisert thesis unbelievable and became the prime minister of Germany, and the outlaw of american essays his partner Goering became minister of the Police. The Nazi party was a minority in a coalition government, but Hitler and Goering immediately used the emergency authorities of their new roles, combined with massive street violence that totally ignored the law. But since by then the Nazis were the beisert police, the law meant nothing. Hitler was the law in Germany between January 1933 and his death in 1945. But once he got to solving long division problems power and thesis became a dictator, Hitler faced a new threat, a threat that persisted until 1938. The German military quickly learned of Hitler's plans for a new war.
Feeling responsible for saving Germany from disaster, since it was still so weak militarily, groups of senior officers seriously planned to remove Hitler in a military coup, but Hitler, who needed the Generals for his intended war but did not trust their enthusiasm of solving long, him and his plans, always outsmarted them, sometimes very narrowly, until when the war started, the series of German victories made the niklas thesis Generals put these plans aside. The Generals returned to attempting to remove Hitler when he was losing the war, and in of american, 1944 he survived an assassination attempt by the military by pure luck, when a bomb exploded next to him in niklas, a room where he held a meeting. But even after overcoming his domestic opposition, Hitler still had to face the world outside, the far stronger and increasingly worried European powers, Britain, France, Russia, and Germany's smaller neighbors which were protected by alliances and online essay shared strategic interests with those powers, above all the interest to avoid having a militarist and mighty Germany next door again. In the area of international power politics Hitler had his greatest success. He was a statesman the beisert world had not seen before, an exceptional poker player who played an incredibly dangerous game and assigning a macro button won time after time, a series of niklas, amazing victories which time after time convinced the online courses worried Generals to delay their plans to remove him, and further increased his already high popularity at home, making him, for a few years, the niklas thesis most genuinely popular dictator in history, which is why the Germans kept following him later, like a losing but still hopeful gambler, all the way down to disaster.
What Bismarck achieved in a decade of of american, diplomacy combined with a series of niklas thesis, wars, Hitler achieved in lightning fast diplomatic moves combined, until September 1939, with military threats but not actual warfare. Europe's other leaders were always at least a step behind him, with political maneuvers and turns that ended in days or sometimes overnight, literally. It was unprecedented in diplomatic history, and Hitler managed, with incredible skill and astonishing success, using all the characteristics of his unique personality described above, to reduction arrange and initiate a series of niklas beisert, crises on the brink of war, and come out the winner with great gains, territorial and other, time and again, and without actually starting a war, a war which until 1939 he was going to lose because the German military was still too small and ill-equipped to win. The German Generals knew it well and were rightfully worried, the European leaders knew it, and Hitler knew it, and still, time after time, between 1935 and 1939, he won with weaker cards, thanks to his exceptional personal abilities in the outlaw, a fast paced diplomatic game of threats and negotiations, of alternating between reason and fury, of deception, temptation, intimidation, lies, stress. Just like his former domestic political opponents, most of whom were dead or imprisoned by niklas beisert, then, Europe's political leaders also underestimated and assigning a macro button misjudged Hitler, and many of them also ended up dead or imprisoned by him, sometimes not much later after meeting him as peers. But having to deal with a talented diplomatic opponent like Adolf Hitler can not be accepted as an niklas beisert thesis excuse for essay, the political leaderships of niklas, France and Great Britain, which could easily put an the outlaw bible essays end to Hitler's dangerous game before 1939, when he still lacked the military power to survive active resistance to niklas beisert his actions, a resistance that was likely to quickly knock him down, either by military defeat or by a military coup. The appeasement of online courses, Hitler, by Britain and France mostly, was not just the result of the incompetence and pacifism of particular top politicians like Neville Chamberlain in Britain, and Edouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Georges Bonnet in France. These elected leaders represented the nationwide pacifism of thesis, their war-traumatized nations, which resulted from the enormous and futile carnage in the battlefields of World War I, that ended in 1918 and thesis poverty reduction was therefore still firmly in the memories and thoughts of niklas beisert thesis, all adults. The blindness that led to the continued and repeated appeasement of Hitler in crisis after crisis, all of which he initiated, was the result of two logical flaws in the thinking and decision making of the British and French political leaders, and also, which is even worse, in differentiated essay, the thinking of the top Generals, mostly of the French military. Since these were logical flaws, they are inexcusable, as political and niklas beisert military leaders have the responsibility to make decisions based on reality, even if unpleasant one, not on single-sided desires and wishes. Furthermore, they were repeatedly warned, by Winston Churchill and others, and even by high ranking members of the anti-Nazi opposition in the German military and foreign office, but all warnings were dismissed until it was too late.
The two logical flaws in the British and French national thought were: The wide belief, based on the first World War, that war has become futile, a fruitless mutual mass carnage. This belief was false because it relied on two false assumptions: The assumption that the opposing forces in a future war will be generally equivalent as in the first World War. The assumption that modern military technology made war between equivalent enemies a futile carnage. Based on these two unchallenged false assumptions, Britain and essay France greatly reduced their military manpower and niklas beisert thesis largely neglected military modernization and military technology development, and persisted with that policy even when they knew that Hitler's Germany, like 18th century Prussia, was making a maximum national effort to paper build the strongest and most technologically advanced military force, in a total violation of the 1919 peace treaty. By that, these nations' military forces were gradually reduced from beisert thesis a decisive superiority over the small post-war German military, to online essay an increasing inferiority, technological, tactical, and professional. Britain and niklas beisert thesis France made these assumptions false by their own unilateral action and in-action that was based on poverty reduction these assumptions. The British military establishment was finally alarmed in 1938 and hurried to start closing the niklas beisert gap as they could in the months left before war finally started in 1939. The French military remained stuck in the obsolete past, unable to believe that war will return so soon, and largely unprepared for it, technologically, tactically, and professionally. The few warning voices within the French military, like that of a macro, Colonel Charles De Gaulle, were suppressed and dismissed until it was too late.
The belief that Hitler can be appeased, that he will stop demanding more, that he too wants to avoid war, and therefore that war against Hitler's Germany can be avoided. The British and niklas beisert French leaders and their military, diplomatic, and intelligence advisors should all have known or at least suspect that this was not so, and act accordingly. Hitler made no secret of his long term plans and intentions. He clearly warned the world of his intentions, both in the book he wrote in 1923, which sold many millions of copies since he became the leader of Germany, and in his many speeches and direct diplomatic threats in essay, all the years since. Furthermore, they knew from experience that after every crisis he initiated and won, Hitler started another crisis with new demands. But all that was ignored and Europe's leaders and diplomats were willing to accept Hitler's deception which time and niklas thesis again claimed that he was making one last justified demand and even willing to make reasonable concessions about it. A total lie, time and again. The British government finally opened its eyes to the frightening reality in march 1939, when less than six months after Hitler was given part of differentiated instruction, its ally Czechoslovakia, Hitler swallowed the rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of niklas beisert, immediate invasion to thesis it, and just three days later clearly marked his next target, Poland.
The worried British government then decided to stand beside its ally Poland even if that means war. The French government still tried to avoid war even after the war started with Hitler's invasion to their ally Poland, and after the last minute ultimatum to Hitler to stop the invasion was ignored, and unwillingly joined the war only following a British diplomatic pressure to stop hesitating and thesis stand beside it. The result of the appeasement policy was that Britain and France did nothing more than diplomatically protest when Hitler violated the peace treaty (and later with treaties that he signed), started a major rearmament plan, largely increased military manpower, sent his army to the neutral Saar border region (with clear orders to retreat immediately in case of French military response, but this never came), sent his army to the demilitarized Rhine border region, annexed Austria by combination of political murders and threat of invasion. When Hitler demanded the strategically important western region of Czechoslovakia, they put unbearable pressure on the Czech government, their ally, to immediately give this territory to Hitler to avoid war that Hitler threatened to start, and still did not act when Hitler swallowed the rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of immediate invasion. They also did nothing meaningful when Italy, Hitler's ally dictatorship, invaded Ethiopia and grading a research later invaded its European neighbor Albania.
With every step of expansion, Hitler gained not just more territory and population. He also got the natural resources in these territories, the industry, and the equipment of the niklas beisert thesis dismantled armies of the nations he swallowed, and online courses essay the military strength of these nations was removed from the potential order of battle of thesis, his future enemies. Czechoslovakia is a key example. Assigning To A Button? It had a significant military force, very well equipped, with a modern supporting domestic military industry, and fortified excellent natural defense lines along the German-Czech border in western Czechoslovakia. The Czechs wanted to beisert thesis fight for their country and could fight well with their modern military and poverty reduction excellent defenses, and thesis definitely with military help from France and Britain, their allies, but they were betrayed by France and Britain which played Hitler's game and threatened the the outlaw of american Czechs that by not surrendering these regions to Hitler as he demanded, they, the Czechs, risk being blamed for starting a war. Under enormous pressure by both allies and enemies, the Czechs gave that land and all the military equipment in it to Hitler and niklas beisert remained almost defenseless, only to be forced to complete their surrender to his next threat of solving long, immediate invasion just months later. In addition to the valuable territorial and industrial gain, and to removing a significant military force from niklas thesis his list of enemies without firing a shot, Hitler also gained the entire equipment of the instruction dismantled Czech military.
This modern equipment, in plenty, was used by the German military in beisert thesis, World War 2, and in the invasion of France, two German armor divisions were using solely Czech tanks, and the Czech military industry was producing plenty more for courses essay, Hitler's army. One can not write about the causes of World War 2 without referring to the Japanese militarism, that was very similar to the German militarism, and beisert which put Japan in the hands of to a, militarist leaders with expansionist aggression similar to Hitler's. Thesis? After all, Japan started the war in essays, East Asia even before Hitler became dictator of Germany, and its militarism was defeated only after Hitler's. It is my opinion that if the attention and military resources of all the world's other major military powers were not committed to niklas beisert thesis the European war against Hitler's Germany, Japan would have kept its military aggression limited to its never ending war in China, which between and 1931 and 1945 consumed the majority of the resources and attention of the Japanese army and the outlaw bible remained Japan's original and main goal. Niklas Beisert Thesis? If the USA, Britain, France, Russia were not so busy with Hitler, it is thesis, likely that Japan would not have expanded its Chinese war to a rapid and easy conquest of the beisert thesis European colonies in the entire South East Asia, and would not attack the US in online courses, the Phillipines and Pearl Harbor, and beisert thesis that even if it had, its success would have been significantly smaller and shorter.